Versioning for Developers


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Using a revision control system that tracks changes in source code with ways to manage your code in separate branches and tag revisions as releases is a bare minimum for developers.
This presentation highlights the importance of using a version control system Subversion.

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Versioning for Developers

  1. 1. Versioning for developers Michelangelo van Dam Macq Electronique 2010 Brussels, Belgium
  2. 2. Michelangelo van Dam • Independent Consultant • Zend Certified Engineer (ZCE) - PHP 4 & PHP 5 - Zend Framework • Co-Founder of PHPBenelux • Shepherd of “elephpant” herds
  3. 3. T AIL O RM A D E S O L U T I O N S Macq électronique, manufacturer and developer, proposes you a whole series of electronic and computing-processing solutions for industry, building and road traffic. Macq électronique has set itself two objectives which are essential for our company : developing with competence and innovation earning the confidence of our customers Macq électronique presents many references carried out the last few years which attest to its human and technical abilities to meet with the greatest efficiency the needs of its customers. For more information, please check out our website
  4. 4. About this presentation • Concepts of version control • Management with subversion • Life cycle of a project in subversion • Parts and structures within subversion • Advanced subversion tools • New in release 1.5
  5. 5. What is version control ? “Revision control (also known as version control ...) is the management of multiple revisions of the same unit of information.” (source: Wikipedia:RevisionControl)
  6. 6. Versioning for developers •- version control provides management of versions of information • code/tests • configuration files - • documentation in a structured, standardized way - with repositories • centralized (SVN, CVS) • decentralized (GIT)
  7. 7. Why need versioning ? • enables collaboration between developers • centralized “main code” (trunk) • custom code alongside main code (branching) • eases release management (tags) • rollback to previous revisions • integration with other tools
  8. 8. Subversion (SVN) • Subversion ( • more advanced than CVS • less complex than GIT • integrates well with other tools (trac, gforge, jira, ...) • supported by many tools (Zend Studio, TortoiseSVN, Subversion CLI)
  9. 9. An example project in trac
  10. 10. SVN browser Zend Studio
  11. 11. Code managing with SVN • many developers create much code •- code is committed to a central repository conflicts trigger warnings • user and groups can be defined • different versions can co-exist • access management for named and anonymous access rights
  12. 12. Subversion authentication • svnserve server $ svn svn://server/project/trunk • svnserve server over SSH $ svn svn+ssh://server/project/trunk • Apache webserver http://svn.server/project/trunk
  13. 13. Version management • all code resides in “trunk” • code revisions are detached in “branches” • snapshots for releases are “tagged”
  14. 14. Subversion Schema
  15. 15. Putting a project into SVN Say you’ve started project FooBar with following files: /FooBar /Foo.php /Bar.php To put it on a Subversion repository: $ svn import -m “new project” FooBar http://svn.server/ FooBar/trunk
  16. 16. Getting code from SVN A new team member needs to work on the FooBar project He needs to get the project from Subversion To get it from a Subversion repository: $ svn checkout http://svn.server/FooBar/trunk FooBar This will fetch the latest revision (HEAD) from the TRUNK and creates a local FooBar directory
  17. 17. Updating code in SVN After a well deserved holiday, you need to continue working on the FooBar project You need to get updates of the project from Subversion To update your working copy from Subversion repository: $ svn update /FooBar This will update your working copy with the latest revision (HEAD) from the TRUNK
  18. 18. Committing back to SVN You’re working hard on FooBar and you need to commit your changes back to Subversion. To commit changes back to Subversion repository: $ svn commit -m “Added some cool stuff” This will commit changes in your code to the TRUNK.
  19. 19. Best practice Update before committing Update after committing Commit small development chunks Commit often
  20. 20. Release management • a release is a snapshot of a version branch • are being deployed to server environments (DEV, TEST, ACC, PROD, ...) •- 2 common methods to release code symlink deployment - subversion export
  21. 21. Symlink Deployment •- On production server(s): use release folders svn co svn://server/myproj/tags/rel-1.0 /web/ myproj-rel-1.0 - create symlink to it ln -s /web/myproj-rel-1.0 /web/myproj • Pro: - simple • Contra: - renaming folders on server - enabling FollowSymlinks
  22. 22. Subversion Export • Exporting a release from subversion svn export http://svn.server/project/tags/ release-1.0.2 • Pro: - scheduled (automated) upgrades possible - no further modifications necessary • Contra: - takes longer to switch back to previous release
  23. 23. SVN life cycle feature branch v1.0 v1.1 Trunk bug fix rel-1.1.1 rel-1.1.2 rel-1.0.1 rel-1.0.2
  24. 24. Trunk •- trunk is where all code resides except custom development • has always the latest version • is not always the most stable version
  25. 25. Branch •- two kind of branches exists feature branches - release branches
  26. 26. Feature Branches • code that changes many things in trunk • are best put in a separate branch • maintained by their developer(s) •- and merged back into trunk after the merge, the branch is removed • when changes are done and tested
  27. 27. Release Branches • are maintained in branches • have a long lifetime cycle (several years) •- differ from each other because of new code base, framework, language • have a common base = trunk • fixes from versions go into trunk • back port fixes go from trunk into version
  28. 28. Tags • tags are snapshots • usually made on version branches • can also be made on “trunk” • are deployed to server environments • are used to keep track what’s happened between releases (change log)
  29. 29. More than just versioning •- Subversion provides more features File portability - Keyword substitution - Locking - Externals - Peg and Operative revisions - Network model - Hooks
  30. 30. File portability •- Line endings differ on different OS’s are ignored when checking modifications •- Mime-types differ from their extensions binary and non-binary files are tested on content
  31. 31. Keyword substitution •- Only a few keywords are substituted $Date:$ › $Date: 2008-10-22 20:00:00 +0100 (Wed, 22 Oct 2008) $ - $Revision:$ › $Revision: 144 $ - $Author:$ › $Author: svnusername $ - $HeadUrl:$ › $HeadUrl: $ - $Id:$ › $Id: file.php 148 2008-10-22 20:00:00Z svnusername $
  32. 32. Locking •- working copy locks exclusive right to a working copy - clears with “svn cleanup” • database locks - ensures database integrity - only admins can remove this lock • conflicts with the purpose of revision control
  33. 33. Externals •- Externals provide an easy way to include other internal or external projects - without having to care about their revisions • Examples: - Zend Framework as svn:externals on library path - project that includes many smaller projects
  34. 34. Peg & Operative revisions •- automated handling of moving files - deleting and creating new files with same name • Using specific syntax - $ svn command -r OPERATIVE-REV item@PEG- REV
  35. 35. Network model •- Can run its own svnserve pros: no dependencies, works with ssh for extra security - contras: need svnclient to connect • Or in combination with Apache webserver - pros: works with any http-client - contras: overkill for small projects, requires mod_dav_svn, more difficult to set up
  36. 36. Hooks •- Hooks facilitate actions to be taken before a commit starts (validate rights) - after a commit (send e-mail, update tracker, ...) - before or after a revision change (notifications) • Can easily be incorporated with tools - tracking tools - integration tools (Lorna Jane’s Nabaztag) - mailing and logging systems
  37. 37. Hooks execute moments •- basic commit moments: start-commit: • runs before commit transaction started - pre-commit: • runs right before commit transaction is promoted - post-commit: - • runs after the commit transaction is finished ...
  38. 38. Cool things w/ SVN hooks Lorna Jane’s Nabaztag Responding on SVN commits
  39. 39. Automated builds •- With SVN and Phing (PHP Build tool) nightly checkout of code base - running tools to enhance code • PHPDocumentator (automated API docs) • PHP_CodeSniffer (checks code for standards) • PHPLint (checks code for syntax errors) • PHPUnit (unit testing for PHP) - • … creating a package (including docs, tests, reports)
  40. 40. New features in SVN v1.5 • Merge tracking (foundational) • Sparse checkouts (via new --depth option) • Interactive conflict resolution • Changelist support • Relative URLs, peg revisions in svn:externals • Cyrus SASL support for ra_svn and svnserve • ... (more on svn_1.5_releasenotes.html)
  41. 41. Summary • manageable file change history • better collaboration between developers • clearer release management • more than one version of same code base • easier to rollback in case of emergency
  42. 42. Recommended Reading Version Control with Subversion, 2nd Edition (O’Reilley Media, Inc) by C. Michael Pilato; Ben Collins-Sussman; Brian W. Fitzpatrick also online: Managing Software Development with Trac and Subversion (Packt Publishing) by David J Murphy
  43. 43. Recommended Reading Subversion Version Control: Using the Subversion Version Control System in Development Projects (Bruce Perens' Open Source Series) by William Nagel
  44. 44. Credits Wikipedia Logo
  45. 45. Thank you ! Slides on Slideshare Give feedback on