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Learning Analytics Metadata Standards, xAPI recipes & Learning Record Store -


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Presentation given at the Open Conference at Universitat Oberta de Catalunya (Open University of Catalonia - UoC), Barcelona, Spain

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  • Return data to humans (instructors, learners) is the highest priority of implementing xAPI, that's why we design xAPI recipes and visualizations at the same time. IMHO xAPI won't work in an authoritative and centralized way, waiting for an authoritative recipe won't work and will waste time. As for vocabulary difference, we can handle that in our VisCa LRS. xAPI was born for a decentralized request, world-wide centralized control won't work. The only thing will work is - make data work for instructors and learners. Here is some information about our methodology:
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Learning Analytics Metadata Standards, xAPI recipes & Learning Record Store -

  1. 1. Learning Analytics Metadata Standards - xAPI & Learning Record Store - Dr. Hendrik Drachsler Personalised Learning Technologies 27.10.2015, UoC, Barcelona, Spain
  2. 2. 3 • Hendrik Drachsler Associate Professor • Research topics: Personalization, Recommender Systems, Learning Analytics, Mobile devices • Application domains: Schools, HEI, Medical education WhoAmI 2006 - 2009
  3. 3. 3 Research activities
  4. 4. 4 Greller, W., & Drachsler, H. (2012). Turning Learning into Numbers. Toward a Generic Framework for Learning Analytics. Journal of Educational Technology & Society.
  5. 5. @HDrachsler, #LASI_NL, Zeist, Netherlands Slide 5 / 29 June 2014 1. Why LA data standard? 2. What data standards are out there? 3. Indepth exampe xAPI 4. Different LRS designs Lecture structure 5. Outlook
  6. 6. Sophistican model Siemens, G., Dawson, S., & Lynch, G. (2014). Improving the Quality and Productivity of the Higher Education Sector – Policy and Strategy for Systems-Level Deployment of Learning Analytics. Canberra, Australia: Office of Learning and Teaching, Australian Government. Retrieved from
  7. 7. Heterogeneous TEL systems not made for Learning Analytics Onderwerp via >Beeld >Koptekst en voettekst Pagina 7 •  Various heterogonous data sources •  No metadata standards •  No proper description of data fields •  No unique user ID in the different systems •  Not intended for evaluation and educational interventions •  No comparison of effective methods
  8. 8. •  RQ1: How to generate more accurate and thus, more relevant recommendations by using the social data originating from social activities of users within an online environment? •  RQ2: Can the use of the inter-user trust relationships that originate from the social activities of users within an online environment further evolve the network of users? Example RecSys study ‪@SoudeFazeli
  9. 9. 9 Recommender Technologies Manouselis, N., Drachsler, H., Verbert, K., and Duval, E. (2012). Recommender Systems for Learning. Berlin:Springer
  10. 10. 10 Educational Data Drachsler, H., et al. (2010). Issues and Considerations regarding Sharable Data Sets for Recommender Systems in Technology Enhanced Learning. 1st Workshop Recommnder Systems in Technology Enhanced Learning (RecSysTEL@EC-TEL 2010) September, 28, 2010, Barcelona, Spain. Verbert, K., Manouselis, N., Drachsler, H., and Duval, E. (2012). Dataset-driven Research
 to Support Learning and Knowledge Analytics. Journal of Educational Technology & Society. Important to report effects from algorithm Y to a reference dataset, to gain common knowledge, and have reproducible results. ACM Recommender Systems, and KDD cup work like this since years.
  11. 11. 1. Goal To find out which recommender algorithms best performs and thus, is suitable for social online platforms like ODS platform Data-driven study Fazeli, S., Loni, B., Drachsler, H., & Sloep, P. (2014, 16-19 September). Which recommender system can best fit social learning platforms? Presentation given at the 9th European Conference on Technology Enhanced Learning (EC-TEL2014), Graz, Austria.
  12. 12. 2. Method •  Testing several recommender algorithms –  Several similarity measures and nearest neighbors method –  T-index approach •  If explicit trust is available (Epinion) •  If trust is not available: similarity measures + walking algorithm (BFS) •  Datasets –  MovieLens – standard dataset –  MACE, OpenScout, Travel well -- similar to the future ODS dataset •  Using Mahout Data-driven study
  13. 13. 3. Setting •  v = 0.1 (Condition 1), L = 2 (Condition 2) •  Training set 80% and test set 20% •  Sizes of neighborhoods n= (3,5,7,10) •  Size of TopTrustee list m=5 Data-driven study
  14. 14. 4. Result (F1 score) F1 of the extended T-index and Tanimoto algorithms for different datasets, based on the size of neighborhood Data-driven study
  15. 15. 4.2. Created trust network Without T-index With T-index Data-driven study
  16. 16. Sparsity!Similarity vs.
  17. 17. Aggregated Paradata Drachsler, H., Bogers, T., Vuorikari, R., Verbert, K., Duval, E., Manouselis, N., Beham, G., Lindstaedt, S., Stern, H., Friedrich, M., & Wolpers, M. (2010). Issues and considerations regarding sharable data sets for recommender systems in technology enhanced learning. In N. Manouselis, H. Drachsler, K. Verbert, & O. Santos (Eds.), Elsevier Procedia Computer Science: Volume 1, Issue 2. Proceedings of the 1st Workshop on Recommender Systems for Technology Enhanced Learning (RecSysTEL 2010) (pp. 2849-2858). doi: 10.1016/ j.procs.2010.08.010.
  18. 18. Learning Record Store Dash boards MLN / MOOC Sensors LX Sensors Mobile Sensors LMS
  19. 19. Centralised data storage Learning Record Store (LRS)
  20. 20. 1.  More useful analysis through the combination of data from different sources 2.  A critical mass of data for learning science research 3.  Sufficient scale of data to determine relevance and quality of educational resources 4.  Reproducibility and transparency in learning analytics research 5.  Cross-institutional strategy comparison 6.  Research on the effect of education policy 7.  Social learning in informal settings 8.  Learner data as a teaching and learning resource Aims for Data Standards
  21. 21. MOLAC Innovation Cycle Drachsler, H. & Kalz, M. (2015). The MOLAC Innovation cyle. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning. (in press).
  22. 22. @HDrachsler, #LASI_NL, Zeist, Netherlands Slide 22 / 29 June 2014 1. Why LA data standard? 2. What data standards are out there? 3. Indepth exampe xAPI 4. Different LRS designs Lecture structure 5. Outlook
  23. 23. Onderwerp via >Beeld >Koptekst en voettekst Pagina 23 •  Content metadata (e.g., IEEE LOM). •  Personal Data (e.g., IMS ePortfolio, IMS LIP, or HR-XML) •  Social metadata (ratings, tags or comments that were intentionally contributed by the users) •  Paradata (automatically tracked by the system) •  Linked Data (interlinked datasets on the web using the RDF standard) Types of Data
  24. 24. Onderwerp via >Beeld >Koptekst en voettekst Metadata standards for Usage Activity Stream Learning Registry NSDL Paradata
  25. 25. Organic Edunet
  26. 26. Organic Edunet
  27. 27. Context Attention Metadata Scheffel, M., Niemann, K., Leony, D., Pardo, A., Schmitz, H. C., Wolpers, M., & Kloos, C. D. (2012). Key action extraction for learning analytics. In 21st Century Learning for 21st Century Skills (pp. 320-333). Springer Berlin Heidelberg. Nikolas, A., Sotiriou, S., Zervas, P., & Sampson, D. G. (2014). The open discovery space portal: A socially-powered and open federated infrastructure. In Digital Systems for Open Access to Formal and Informal Learning (pp. 11-23). Springer International Publishing.
  28. 28. Context Attention Metadata Wolpers M., Najjar, J., Verbert, K., Duval, E. (2007). Tracking Actual Usage: the Attention Metadata Approach, Journal of Educational Technology and Society, 10 (3), 106-121.
  29. 29. How Tin Can API works Tin Can enabled activities send simple statements to a Learning Record Store. LRS Elearning Game Simulator Blog YouTube
  30. 30. Most strong candidates, right now Released since 2012 First release October 2015 •  Tracks experiences, scores, progress, teams, virtual media, real-world experiences (not just completions) •  Allows data storage AND retrieval (ex. 3rd party reporting and analytics tools) •  Enables tracking mobile, games, and virtual worlds experiences •  Developed by open source community
  31. 31. Activity driven data model John added a photo to Open U Community Environment Jim commented on John’s photo on Community Environment John watched How to save energy video on ARLearn at 22.05.2014 3pm John subscribed to Sustainable Energy on Open U at 24.05.2014 1pm John posted My first blog post in Open U Community Environment
  32. 32. Metadata standards for Learner Tracking
  33. 33. Onderwerp via >Beeld >Koptekst en voettekst Pagina 33
  34. 34. Example: xAPI statement in json format '{ "actor": { "objectType": "Agent", "name": ”Hendrik Drachsler", "mbox": "" }, "verb": { "id": "", "display": { "en-US": "Indicates the learner accessed a page" } }, "object": { "objectType": "Activity", "id": "http://OUNL/PSY/module1.html", "definition": { "name": { "en-US": "Module 1: …." }, "description": { "en-US": "This lesson is an introduction to the Introduction into Psychology " }, "type": "" } } }'
  35. 35. Although, there are standards there are interoperability issues
  36. 36. @HDrachsler, #LASI_NL, Zeist, Netherlands Slide 38 / 29 June 2014 1. Why LA data standard? 2. What data standards are out there? 3. Indepth exampe xAPI 4. Different LRS designs Lecture structure 5. Outlook
  37. 37. Onderwerp via >Beeld >Koptekst en voettekst Pagina 39
  38. 38. Collecting data in a LRS Onderwerp via >Beeld >Koptekst en voettekst Pagina 40
  39. 39. ECO IT System
  40. 40. Repository of xAPI statements
  41. 41. Repository of xAPI statements Onderwerp via >Beeld >Koptekst en voettekst Pagina 43
  42. 42. @HDrachsler, #LASI_NL, Zeist, Netherlands Slide 44 / 29 June 2014 1. Why LA data standard? 2. What data standards are out there? 3. Indepth exampe xAPI 4. Different LRS designs Lecture structure 5. Outlook
  43. 43. SURF SIG Learning Analytics
  44. 44. Onderwerp via >Beeld >Koptekst en voettekst Pagina 46 The ECO Learning Record Store
  45. 45. The UvA Learning Record Store
  46. 46. Lessons Learned •  xAPI •  xAPI has to much freedom of choice (Authoritative for xAPI recipes is needed ) ECO as blue print? •  xAPI language issues •  LRS •  Extract-Transform-Load layer for interoperability •  Meta-Accounts for multiple data streams •  Data •  Are activities all we need? (Text-based analytics)
  47. 47. @HDrachsler, #LASI_NL, Zeist, Netherlands Slide 49 / 29 June 2014 1. Why LA data standard? 2. What data standards are out there? 3. Indepth exampe xAPI 4. Different LRS designs Lecture structure 5. Outlook
  48. 48. LACE – Interoperbilty reort
  49. 49. Ice, P., Díaz, S., Swan, K., Burgess, M., Sharkey, M., Sherrill, J., & Okimoto, H. (2012). The PAR Framework Proof of Concept: Initial Findings from a Multi-Institutional Analysis of Federated Postsecondary Data. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks, 16(3), 63-86.
  50. 50. This silde is available at: Email: Skype: celstec-hendrik.drachsler Blogging at: Twittering at: Many thanks for your attention!