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From L e a r n i n g N e t wo r k s
          to Digital Ecosystems
03.09.2010 Tallinn University, Estonia




Dr. Hendrik Drachsler
Centre for Learning Sciences and Technology
@ Open University of the Netherlands
                                  1
Centre for Learning Sciences
and Technologies (CELSTEC)




              2
Centre for Learning Sciences
and Technologies (CELSTEC)




              2
Centre for Learning Sciences
and Technologies (CELSTEC)




              2
Centre for Learning Sciences
     and Technologies (CELSTEC)

• 100 employees (R. Koper)
• 3 R&D program’s
  • Learning and Cognition (P. Kirschner)
  • Learning Media (M. Specht, & W. Westera)
  • Learning Networks (P. Sloep)
• Master Active Learning (E. Boshuisen)
                     2
Whoami
• Assistant Professor at the
  Learning Networks Program

• Research topics:
  Learning Networks,
  Technology Enhanced
  Learning, Recommender
  Systems, Personalisation,
  Mash-Ups and widget
  technology, e-health

                       3
Learning Network Projects




            4
Learning Network Projects




                    SC4L



            4
Overview

• Introduction to Learning Networks
• Introduction to Digital Ecosystems
• Differences between Learning Networks
  and Digital Ecosystems
• A Future Research Agenda

                   5
Overview

• Introduction to Learning Networks
• Introduction to Digital Ecosystems
• Differences between Learning Networks
  and Digital Ecosystems
• A Future Research Agenda

                   5
Overview
      But before we start...


• Introduction to Learning Networks
• Introduction to Digital Ecosystems
• Differences between Learning Networks
  and Digital Ecosystems
• A Future Research Agenda

                   5
Twitter
Ecosystem            nt
Are there any
Twitter users?




                 6
Twitter
Ecosystem                 nt
Please use the
Are there any
following hashtag for
Twitter users?
the backchannel.
You can post your
remarks and questions
during the presentation
and we get back to
them later on.
                      6
Twitter
Ecosystem                 nt
Please use the
following hashtag for
the backchannel.
You can post your
remarks and questions
during the presentation
and we get back to
them later on.
                      6
Twitter
Ecosystem                 nt
Hashtag: #LNDE
Please use the
following hashtag for
the backchannel.
You can post your
remarks and questions
during the presentation
and we get back to
them later on.
                      6
Twitter
Ecosystem                    nt
 Hashtag: #LNDE
 Please use the
If you are not a twitter
users surf hashtag for
 following to:
 the backchannel.
http://backnoise.com/?LNDE
 You can post your
You just have questions
 remarks and to enter
 during the presentation
a user name and can
 and we get back to
contribute and discuss
in the later on.
 them backchannel.
                         6
Learning Networks



        7
We live in a decade of
 industrial change

       Change picture




             8
The challenge
“The biggest challenge businesses face
 today is unlearning what was successful in
 the industrial age and learning how to
 prosper in the network era.”
                              Jay Cross (2006)




                     9
Graphic by Alex Guerten, 2008




                        10
G
L O C A L I S AT I O N
O
B
A
L
I
S
A
T      Graphic by Alex Guerten, 2008

I
O
N                            10
G L O C A L I S AT I O N




         Graphic by Alex Guerten, 2008




                                 10
G L O C A L I S AT I O N
                                                P
                                                R
                                                O
                                                D
                                                U
                                                C
         Graphic by Alex Guerten, 2008
                                                E
                                         CONSUMERS
                                                S
                                 10
G L O C A L I S AT I O N




         Graphic by Alex Guerten, 2008
                                         PROSUMERS

                                 10
The Glocalisation / Prosumers world




     by Zohar Manor-Abel http://flickr.com/photos/zoharma/97214235/sizes/l/

                                    11
Learning Networks
• Explicitly address informal
  learning

• Users can publish, share, rate,
  tag and adjust knowledge
  resources in Learning
  Networks

• Open Corpus that emerges
  form the bottom upwards            (Koper & Sloep, 2002)


                                12
Learning Networks
• Explicitly address informal
  learning

• Users can publish, share, rate,
  tag and adjust knowledge
  resources in Learning
  Networks

• Open Corpus that emerges
  form the bottom upwards            (Koper & Sloep, 2002)


                                12
Use Cases for
Learning Networks



        13
Julie, a medical doctor from Germany




Julie is a medical doctor at the Gannon University who wants
to become specialized as cardiologist.
She participates in the International Cardiology Qualification
Network and shares her experiences on the medical cases with
colleagues from hospitals world wide. She also gets informed
about new cases available in the network.
                             14
Julie, a medical doctor from Germany




Julie is a medical doctor at the Gannon University who wants
to become specialized as cardiologist.
She participates in the International Cardiology Qualification
Network and shares her experiences on the medical cases with
colleagues from hospitals world wide. She also gets informed
about new cases available in the network.
                             14
Limbourgs Public Library in the Netherlands
Limbourgs public library in
the Netherlands needs to
rethink its role in society
and retrain its personnel in
the process.

Therefore they want to
create an Innovation
Network with their
employees and their target
groups to innovate and
train their personnel
towards the network era.


                               15
Limbourgs Public Library in the Netherlands
Limbourgs public library in
the Netherlands needs to
rethink its role in society
and retrain its personnel in
the process.

Therefore they want to
create an Innovation
Network with their
employees and their target
groups to innovate and
train their personnel
towards the network era.


                               15
Technologies for
Learning Networks



        16
Technologies for
Learning Networks
   But before we Go on...
  Let’s have a look at our
    Twitter experiment



             16
R&D for Learning Networks
• Mashups, Personal Environments
• Indicators on Learning Interactions
• Reflection Support on Social Learning
• Personalisation of Information
• Distributed Innovation
• Prior Knowledge Assessment
• Recommender Systems
• Network Analysis



                             17
Personal Environments




          18
Personal Environments




          18
19
Personal Environments




          19
Personal Environments

                                More
              Blog Reader   Information
                             Providers
   Social
Bookmarking
                Various
              Communities


                   19
Personal Environments
   Developing Widgets




            20
Personal Environments
   Developing Widgets




            20
Personal Environments
   Developing Widgets




            20
Personal Environments
   Developing Widgets
                 Scott Wilson




            20
Personal Environments
   Developing Widgets




            20
Personal Environments
         Interwidget communication
            Developing Widgets
Julie




                    20
Emergence




            Johnson, S. (2001)
    21
Emergence




            Johnson, S. (2001)
    21
Emergence




            Johnson, S. (2001)
    21
Emergence




            Johnson, S. (2001)
    21
Emergence




            Johnson, S. (2001)
    21
Emergence




            Johnson, S. (2001)
    21
Emergence

“We are leaving the age of information and
entering the age of recommendation”
                         Chris Anderson (2004)



                                 Johnson, S. (2001)
                      21
Recommender Systems




         22
Recommender Systems




         22
Recommender Systems
People who bought the same
product also bought product
B or C …




                         22
The Long Tail




Graphic Wilkins, D., (2009); Long23 concept Anderson, C. (2004)
                                  tail
The Long Tail of Learning




Graphic Wilkins, D., (2009); Long23 concept Anderson, C. (2004)
                                  tail
Emerging paths




                             24
© peterme.com, flickr 2009
Emerging paths



Main
Road


                              24
 © peterme.com, flickr 2009
Emerging paths
                                   Personalised
                                   paths

Main
Road


                              24
 © peterme.com, flickr 2009
Recommender Systems for
     Learning Paths




           25
Recommender System Research
                                                            Prototype:
                                                           Recommender
 Practical
                                                        System for Learning
                                                             Networks




                                            Study 3: Learning Networks
                                            
       Simulation


                               Study 2: Psychology Experiment


                     Study 1: Theoretical Background
Theoretical


              2006        2007             2008            2009
                                                                 26
Recommender System Research
                                                            Prototype:
                                                           Recommender
 Practical
                                                        System for Learning
                                                             Networks

2006
                                            Study 3: Learning Networks
                                            
       Simulation


                               Study 2: Psychology Experiment


                     Study 1: Theoretical Background
Theoretical


              2006        2007             2008            2009
                                                                 26
Recommender System Research
                                                            Prototype:
                                                           Recommender
 Practical
                                                        System for Learning
                                                             Networks




                                            Study 3: Learning Networks
                                            
       Simulation


                               Study 2: Psychology Experiment


                     Study 1: Theoretical Background
Theoretical


              2006        2007             2008            2009
                                                                 26
Recommender System Research
                                                            Prototype:
                                                           Recommender
 Practical
                                                        System for Learning
2007                                                         Networks




                                            Study 3: Learning Networks
                                            
       Simulation


                               Study 2: Psychology Experiment


                     Study 1: Theoretical Background
Theoretical


              2006        2007             2008            2009
                                                                 26
Recommender System Research
                                                            Prototype:
                                                           Recommender
 Practical
                                                        System for Learning
                                                             Networks




                                            Study 3: Learning Networks
                                            
       Simulation


                               Study 2: Psychology Experiment


                     Study 1: Theoretical Background
Theoretical


              2006        2007             2008            2009
                                                                 26
Recommender System Research
                                                            Prototype:
                                                           Recommender
 Practical
                                                        System for Learning

2008                                                         Networks




                                            Study 3: Learning Networks
                                            
       Simulation


                               Study 2: Psychology Experiment


                     Study 1: Theoretical Background
Theoretical


              2006        2007             2008            2009
                                                                 26
Recommender System Research
                                                            Prototype:
                                                           Recommender
 Practical
                                                        System for Learning
                                                             Networks




                                            Study 3: Learning Networks
                                            
       Simulation


                               Study 2: Psychology Experiment


                     Study 1: Theoretical Background
Theoretical


              2006        2007             2008            2009
                                                                 26
Recommender System Research
                                                            Prototype:
                                                           Recommender
 Practical
                                                        System for Learning
                                                             Networks

2009
                                            Study 3: Learning Networks
                                            
       Simulation


                               Study 2: Psychology Experiment


                     Study 1: Theoretical Background
Theoretical


              2006        2007             2008            2009
                                                                 26
Recommender System Research
                                                            Prototype:
                                                           Recommender
 Practical
                                                        System for Learning
                                                             Networks




                                            Study 3: Learning Networks
                                            
       Simulation


                               Study 2: Psychology Experiment


                     Study 1: Theoretical Background
Theoretical


              2006        2007             2008            2009
                                                                 26
Try it your self ...




          27
Try it your self ...
Sign up at
remashed.ou.nl




                 27
Try it your self ...
Sign up at
remashed.ou.nl


Enter your favorite
Web 2.0 potatoes.




                 27
Try it your self ...
Sign up at
remashed.ou.nl


Enter your favorite
Web 2.0 potatoes.

Join the
Community.


                 27
Try it your self ...
Sign up at            Let ReMashed
remashed.ou.nl        start mashing.


Enter your favorite
Web 2.0 potatoes.

Join the
Community.


                 27
Try it your self ...
Sign up at            Let ReMashed
remashed.ou.nl        start mashing.


Enter your favorite    Taste your
Web 2.0 potatoes.      personal
                       flavor of
                       Web 2.0.
Join the
Community.


                 27
Networks are dead! Long live
  the Digital Ecosystems!




             28
Learning Networks

“A Learning Network is an online, social network
designed to support and facilitate lifelong
learning (a learning ‘ecosystem’)”
                           (Peter Sloep, 2009)




                      29
Learning Networks

Learning Network = Digital
       Ecosystem ?




            29
Digital Ecosystems



         30
Digital Ecosystems
   But before we Go on...
  Let’s have a look at our
    Twitter experiment




             30
What is an Ecosystem ?
“An ecosystem is
generally an area within
the natural environment
in which physical factors
of the environment, such
as rocks and soil, function
together along with
interdependent
organisms, such as plants
and animals, within the
same habitat.”


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ecosystem
                              31
What is a Digital
             Ecosystem ?
“A Digital Ecosystem is
any distributed adaptive
open socio-technical
system, with properties
of self-organisation,
scalability and
sustainability, inspired by
natural ecosystems.”


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digital_ecosystem
                              32
What is a Digital
              Ecosystem ?
“Digital Ecosystems were
made possible by the
emergence of three
networks: ICT networks,
social networks, and
knowledge networks.




Nachira, F., Dini, P., Nicolai, A. (2007)
                                     33
What is a Digital
      Ecosystem ?




Nachira, F., Dini, P., Nicolai, A. (2007)
                            34
What is a Digital
      Ecosystem ?

    Learning Ecosystems




Nachira, F., Dini, P., Nicolai, A. (2007)
                            34
Another Definition
“... often a group of applications complementing a specific
product or platform is considered to form a digital
ecosystem; the ICT companies form a “digital ecosystem
community.”


“But, in order to make sense in large scale concepts such as
the Information Society they [the digital ecosystems] need to
be useful to many facets of the economic life of the individual
economic player. “


Nachira, F., Dini, P., Nicolai, A. (2007)
                                  35
Another Definition
Company Ecosystems
“... often a group of applications complementing a specific
product or platform is considered to form a digital
ecosystem; the ICT companies form a “digital ecosystem
community.”

Digital Ecosystems
“But, in order to make sense in large scale concepts such as
the Information Society they [the digital ecosystems] need to
be useful to many facets of the economic life of the individual
economic player. “


Nachira, F., Dini, P., Nicolai, A. (2007)
                                  35
Examples of Digital
   Ecosystems



        36
iPOD Ecosystem




      37
iPOD Ecosystem




      37
Facebook Ecosystem




        38
Facebook Ecosystem




        38
Google Ecosystem




       39
Google Ecosystem




       39
Iyer, B. & Davenport, T. (2008)
                            40
life symbiotic...




       41
life symbiotic...




       41
Ergo
Peter Sloep is partly right ...




               42
A Learning Network can become
   a Digital Ecosystem when...
  ...it applies distributed tools, communities, or
  services from different providers whereby
  these sources interrelated in very specific
  ways by open API’s and standards in order to
  serve a greater overall purpose for its
  community.




                         43
Extend tools
                              Biosphere                      Organisations
                                                             Create
Create                                                       Consume
Innovate                     Digital Ecosystem               Extend
Mashup
Consume                         community                    Community
New services    Innovators                       Content
                                                 Providers




                                    f
Position         Glocalisation             ProSumers
                                                               Use
Target offers                                                  Contribute / Enrich
Alliance                                                       Consume
Advertise                                                      Search
Target Groups                                                  Validate
                                                               Emerge data
Future Research
    Agenda



       45
Future Research
    Agenda
 But before we Go on...
Let’s have a look at our
  Twitter experiment




           45
Beyond




  46
Beyond




  46
Beyond




  46
Beyond




  46
Beyond




O P E N D ATA
      48
      47
Beyondthe
Beyond




   48
   47
Beyondthe
   Beyond



O P E N D ATA
      48
      47
Beyondthe
      Beyond



O P E N I N N O V AT I O N

            48
            47
Beyondthe
    Beyond



MASHUP TECHNOLOGY


        48
        47
Beyondthe
     Beyond



RECOMMENDER SYSTEMS


        48
        47
Beyondthe
       Beyond



P ROT E C T I O N R I G H T S

             48
             47
Free
                       the data




by Tom Raftery http://www.flickr.com/photos/traftery/4773457853/sizes/l
                                48
Why ?




by Tom Raftery http://www.flickr.com/photos/traftery/4773457853/sizes/l
                                48
Because we
                  will get new
                    insights




by Tom Raftery http://www.flickr.com/photos/traftery/4773457853/sizes/l
                                48
49
49
49
49
49
49
Open Innovation




       50
Open Innovation


 R&D -> C&D



       50
Open Innovation


 R&D -> C&D



       50
Open Innovation


 R&D -> C&D



       50
Mashups and Widgets




         51
Mashups and Widgets




         51
Recommender Systems




         52
Recommender Systems




         52
Recommender Systems




         52
Protection Rights




      53
Protection Rights




      53
Protection Rights
 OVERSHARING




      53
Application Areas




      by Ivan Plata, flickr
          48
          54
Technology-
Enhanced
              Application Areas
Learning




                    by Ivan Plata, flickr
                        48
                        54
Technology-
Enhanced
              Application Areas            Science 2.0
Learning




                    by Ivan Plata, flickr
                        48
                        54
Technology-
Enhanced
              Application Areas            Science 2.0
Learning




                    by Ivan Plata, flickr
                        48
                        54                    e-health
Technology-
Enhanced
                  Application Areas            Science 2.0
Learning




e-democracy /
e-participation         by Ivan Plata, flickr
                            48
                            54                    e-health
Grow new niche services




           55
Grow new niche services

Consequently use services from the biosphere and
intertwine student projects with these services

• Google ecosystem (forms, database, Google API)
• Yahoo ecosystem (Yahoo pipes, and web services)
• Reuters Open Calais and Semantic Enrichment
• Open data from twitter and other ecosystems
• Open API’s, Protocols, Standards -> Interoperability
• Empower the users to connect, enrich and combine
                           55
Many Thanks for your
      interests




         56
Many Thanks for your
      interests

 Your questions are welcome
  and what is happening in
  the #LNDE backchannel?




             56
References
Anderson, C. 2004. “The long tail.” Wired Magazine 12 (10). Available: http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/12.10/tail.html
Cross, J., (2006) Informal learning: Rediscovering the natural pathways that inspire innovation and performance. Pfeifer
Drachsler, H., Hummel, H., & Koper, R. (2008a). Personal recommender systems for learners in lifelong learning: requirements,
   techniques and model. International Journal of Learning Technology 3(4), 404 - 423.
Drachsler, H., Hummel, H., & Koper, R. (2008b). Using Simulations to Evaluate the Effects of Recommender Systems for Learners in
   Informal Learning Networks. Paper presented at the EC-TEL conference, 2nd Workshop on Social Information Retrieval in
   Technology Enhanced Learning (SIRTEL08). September, 16-19, 2008, Maastricht, The Netherlands: CEUR Workshop
   Proceedings
Drachsler, H., Hummel, H., & Koper, R. (2009). Identifying the Goal, User model and Conditions of Recommender Systems for
   Formal and Informal Learning. Journal of Digital Information.
Drachsler, H., Hummel, H., van den Berg, B., Eshuis, J., Berlanga, A., Nadolski, R., Waterink, W., Boers, N., & Koper, R. (accepted).
   Effects of the ISIS Recommender System for navigation support in self-organised Learning Networks. Journal of Educational
   Technology and Society.
Drachsler, H., Dries, E., Arts, T., Rutledge, L.,Van Rosmalen, P., Hummel, H. G. K., & Koper, R. (submitted). ReMashed –
   Recommendations for Mash-Up Personal Learning Environments. 4th European Conference on Technology Enhanced
   Learning, EC-TEL 2009. Learning in the Synergy of Multiple Disciplines, September, 29, 2009, Nice, Italy
Iyer, B., & Davenport, T. H. (2008). Reverse engineering Google's innovation machine. Harvard Business Review.
Kalz, M.,Van Bruggen, J., Giesbers, B., & Koper, R. (2007). Prior Learning Assessment with Latent Semantic Analysis. In F. Wild,
      M. Kalz, J.Van Bruggen & R. Koper (Eds.). Proceedings of the First European Workshop on Latent Semantic Analysis in
      Technology Enhanced Learning (pp. 24-25). Heerlen, The Netherlands: Open University of the Netherlands.
Gahn, C., Specht, M., & Koper, R. (2007). Smart Indicators on Learning Interactions. In E. Duval, R. Klamma, & M. Wolpers
    (Eds), Creating New Learning Experiences on a Global Scale: LNCS 4753. Second European Conference on Technology
    Enhanced Learning, EC-TEL 2007 (pp. 56-70). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.


                                                                 57
This silde is available at:
http://www.slideshare.com/Drachsler


Email:       hendrik.drachsler@ou.nl
Skype:       celstec-hendrik.drachsler
Blogging at: http://www.drachsler.de
Twittering at: http://twitter.com/HDrachsler




                             58

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From Learning Networks to Digital Ecosystems

  • 1. From L e a r n i n g N e t wo r k s to Digital Ecosystems 03.09.2010 Tallinn University, Estonia Dr. Hendrik Drachsler Centre for Learning Sciences and Technology @ Open University of the Netherlands 1
  • 2. Centre for Learning Sciences and Technologies (CELSTEC) 2
  • 3. Centre for Learning Sciences and Technologies (CELSTEC) 2
  • 4. Centre for Learning Sciences and Technologies (CELSTEC) 2
  • 5. Centre for Learning Sciences and Technologies (CELSTEC) • 100 employees (R. Koper) • 3 R&D program’s • Learning and Cognition (P. Kirschner) • Learning Media (M. Specht, & W. Westera) • Learning Networks (P. Sloep) • Master Active Learning (E. Boshuisen) 2
  • 6. Whoami • Assistant Professor at the Learning Networks Program • Research topics: Learning Networks, Technology Enhanced Learning, Recommender Systems, Personalisation, Mash-Ups and widget technology, e-health 3
  • 9. Overview • Introduction to Learning Networks • Introduction to Digital Ecosystems • Differences between Learning Networks and Digital Ecosystems • A Future Research Agenda 5
  • 10. Overview • Introduction to Learning Networks • Introduction to Digital Ecosystems • Differences between Learning Networks and Digital Ecosystems • A Future Research Agenda 5
  • 11. Overview But before we start... • Introduction to Learning Networks • Introduction to Digital Ecosystems • Differences between Learning Networks and Digital Ecosystems • A Future Research Agenda 5
  • 12. Twitter Ecosystem nt Are there any Twitter users? 6
  • 13. Twitter Ecosystem nt Please use the Are there any following hashtag for Twitter users? the backchannel. You can post your remarks and questions during the presentation and we get back to them later on. 6
  • 14. Twitter Ecosystem nt Please use the following hashtag for the backchannel. You can post your remarks and questions during the presentation and we get back to them later on. 6
  • 15. Twitter Ecosystem nt Hashtag: #LNDE Please use the following hashtag for the backchannel. You can post your remarks and questions during the presentation and we get back to them later on. 6
  • 16. Twitter Ecosystem nt Hashtag: #LNDE Please use the If you are not a twitter users surf hashtag for following to: the backchannel. http://backnoise.com/?LNDE You can post your You just have questions remarks and to enter during the presentation a user name and can and we get back to contribute and discuss in the later on. them backchannel. 6
  • 18. We live in a decade of industrial change Change picture 8
  • 19. The challenge “The biggest challenge businesses face today is unlearning what was successful in the industrial age and learning how to prosper in the network era.” Jay Cross (2006) 9
  • 20. Graphic by Alex Guerten, 2008 10
  • 21. G L O C A L I S AT I O N O B A L I S A T Graphic by Alex Guerten, 2008 I O N 10
  • 22. G L O C A L I S AT I O N Graphic by Alex Guerten, 2008 10
  • 23. G L O C A L I S AT I O N P R O D U C Graphic by Alex Guerten, 2008 E CONSUMERS S 10
  • 24. G L O C A L I S AT I O N Graphic by Alex Guerten, 2008 PROSUMERS 10
  • 25. The Glocalisation / Prosumers world by Zohar Manor-Abel http://flickr.com/photos/zoharma/97214235/sizes/l/ 11
  • 26. Learning Networks • Explicitly address informal learning • Users can publish, share, rate, tag and adjust knowledge resources in Learning Networks • Open Corpus that emerges form the bottom upwards (Koper & Sloep, 2002) 12
  • 27. Learning Networks • Explicitly address informal learning • Users can publish, share, rate, tag and adjust knowledge resources in Learning Networks • Open Corpus that emerges form the bottom upwards (Koper & Sloep, 2002) 12
  • 28. Use Cases for Learning Networks 13
  • 29. Julie, a medical doctor from Germany Julie is a medical doctor at the Gannon University who wants to become specialized as cardiologist. She participates in the International Cardiology Qualification Network and shares her experiences on the medical cases with colleagues from hospitals world wide. She also gets informed about new cases available in the network. 14
  • 30. Julie, a medical doctor from Germany Julie is a medical doctor at the Gannon University who wants to become specialized as cardiologist. She participates in the International Cardiology Qualification Network and shares her experiences on the medical cases with colleagues from hospitals world wide. She also gets informed about new cases available in the network. 14
  • 31. Limbourgs Public Library in the Netherlands Limbourgs public library in the Netherlands needs to rethink its role in society and retrain its personnel in the process. Therefore they want to create an Innovation Network with their employees and their target groups to innovate and train their personnel towards the network era. 15
  • 32. Limbourgs Public Library in the Netherlands Limbourgs public library in the Netherlands needs to rethink its role in society and retrain its personnel in the process. Therefore they want to create an Innovation Network with their employees and their target groups to innovate and train their personnel towards the network era. 15
  • 34. Technologies for Learning Networks But before we Go on... Let’s have a look at our Twitter experiment 16
  • 35. R&D for Learning Networks • Mashups, Personal Environments • Indicators on Learning Interactions • Reflection Support on Social Learning • Personalisation of Information • Distributed Innovation • Prior Knowledge Assessment • Recommender Systems • Network Analysis 17
  • 38. 19
  • 40. Personal Environments More Blog Reader Information Providers Social Bookmarking Various Communities 19
  • 41. Personal Environments Developing Widgets 20
  • 42. Personal Environments Developing Widgets 20
  • 43. Personal Environments Developing Widgets 20
  • 44. Personal Environments Developing Widgets Scott Wilson 20
  • 45. Personal Environments Developing Widgets 20
  • 46. Personal Environments Interwidget communication Developing Widgets Julie 20
  • 47. Emergence Johnson, S. (2001) 21
  • 48. Emergence Johnson, S. (2001) 21
  • 49. Emergence Johnson, S. (2001) 21
  • 50. Emergence Johnson, S. (2001) 21
  • 51. Emergence Johnson, S. (2001) 21
  • 52. Emergence Johnson, S. (2001) 21
  • 53. Emergence “We are leaving the age of information and entering the age of recommendation” Chris Anderson (2004) Johnson, S. (2001) 21
  • 56. Recommender Systems People who bought the same product also bought product B or C … 22
  • 57. The Long Tail Graphic Wilkins, D., (2009); Long23 concept Anderson, C. (2004) tail
  • 58. The Long Tail of Learning Graphic Wilkins, D., (2009); Long23 concept Anderson, C. (2004) tail
  • 59. Emerging paths 24 © peterme.com, flickr 2009
  • 60. Emerging paths Main Road 24 © peterme.com, flickr 2009
  • 61. Emerging paths Personalised paths Main Road 24 © peterme.com, flickr 2009
  • 62. Recommender Systems for Learning Paths 25
  • 63. Recommender System Research Prototype: Recommender Practical System for Learning Networks Study 3: Learning Networks Simulation Study 2: Psychology Experiment Study 1: Theoretical Background Theoretical 2006 2007 2008 2009 26
  • 64. Recommender System Research Prototype: Recommender Practical System for Learning Networks 2006 Study 3: Learning Networks Simulation Study 2: Psychology Experiment Study 1: Theoretical Background Theoretical 2006 2007 2008 2009 26
  • 65. Recommender System Research Prototype: Recommender Practical System for Learning Networks Study 3: Learning Networks Simulation Study 2: Psychology Experiment Study 1: Theoretical Background Theoretical 2006 2007 2008 2009 26
  • 66. Recommender System Research Prototype: Recommender Practical System for Learning 2007 Networks Study 3: Learning Networks Simulation Study 2: Psychology Experiment Study 1: Theoretical Background Theoretical 2006 2007 2008 2009 26
  • 67. Recommender System Research Prototype: Recommender Practical System for Learning Networks Study 3: Learning Networks Simulation Study 2: Psychology Experiment Study 1: Theoretical Background Theoretical 2006 2007 2008 2009 26
  • 68. Recommender System Research Prototype: Recommender Practical System for Learning 2008 Networks Study 3: Learning Networks Simulation Study 2: Psychology Experiment Study 1: Theoretical Background Theoretical 2006 2007 2008 2009 26
  • 69. Recommender System Research Prototype: Recommender Practical System for Learning Networks Study 3: Learning Networks Simulation Study 2: Psychology Experiment Study 1: Theoretical Background Theoretical 2006 2007 2008 2009 26
  • 70. Recommender System Research Prototype: Recommender Practical System for Learning Networks 2009 Study 3: Learning Networks Simulation Study 2: Psychology Experiment Study 1: Theoretical Background Theoretical 2006 2007 2008 2009 26
  • 71. Recommender System Research Prototype: Recommender Practical System for Learning Networks Study 3: Learning Networks Simulation Study 2: Psychology Experiment Study 1: Theoretical Background Theoretical 2006 2007 2008 2009 26
  • 72. Try it your self ... 27
  • 73. Try it your self ... Sign up at remashed.ou.nl 27
  • 74. Try it your self ... Sign up at remashed.ou.nl Enter your favorite Web 2.0 potatoes. 27
  • 75. Try it your self ... Sign up at remashed.ou.nl Enter your favorite Web 2.0 potatoes. Join the Community. 27
  • 76. Try it your self ... Sign up at Let ReMashed remashed.ou.nl start mashing. Enter your favorite Web 2.0 potatoes. Join the Community. 27
  • 77. Try it your self ... Sign up at Let ReMashed remashed.ou.nl start mashing. Enter your favorite Taste your Web 2.0 potatoes. personal flavor of Web 2.0. Join the Community. 27
  • 78. Networks are dead! Long live the Digital Ecosystems! 28
  • 79. Learning Networks “A Learning Network is an online, social network designed to support and facilitate lifelong learning (a learning ‘ecosystem’)” (Peter Sloep, 2009) 29
  • 80. Learning Networks Learning Network = Digital Ecosystem ? 29
  • 82. Digital Ecosystems But before we Go on... Let’s have a look at our Twitter experiment 30
  • 83. What is an Ecosystem ? “An ecosystem is generally an area within the natural environment in which physical factors of the environment, such as rocks and soil, function together along with interdependent organisms, such as plants and animals, within the same habitat.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ecosystem 31
  • 84. What is a Digital Ecosystem ? “A Digital Ecosystem is any distributed adaptive open socio-technical system, with properties of self-organisation, scalability and sustainability, inspired by natural ecosystems.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digital_ecosystem 32
  • 85. What is a Digital Ecosystem ? “Digital Ecosystems were made possible by the emergence of three networks: ICT networks, social networks, and knowledge networks. Nachira, F., Dini, P., Nicolai, A. (2007) 33
  • 86. What is a Digital Ecosystem ? Nachira, F., Dini, P., Nicolai, A. (2007) 34
  • 87. What is a Digital Ecosystem ? Learning Ecosystems Nachira, F., Dini, P., Nicolai, A. (2007) 34
  • 88. Another Definition “... often a group of applications complementing a specific product or platform is considered to form a digital ecosystem; the ICT companies form a “digital ecosystem community.” “But, in order to make sense in large scale concepts such as the Information Society they [the digital ecosystems] need to be useful to many facets of the economic life of the individual economic player. “ Nachira, F., Dini, P., Nicolai, A. (2007) 35
  • 89. Another Definition Company Ecosystems “... often a group of applications complementing a specific product or platform is considered to form a digital ecosystem; the ICT companies form a “digital ecosystem community.” Digital Ecosystems “But, in order to make sense in large scale concepts such as the Information Society they [the digital ecosystems] need to be useful to many facets of the economic life of the individual economic player. “ Nachira, F., Dini, P., Nicolai, A. (2007) 35
  • 90. Examples of Digital Ecosystems 36
  • 97. Iyer, B. & Davenport, T. (2008) 40
  • 100. Ergo Peter Sloep is partly right ... 42
  • 101. A Learning Network can become a Digital Ecosystem when... ...it applies distributed tools, communities, or services from different providers whereby these sources interrelated in very specific ways by open API’s and standards in order to serve a greater overall purpose for its community. 43
  • 102. Extend tools Biosphere Organisations Create Create Consume Innovate Digital Ecosystem Extend Mashup Consume community Community New services Innovators Content Providers f Position Glocalisation ProSumers Use Target offers Contribute / Enrich Alliance Consume Advertise Search Target Groups Validate Emerge data
  • 103. Future Research Agenda 45
  • 104. Future Research Agenda But before we Go on... Let’s have a look at our Twitter experiment 45
  • 109. Beyond O P E N D ATA 48 47
  • 111. Beyondthe Beyond O P E N D ATA 48 47
  • 112. Beyondthe Beyond O P E N I N N O V AT I O N 48 47
  • 113. Beyondthe Beyond MASHUP TECHNOLOGY 48 47
  • 114. Beyondthe Beyond RECOMMENDER SYSTEMS 48 47
  • 115. Beyondthe Beyond P ROT E C T I O N R I G H T S 48 47
  • 116. Free the data by Tom Raftery http://www.flickr.com/photos/traftery/4773457853/sizes/l 48
  • 117. Why ? by Tom Raftery http://www.flickr.com/photos/traftery/4773457853/sizes/l 48
  • 118. Because we will get new insights by Tom Raftery http://www.flickr.com/photos/traftery/4773457853/sizes/l 48
  • 119. 49
  • 120. 49
  • 121. 49
  • 122. 49
  • 123. 49
  • 124. 49
  • 126. Open Innovation R&D -> C&D 50
  • 127. Open Innovation R&D -> C&D 50
  • 128. Open Innovation R&D -> C&D 50
  • 137. Application Areas by Ivan Plata, flickr 48 54
  • 138. Technology- Enhanced Application Areas Learning by Ivan Plata, flickr 48 54
  • 139. Technology- Enhanced Application Areas Science 2.0 Learning by Ivan Plata, flickr 48 54
  • 140. Technology- Enhanced Application Areas Science 2.0 Learning by Ivan Plata, flickr 48 54 e-health
  • 141. Technology- Enhanced Application Areas Science 2.0 Learning e-democracy / e-participation by Ivan Plata, flickr 48 54 e-health
  • 142. Grow new niche services 55
  • 143. Grow new niche services Consequently use services from the biosphere and intertwine student projects with these services • Google ecosystem (forms, database, Google API) • Yahoo ecosystem (Yahoo pipes, and web services) • Reuters Open Calais and Semantic Enrichment • Open data from twitter and other ecosystems • Open API’s, Protocols, Standards -> Interoperability • Empower the users to connect, enrich and combine 55
  • 144. Many Thanks for your interests 56
  • 145. Many Thanks for your interests Your questions are welcome and what is happening in the #LNDE backchannel? 56
  • 146. References Anderson, C. 2004. “The long tail.” Wired Magazine 12 (10). Available: http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/12.10/tail.html Cross, J., (2006) Informal learning: Rediscovering the natural pathways that inspire innovation and performance. Pfeifer Drachsler, H., Hummel, H., & Koper, R. (2008a). Personal recommender systems for learners in lifelong learning: requirements, techniques and model. International Journal of Learning Technology 3(4), 404 - 423. Drachsler, H., Hummel, H., & Koper, R. (2008b). Using Simulations to Evaluate the Effects of Recommender Systems for Learners in Informal Learning Networks. Paper presented at the EC-TEL conference, 2nd Workshop on Social Information Retrieval in Technology Enhanced Learning (SIRTEL08). September, 16-19, 2008, Maastricht, The Netherlands: CEUR Workshop Proceedings Drachsler, H., Hummel, H., & Koper, R. (2009). Identifying the Goal, User model and Conditions of Recommender Systems for Formal and Informal Learning. Journal of Digital Information. Drachsler, H., Hummel, H., van den Berg, B., Eshuis, J., Berlanga, A., Nadolski, R., Waterink, W., Boers, N., & Koper, R. (accepted). Effects of the ISIS Recommender System for navigation support in self-organised Learning Networks. Journal of Educational Technology and Society. Drachsler, H., Dries, E., Arts, T., Rutledge, L.,Van Rosmalen, P., Hummel, H. G. K., & Koper, R. (submitted). ReMashed – Recommendations for Mash-Up Personal Learning Environments. 4th European Conference on Technology Enhanced Learning, EC-TEL 2009. Learning in the Synergy of Multiple Disciplines, September, 29, 2009, Nice, Italy Iyer, B., & Davenport, T. H. (2008). Reverse engineering Google's innovation machine. Harvard Business Review. Kalz, M.,Van Bruggen, J., Giesbers, B., & Koper, R. (2007). Prior Learning Assessment with Latent Semantic Analysis. In F. Wild, M. Kalz, J.Van Bruggen & R. Koper (Eds.). Proceedings of the First European Workshop on Latent Semantic Analysis in Technology Enhanced Learning (pp. 24-25). Heerlen, The Netherlands: Open University of the Netherlands. Gahn, C., Specht, M., & Koper, R. (2007). Smart Indicators on Learning Interactions. In E. Duval, R. Klamma, & M. Wolpers (Eds), Creating New Learning Experiences on a Global Scale: LNCS 4753. Second European Conference on Technology Enhanced Learning, EC-TEL 2007 (pp. 56-70). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer. 57
  • 147. This silde is available at: http://www.slideshare.com/Drachsler Email: hendrik.drachsler@ou.nl Skype: celstec-hendrik.drachsler Blogging at: http://www.drachsler.de Twittering at: http://twitter.com/HDrachsler 58