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Carbohydrates Worksheet.pdf

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CHEMISTRY-II
WORK SHEET CHEMISTRY OF CARBOHYDRATES
‫دعا‬ ‫طالب‬
Dr. ZAINCHEMISTRY zainchem.wordpress.com
Dr. ZAIN UL ABDEE...

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CHEMISTRY-II
WORK SHEET CHEMISTRY OF CARBOHYDRATES
‫دعا‬ ‫طالب‬
Dr. ZAINCHEMISTRY zainchem.wordpress.com
Dr. ZAIN UL ABDEE...

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CHEMISTRY-II
WORK SHEET CHEMISTRY OF CARBOHYDRATES
‫دعا‬ ‫طالب‬
Dr. ZAINCHEMISTRY zainchem.wordpress.com
Dr. ZAIN UL ABDEE...

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Carbohydrates Worksheet.pdf

Chemistry of Carbohydrate
A WorkSheet for Self Learning & Understanding carbohydrate chemistry

Classification
Structure
Properties
Uses

Chemistry of Carbohydrate
A WorkSheet for Self Learning & Understanding carbohydrate chemistry

Classification
Structure
Properties
Uses

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Carbohydrates Worksheet.pdf

  1. 1. CHEMISTRY-II WORK SHEET CHEMISTRY OF CARBOHYDRATES ‫دعا‬ ‫طالب‬ Dr. ZAINCHEMISTRY zainchem.wordpress.com Dr. ZAIN UL ABDEEN Carbohydrates: “The Polyhydroxy aldehydes & ketone are called carbohydrates” or “The substances that produce Polyhydroxy aldehydes & ketone on hydrolysis are called as carbohydrates” GENERAL FORMULA Cx(H2O)y Compound Molecular Formula Formula Cx(H2O)y X Y Is Carbohydrate? Ethanol Glucose Sugar Dr. ZAIN CHEMISTRY (zainchem.wordpress.com) Q1 Identify Glucose & Fructose through Definition Of Carbohydrates: (ALD, KET, Pri OH, Sec OH) C C C C C C H2 OH O H OH O H H H OH H OH H C C C C H2 OH O H H H OH H OH C O C H2 OH Dr. ZAIN CHEMISTRY (zainchem.wordpress.com) Q2 Identify Sugars & Non Sugars from following: Sugar Milk Glucose Potato Starch Beans Cereals Pasta Dr. ZAIN CHEMISTRY (zainchem.wordpress.com) Carbohydrates are broadly classified as: Q3 Identify them: n Dr. ZAIN CHEMISTRY (zainchem.wordpress.com) Carbohydrates on the basis of reducing abilities are classified as: Carbohydrates (Based on Molecular Structure) Monosaccharides 3-10 carbons Glucose, Fructose, Galactose Oligosaccharides 2-10 monosaccharides Maltose, lactose & sucrose Polysaccharides above 10 monosaccharides Glycogen, Cellulose, Starch Carbohydrates (Based on Reducing Abilities) Reducing can reduce Tollen’s reagents & Fehling solution contain free aldehydic or ketonic group with adjacent OH group. Glucose, Fructose, Galactose Non Reducing can't reduce Tollen’s reagents & Fehling solution doesn't contain free aldehydic or ketonic group with adjacent OH group. Oligosaccharides: all except sucrose
  2. 2. CHEMISTRY-II WORK SHEET CHEMISTRY OF CARBOHYDRATES ‫دعا‬ ‫طالب‬ Dr. ZAINCHEMISTRY zainchem.wordpress.com Dr. ZAIN UL ABDEEN Q4 Identify Reducing & Non-Reducing Carbohydrates? O H H H H O OH H OH OH OH O H H H O H OH H OH H OH O H H H O H OH H OH H OH O O C H2 H O H OH H H O H OH Dr. ZAIN CHEMISTRY (zainchem.wordpress.com) Monosaccharide’s on the basis of functional groups are classified as: See examples of Q1 Dr. ZAIN CHEMISTRY (zainchem.wordpress.com) On the basis of number of atoms in chain Monosaccharide are classified as: Q5 Count Number of carbon atoms in each: Search the difference between Aldohexases What is similarity between these Aldohexases What is the reason behind “d” mentioned against all isomers? How they are converted into “l” Carbohydrates (Based on Functional Groups) Aldoses containing aldehydic group d-Glucose Ketoses containing ketonic group d-Fructose
  3. 3. CHEMISTRY-II WORK SHEET CHEMISTRY OF CARBOHYDRATES ‫دعا‬ ‫طالب‬ Dr. ZAINCHEMISTRY zainchem.wordpress.com Dr. ZAIN UL ABDEEN Dr. ZAIN CHEMISTRY (zainchem.wordpress.com) Q6 Monosaccharaides based on ring structure are classified as: Identify Pyranose & Furanose Structure: Dr. ZAIN CHEMISTRY (zainchem.wordpress.com) Monosaccharaides on the basis of configuration are classified into: Q7 Draw d-glucose & L-Glucose: Dr. ZAIN CHEMISTRY (zainchem.wordpress.com) The monosaccharaides have ability to rotate plane of polarized light & on this ability classified as: Dr. ZAIN CHEMISTRY (zainchem.wordpress.com) The monosaccharaides in ring structure are classified as: Q8 Identify apha & beta isomers Dr. ZAIN CHEMISTRY (zainchem.wordpress.com) Monosaccharides (Based on Configuration) POSITION OF H ON 2ND LAST CARBON d-Sugar OH group on 2nd last carbon atom is on RHS d-Glucose L-sugar OH group on 2nd last carbon atom is on LHS L-Glucose Monosaccharides (Based on Optical Rotation) Dextrorotatory from left to right (Anticlockwise) d (+)-Glucose Levorotatory from right to left (Clockwise) L(-)-Glucose Monosaccharides (Based on isomerism) THE POSITION OF H on C-1 IN RING alpha isomer OH on C-1 below the plane α-d-Glucose beta isomer OH on C-1 Above the plane β-d-Glucose O OH H H H O H OH H OH H OH O H OH H OH H OH H OH OH
  4. 4. CHEMISTRY-II WORK SHEET CHEMISTRY OF CARBOHYDRATES ‫دعا‬ ‫طالب‬ Dr. ZAINCHEMISTRY zainchem.wordpress.com Dr. ZAIN UL ABDEEN ‫الحمد‬ ‫ہللا‬ We have learned the classification of Carbohydrates & monosaccharaides. ‫ہللا‬ ‫انشاء‬ From here we will learn How to draw structure of Glucose & fructose Q9 Follow the Instructions & Draw structure (Fischer Projection) of Following: d-Glucose L-Glucose D-Fructose L-fructose TRICK: Glucose 2R,3L,4R Fructose 2K, 3L,4R Dr. ZAIN CHEMISTRY (zainchem.wordpress.com) Q10 Draw Following structure of d-Glucose Fisher projection Fischer Cyclic Projection Haworth Structure TRICK: Shift of OH 5C to 1C, Breaking of C=O, Formation of Ring 1-5 RHS = below Dr. ZAIN CHEMISTRY (zainchem.wordpress.com) Q11 Draw Following structure of d-Fructose Fisher projection Fischer Cyclic Projection Haworth Structure TRICK: Shift of OH 5C to 2C, Breaking of C=O, Formation of Ring 2-5
  5. 5. CHEMISTRY-II WORK SHEET CHEMISTRY OF CARBOHYDRATES ‫دعا‬ ‫طالب‬ Dr. ZAINCHEMISTRY zainchem.wordpress.com Dr. ZAIN UL ABDEEN “The properties by which two isomeric close chain structure which are interconvert able by open chain structure is called Mutarotation” Q12 Write equation for muta-rotation in Glucose from alpha to beta isomer Dr. ZAIN CHEMISTRY (zainchem.wordpress.com) “A linkage in which carbon atom is joined to two oxygen atoms by single bond (-O-C-O-) is called glycoside linkage” Maltose is the condensation polymer of alpha & beta glucose having α- 1,4 glycosidic linkage: Q13 Write equation for the formation of maltose: Apha = C1 Below Beta= C1 above Dr. ZAIN CHEMISTRY (zainchem.wordpress.com) Lactose (milk sugar) is the condensation polymer of beta-Galactose & beta glucose having - 1,4 glycosidic linkage: Q14 Write equation for the formation of Lactose: Glucose 2R,3L,4R, Galactose 2R,3L,4L
  6. 6. CHEMISTRY-II WORK SHEET CHEMISTRY OF CARBOHYDRATES ‫دعا‬ ‫طالب‬ Dr. ZAINCHEMISTRY zainchem.wordpress.com Dr. ZAIN UL ABDEEN Dr. ZAIN CHEMISTRY (zainchem.wordpress.com) Sucrose (table sugar) is the condensation polymer of alpha glucose & beta fructose having α- 1,2 glycosidic linkage: Q15 Write equation for the formation of sucrose: TRICK: Glucose 2R,3L,4R Fructose 2K, 3L,4R Dr. ZAIN CHEMISTRY (zainchem.wordpress.com) Now Go through the importance of Carbohydrates: Dr. ZAIN CHEMISTRY (zainchem.wordpress.com) It plays important part in human metabolism, (example Ribose In RNA & DNA) They are important part of our diet, (example sugar, starch). They are responsible for the provision of energy on slow decomposition in cells. (C6H12O6 + 6O2  6CO2 + 6H2O + 2832 kJ) Cellulose are biologically important for animals. Body stores glucose for rainy days as “glycogen” which is utilized in fasting & illness.

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