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Understanding surah ikhlas

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Tawhid and its Types
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Understanding surah ikhlas

  1. 1. z Translation 1.Say: He is Allah, the One! 2.Allah, the Eternal, the Absolute! 3.He begets not, nor was He begotten; 4.And there is none comparable unto Him. Translation 1.Say: He is Allah, the One! 2.Allah, the Eternal, the Absolute! 3.He begets not, nor was He begotten; 4.And there is none comparable unto Him.
  2. 2. z INTRODUCTION  Surah al-Ikhlas, or “Purity” or “Sincerity”, is the 112th Surah of the Quran,  It has just four verses.  It is also referred to as Surah Tawheed (Monotheism) because this Surah summarizes the concept of Monotheism in a comprehensive manner.  It is one of the very few Surahs in the Quran whose name is not mentioned in the Surah itself;  It has, instead, been named in view of its meaning and subject matter.
  3. 3. z ALLAH LOVES THOSE WHO RECITE IT  Narrated Aisha (RA):  The Prophet (PBUH) sent (an army unit) under the command of a man who used to lead his companions in the prayers and would finish his recitation with SURAH IKHLAAS  When they returned (from the battle), they mentioned that to the Prophet.  He said (to them), “Ask him why he does so.”  They asked him and he said, “I do so because it mentions the qualities of the Beneficent and I love to recite it (in my prayer).”  The Prophet; said (to them), “Tell him that Allah loves him.” (Sahih Bukhari Vol 09, Book 93, Hadith 472)
  4. 4. z TIME OF REVELATION  Abdullah bin Masud has reported that the Quraish said to the Holy Prophet (upon whom be be peace): "Tell us of the ancestry of your Lord." Thereupon this Surah was sent down. (Tabarani).  Ibn Abbas, saying that a group of the Jews, including Kab bin Ashraf, Huyayy bin Akhtab and other, came before the Holy Prophet (upon whom be peace) and said: "O Muhammad (upon whom be Allah's peace and blessings), tell us of the attributes of your Lord, who has sent you as a Prophet." Thereupon Allah sent down this Surah. (Ibn Abi Hatim, Ibn Adi, Baihaqi in Al-Asma was-Sifat). 
  5. 5. z TIME AND OCCASION OF REVELATION  Ibn Abbas has reported that a deputation of the Christians of Najran along with seven priests visited the Holy Prophet (SAW), and they said: "O Muhammad, tell us what is your Lord like and of what substance He is made."The Holy Prophet replied, "My Lord is not made from any substance. He is unique and exalted above everything." Thereupon Allah sent down this Surah.
  6. 6. z FIRST AYAH  Say: He is Allah, the One!  This verse proclaims the Oneness of Allah.  It sums up the essence of Islam,  It negates all forms of polytheism and idolatry.  The word “Ahad” meaning “The One” is used in the Quran only for Allah, and no one else.
  7. 7. z FEW OTHER AYAHS ON TAUHID ۚ ‫ا‬َ‫ت‬َ‫د‬َ‫س‬َ‫ف‬َ‫ل‬ ُ ‫ا‬‫اَّلل‬ ‫ا‬‫َّل‬ِ‫إ‬ ٌ‫ة‬َ‫ه‬ِ‫ل‬‫آ‬ ‫ا‬َ‫م‬ِ‫يه‬ِ‫ف‬ َ‫ان‬َ‫ك‬ ْ‫و‬َ‫ل‬ِ‫ش‬ْ‫ر‬َ‫ع‬ْ‫ل‬‫ا‬ ِ‫ب‬َ‫ر‬ ِ ‫ا‬‫اَّلل‬ َ‫ان‬َ‫ح‬ْ‫ب‬ُ‫س‬َ‫ف‬‫ا‬‫ا‬‫م‬َ‫ع‬ َ‫ون‬ُ‫ف‬ ِ‫ص‬َ‫ي‬– Had there been within the heavens and earth gods besides Allah, they both would have been ruined. So exalted is Allah, Lord of the Throne, above what they describe. (Surah al-Anbya 21:22)
  8. 8. z Allah has decreed that you do not worship anyone but Allah  ‫ى‬َ‫ض‬َ‫ق‬َ‫و‬َ‫و‬ْ‫ل‬‫ا‬ِ‫ب‬َ‫و‬ ُ‫ه‬‫ا‬‫ا‬‫ي‬ِ‫إ‬ ‫ا‬‫َّل‬ِ‫إ‬ ‫ُوا‬‫د‬ُ‫ب‬ْ‫ع‬َ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬‫َّل‬َ‫أ‬ َ‫ك‬ُّ‫ب‬َ‫ر‬ۚ ‫ا‬ً‫ن‬‫ا‬َ‫س‬ْ‫ح‬ِ‫إ‬ ِ‫ن‬ْ‫ي‬َ‫د‬ِ‫ل‬‫ا‬‫ن‬ِ‫ع‬ ‫ا‬‫ن‬َ‫غ‬ُ‫ل‬ْ‫ب‬َ‫ي‬ ‫ا‬‫ا‬‫م‬ِ‫إ‬َ‫ر‬َ‫ب‬ِ‫ك‬ْ‫ل‬‫ا‬ َ‫َك‬‫د‬ َ‫َّل‬َ‫و‬ ٍّ‫ف‬ُ‫أ‬ ‫ا‬َ‫م‬ُ‫ه‬‫ا‬‫ل‬ ‫ل‬ُ‫ق‬َ‫ت‬ َ‫َل‬َ‫ف‬ ‫ا‬َ‫م‬ُ‫ه‬ َ‫َل‬ِ‫ك‬ ْ‫و‬َ‫أ‬ ‫ا‬َ‫م‬ُ‫ه‬ُ‫د‬َ‫ح‬َ‫أ‬ْ‫ن‬َ‫ت‬‫ا‬َ‫م‬ُ‫ه‬ْ‫ر‬َ‫ه‬‫ا‬ً‫م‬‫ي‬ ِ‫ر‬َ‫ك‬ ً‫َّل‬ ْ‫و‬َ‫ق‬ ‫ا‬َ‫م‬ُ‫ه‬‫ا‬‫ل‬ ‫ل‬ُ‫ق‬َ‫و‬– (17:23)  And your Lord has decreed that you not worship except Him, and to parents, good treatment. Whether one or both of them reach old age [while] with you, say not to them [so much as], "uff," and do not repel them but speak to them a noble word. 17:23 (Surah al-Isra)
  9. 9. z The meaning of Tawhid  Wahid, Ahad and Waheed, all meaning one. Allah is Wahid, meaning that He has no rivals or peers in any way.  So Tawhid means knowing Allah is One, with none like unto Him.  Shar’i definition of Tawhid, it means believing in Allaah alone as God and Lord and attributing to Him alone all the attributes of Lordship and divinity.
  10. 10. z First commandment in Islam  Ibn ‘Abbas (RA) said: When the Prophet (SAW) sent Mu’aadh ibn Jabal to Yemen, he said to him:  “You are going to people from among the People of the Book, so let the first thing to which you call them be belief in Allah alone (Tawhid).  If they accept that, then tell them that Allah has enjoined on them five prayers every day and night.  If they pray then tell them that Allah has enjoined on them zakah from their wealth to be taken from their rich and given to their poor. If they agree to that then take it from them but avoid the best of people’s wealth.” (Saheeh al-Bukhaari (7372) and Saheeh Muslim 19)
  11. 11. z 1st PILLAR OF ISLAM  Ibn ‘Umar (RA) that the Prophet (SAW) said:  “Islam is built on five (pillars): 1. Belief that Allah is One, 2. Establishing regular prayer, 3. Paying zakat, 4. Fasting Ramadan and 5. Hajj.”
  12. 12. z 3 CATEGORIES OF TAUHID TAUHID ULOOHIYAH RUBUBIYAH ASMA WA SIFAAT
  13. 13. z 1-Tawheed al-Ruboobiyyah (Oneness of Divine Lordship)  It means believing in Allah as One and Unique with regard to His actions such as creation, sovereignty, control, giving life and death, and so on.  Whoever believes that there is any creator other than Allah or any sovereign controlling this universe and disposing of its affairs other than Allah has denied this aspect of Tawhid and disbelieved in Allah.
  14. 14. z Disbelievers accepted this aspect of Tauhid  The disbelievers of Makkah accepted this aspect of Tawhid in general terms, although they differed with regard to some of its details ۖ ُ ‫ا‬‫اَّلل‬ ‫ا‬‫ن‬ُ‫ل‬‫و‬ُ‫ق‬َ‫ي‬َ‫ل‬ ْ‫م‬ُ‫ه‬َ‫ق‬َ‫ل‬َ‫خ‬ ْ‫ن‬‫ا‬‫م‬ ‫م‬ُ‫ه‬َ‫ت‬ْ‫ل‬َ‫أ‬َ‫س‬ ‫ن‬ِ‫ئ‬َ‫ل‬َ‫و‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ن‬َ‫أ‬َ‫ف‬َ‫ُون‬‫ك‬َ‫ف‬ْ‫ؤ‬ُ‫ي‬-43:87 “And if you ask them who created them, they will surely say: ‘Allah.’ How then are they turned away (from the worship of Allah Who created them)?” [al-Zukhruf 43:87]
  15. 15. z 2-Tawheed al-Uloohiyyah  Tawheed al-Uloohiyyah means devoting all acts of worship, both inward and outward, in word and deed, to Allah Alone, and not worshipping anything or anyone other than Allah, no matter who he is. Allah says :  ‫ى‬َ‫ض‬َ‫ق‬َ‫و‬َ‫و‬ْ‫ل‬‫ا‬ِ‫ب‬َ‫و‬ ُ‫ه‬‫ا‬‫ا‬‫ي‬ِ‫إ‬ ‫ا‬‫َّل‬ِ‫إ‬ ‫ُوا‬‫د‬ُ‫ب‬ْ‫ع‬َ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬‫َّل‬َ‫أ‬ َ‫ك‬ُّ‫ب‬َ‫ر‬‫ا‬ً‫ن‬‫ا‬َ‫س‬ْ‫ح‬ِ‫إ‬ ِ‫ن‬ْ‫ي‬َ‫د‬ِ‫ل‬‫ا‬ۚ  “And your Lord has decreed that you worship none but Him” [al-Isra’ 17:23] ۖ ‫ًا‬‫ئ‬ْ‫ي‬َ‫ش‬ ِ‫ه‬ِ‫ب‬ ‫ُوا‬‫ك‬ ِ‫ْر‬‫ش‬ُ‫ت‬ َ‫َّل‬َ‫و‬ َ ‫ا‬‫اَّلل‬ ‫ُوا‬‫د‬ُ‫ب‬ْ‫ع‬‫ا‬َ‫و‬-4:36  “Worship Allaah and join none with Him (in worship)” [al-Nisa’ 4:36]
  16. 16. z Other names for Tauhid Uloohiyyah  It is also called Tawheed al-‘Ibaadah (oneness of worship)  It is also called Tawheed al-Talab wa’l-Qasd wa’l- Iraadah (Oneness of goal, purpose and will) because it means that a person does not seek anything except the Face of Allah, so he worships Him sincerely.
  17. 17. z 3-Tawheed al-Asma’ wa’l- Sifaat (Oneness of the Divine Names and Attributes) This means affirming the names and attributes of Allah and Believing that there is none like unto Allah in His names and attributes.
  18. 18. z This Tawhid is based on two principles  1-Affirmation: i.e., affirming that which Allah has affirmed for Himself in His Book or that His Prophet (SAW) has affirmed of His beautiful names and sublime attributes in a manner that suits the Majesty and Greatness of Allah
  19. 19. z Tauhid Asma wa Sifaat  2-Denial: i.e., denying that Allah has any faults and denying any shortcomings that He has denied Himself. The evidence for that is the words of Allah (interpretation of the meaning):  َ‫ف‬ۚ ِ‫ض‬ْ‫ر‬َ ْ‫اْل‬َ‫و‬ ِ‫ت‬‫ا‬َ‫او‬َ‫م‬‫ا‬‫س‬‫ال‬ ُ‫ر‬ِ‫اط‬ُ‫ف‬‫ن‬َ‫أ‬ ْ‫ن‬ِ‫م‬ ‫ُم‬‫ك‬َ‫ل‬ َ‫ل‬َ‫ع‬َ‫ج‬ِ‫ام‬َ‫ع‬ْ‫ن‬َ ْ‫اْل‬ َ‫ن‬ِ‫م‬َ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ً‫ج‬‫ا‬َ‫و‬ْ‫ز‬َ‫أ‬ ْ‫م‬ُ‫ك‬ِ‫س‬ ۖ ‫ا‬ً‫ج‬‫ا‬َ‫و‬ْ‫ز‬َ‫أ‬ْ‫م‬ُ‫ك‬ُ‫ؤ‬َ‫ر‬ْ‫ذ‬َ‫ي‬ۚ ِ‫ه‬‫ي‬ِ‫ف‬ٌ‫ء‬ْ‫ي‬َ‫ش‬ ِ‫ه‬ِ‫ل‬ْ‫ث‬ِ‫م‬َ‫ك‬ َ‫س‬ْ‫ي‬َ‫ل‬َۖ‫و‬ُ‫ه‬َ‫و‬‫ا‬ُ‫ير‬ ِ‫ص‬َ‫ب‬ْ‫ل‬‫ا‬ ُ‫ع‬‫ي‬ِ‫م‬‫ا‬‫س‬‫ل‬-42:11  “There is nothing like Him, and He is the All-Hearer, the All-Seer”[al-Shoora 42:11]
  20. 20. z 2nd Ayah- Allah, the Eternal, the Absolute! • As-Samad is also one of the Names of Allah. • Allah has been referred to as The Eternal Refuge • The Self-Sufficient, • The Absolute • One on Whom all depend • To Whom all creation turns to for fulfillment of their desires and needs Therefore, while the whole world is dependent upon Allah for fulfillment of its needs, He is in need of no one.
  21. 21. z Allah is free of all needs and wants.  ٌ‫م‬‫ي‬ ِ‫ر‬َ‫ك‬ ٌّ‫ي‬ِ‫ن‬َ‫غ‬ ‫ي‬ِ‫ب‬َ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬‫ن‬ِ‫إ‬َ‫ف‬-27:40  Truly my Lord is Free of all Needs, Supreme in Honor!  Quran 27:40 (Surah an-Naml)
  22. 22. z z AYAH 3. He begets not, nor was He begotten
  23. 23. z ALLAH IS ETERNAL  Allah was not born, nor did He give birth.  He has no beginning and therefore no ending.  Allah is the Creator of each and everything, but He was not created by any power.  Many polytheists and idolaters wrongfully ascribe partners as well as sons and daughters to Allah (Nauzubillah!).  However, this particular verse of Surah al-Ikhlas leaves no room for any uncertainty in this regard.
  24. 24. z AYAHS EXPLAINING IT FURTHER  ۖ ِ‫ض‬ْ‫ر‬َ ْ‫اْل‬َ‫و‬ ِ‫ت‬‫ا‬َ‫او‬َ‫م‬‫ا‬‫س‬‫ال‬ ُ‫ع‬‫ي‬ِ‫د‬َ‫ب‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ن‬َ‫أ‬ُ‫ه‬َ‫ل‬ ُ‫ُون‬‫ك‬َ‫ي‬ۖ ٌ‫ة‬َ‫ب‬ ِ‫اح‬َ‫ص‬ ُ‫ه‬‫ا‬‫ل‬ ‫ُن‬‫ك‬َ‫ت‬ ْ‫م‬َ‫ل‬َ‫و‬ ٌ‫د‬َ‫ل‬َ‫و‬ ۖ ٍّ‫ء‬ْ‫ي‬َ‫ش‬ ‫ا‬‫ل‬ُ‫ك‬ َ‫ق‬َ‫ل‬َ‫خ‬َ‫و‬ٌ‫م‬‫ي‬ِ‫ل‬َ‫ع‬ ٍّ‫ء‬ْ‫ي‬َ‫ش‬ ِ‫ُل‬‫ك‬ِ‫ب‬ َ‫و‬ُ‫ه‬َ‫و‬-6:101  [He is] Originator of the heavens and the earth. How could He have a son when He does not have a companion and He created all things? And He is, of all things, Knowing. (Surah al-An’am 6:101) ُ ‫ا‬‫اَّلل‬ ‫ا‬َ‫م‬‫ا‬‫ن‬ِ‫إ‬ٌ‫ه‬َ‫ل‬ِ‫إ‬ۖ ٌ‫د‬ ِ‫اح‬َ‫و‬ٌ‫د‬َ‫ل‬َ‫و‬ ُ‫ه‬َ‫ل‬ َ‫ُون‬‫ك‬َ‫ي‬ ‫ن‬َ‫أ‬ ُ‫ه‬َ‫ن‬‫ا‬َ‫ح‬ْ‫ب‬ُ‫س‬ۘ-4:171  Indeed, Allah is but one God. Exalted is He above having a son.(Nisa, 4;171)
  25. 25. z ALLAH (SWT) DO NOT HAVE ANY SON AND NO PARTNERS  َ‫و‬ ‫ًا‬‫د‬َ‫ل‬َ‫و‬ ْ‫ذ‬ ِ‫خ‬‫ا‬‫ت‬َ‫ي‬ ْ‫م‬َ‫ل‬ ‫ي‬ِ‫ذ‬‫ا‬‫ل‬‫ا‬ ِ ‫ا‬ ِ‫َّلل‬ ُ‫د‬ْ‫م‬َ‫ح‬ْ‫ل‬‫ا‬ ِ‫ل‬ُ‫ق‬َ‫و‬َ‫و‬ ِ‫ك‬ْ‫ل‬ُ‫م‬ْ‫ل‬‫ا‬ ‫ي‬ِ‫ف‬ ٌ‫يك‬ ِ‫َر‬‫ش‬ ُ‫ه‬‫ا‬‫ل‬ ‫ُن‬‫ك‬َ‫ي‬ ْ‫م‬َ‫ل‬‫ُن‬‫ك‬َ‫ي‬ ْ‫م‬َ‫ل‬ ۖ ِ‫ل‬ُّ‫ذ‬‫ال‬ َ‫ن‬ِ‫م‬ ٌّ‫ي‬ِ‫ل‬َ‫و‬ ُ‫ه‬‫ا‬‫ل‬‫ا‬ً‫ير‬ِ‫ب‬ْ‫ك‬َ‫ت‬ ُ‫ه‬ْ‫ر‬ِ‫ب‬َ‫ك‬َ‫و‬-17:111  Say: “Praise be to Allah, who begets no son, and has no partner in (His) dominion.” (Isra, 17:111)  Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) said: “None is more patient than Allah against the harmful and annoying words He hears (from the people): They ascribe children to Him, yet He bestows upon them health and provision.”
  26. 26. z z 4TH AYAH- And there is none comparable unto Him
  27. 27. z MEANING OF THE AYAH  The last verse of this Surah declares that Allah is beyond comparison.  There is nothing comparable to Him in nature and attributes.  There is none in the entire universe, nor ever was, nor ever can be, who is equal to Allah.  He is Unique in every aspect. In Surah ash-Shurah, Allah says:  “There is nothing like Him.”
  28. 28. z MEANING OF WORD ‘KUFUWAN’  The word kufu' as used in the original means an example, a similar thing, the one equal in rank and position.  In the matter of marriage, kufu' means that the boy and the girl should match each other socially.  Thus, the verse means that there is no one in the entire universe, nor ever was, nor ever can be, who is similar to Allah, or equal in rank with Him, or resembling Him in His attributes, works and powers in any degree whatever.
  29. 29. z THIS SURAH IS EQUAL TO 1/3RD OF QURAN  This Surah gives a summarized description of the Oneness of Allah and the Perfection of His Attributes.  Such is the importance of Surah al-Ikhlas that our beloved Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) equated it to one-third of the Quran.  Abu Hurairah (RA) reported: The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) came out to us and said: I am going to recite before you one-third of the Quran.  He then recited: “Say: He is Allah, One-Allah, the Eternal,” to the end of the Surah. (Sahih Muslim Book 06, Hadith 317)
  30. 30. z Ibn 'Abbas (RA) summarized the subjects of Quran.  Qur'an consists of three fundamental subjects:  Those commands and prohibitions which contain the laws and practical ways. These form the subject matter of the science of Fiqh (jurisprudence) and Ethics.  The tales and narratives which include the stories of the Prophets and Messengers of God and their communities. The punishments and disasters which befell those who resisted and denied the Messengers of God. Also, the promises, rewards, warnings and dooms.  The knowledge of Tawhid (the Unity of God) and the description of those matters which relate to the Names of Almighty God and His Attributes,
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