Tazkiyah, ihsan, tasawwuf


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This slide program explains meanings of Takiyah, Ihsan and Tasawwuf. It elaborates the methods of Tazkiyah. It differentiates between true Islamic Tazkiyah and Tasawwuf and non Islamic methods.

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Tazkiyah, ihsan, tasawwuf

  1. 1. • Tazkiyah literally means to purify and cleanse. • Zakah comes from the same root. It purifies the money and possessions • Tazkiyah in Islamic terminology means: o Process of purifying thoughts and actions from falsehood and deception o Build pure and correct beliefs, actions and beautiful morals following the model of our beloved Prophet Mohammad (SAW)
  2. 2. "A similar (favor have you already received) in that we have sent among you a messenger of your own, reciting to you our verses and sanctify-ing you and instructing you about book and wis-dom and you were before in manifest error." ( AL –BAQARA,2:151) "It is He who has sent amongst the unlettered messenger from amongst themselves to recite to them His verses, to sanctify them and to instruct them in scripture and wisdom, although they had been before in manifest error." (JUMA, 62: 2)
  3. 3. Tazkiyah of knowledge Tazkiyah of actions • Tazkiyah of relations • 1- Relation with Allah (SWT)-we have to know our obligations as servants of Allah (SWT) to endeavor to fulfill them to the best of our ability • 2- Relation with the society-We must develop awareness of obligations to these relations and to fulfill them properly in the light of AI-Qur'an and Sunnah. i. Motives to fulfill basic human needs, e.g., bodily needs of hunger, thirst, sex and rest after fatigue. ii. Motives based on some desires, e.g., desire of gaining fame, popularity and to acquire wealth. iii. Motives based on emotions, e.g., love, hatred, Jealousy, kindness, or revenge, etc. iv. Motives based on good spirit, e.g., sincerity, sacrifice, selflessness. i. What is the position of man on this earth and what are his duties? ii. Is he responsible for his actions before his Creator? iii. What are the attributes of the Creator? iv. What does He like and dislike? v. What will He do to someone who follows the wrong path?
  4. 4. Development of Righteous Personality who: • i. Submit to the Will of Allah (SWT) with their heart's desire and pleasure and reject all other kinds of deities. • ii. Obey and submit to Allah (SWT) with constant fear and love and in conformity with Allah’s (SWT) com-mandments, being always conscious of His closeness. Establish Islamic Organization of such dedicated Muslims who struggle together to establish Islam in their lives •
  5. 5. • Development of Most noble personality traits • Founded on Love of Allah, of all His prophets [Nabiyyin] especially the Seal of Prophethood Muhammad s.a.w., his Household [itrah or Ahlul-bayti wa Aali -Rasul] and loyal Companions [Ashaab], • In fellowship with the Truthful [siddiqqin], the Witnesses & martyrs [shuhada] and the Righteous servants of Allah [Solihin]; Striving to purify the Self (Nafs) and • Adorning it with the Exalted Moral traits of Our Beloved Prophet Muhammad s.a.w. (The Perfected Man – “Insan Kaamil”)
  6. 6. • ANGELS • MANKIND • ANIMALS Debased to be the lowest of the low.
  7. 7. • • • ”The Day whereon neither wealth nor sons will avail, but only he (will prosper) that brings to Allah a sound heart (Qalbun saleem). “ 26:88-89 • “Know that verily on your body there is a piece of flesh, when it is found to be well (good), then all your body (whole self) will be well, and if it is found to be spoilt (corrupted) then all your body (whole self) will be corrupted (bad, spoilt) – know that it is your heart!”
  8. 8. HealthyHeart • It serves Allah only with • Love • Fear • Reliance • Hope • Sincere dedication • Submitted SickHeart • It has faith in Allah, love for him • It also has craving for lust and material pleasures • Self praise • Wavers between ruin and safety DeadHeart • It does not know its Lord • Does not worship Him • Clings to its lust and desires • It loves material world
  9. 9. Unnecessary talking Unrestrained evil glances Excessive food Evil company
  10. 10. Reported by Mua’dh Ibn Jabal (RA)
  11. 11. (Bukhari) asan uncle
  12. 12. • Prophet (SAW) said, “ Glance (Lustful) is a poisoned arrow of Shaytan. Whoever lowers his gaze for Allah, He will bestow upon him a refreshing sweetness which he will find in his heart on the day that he meets Him.” (Narrated by Ibn Mas’ud in Tabarani and Kanzul-Ummaal; Vol. 5, pg. 228), • Shaytan enters with a glance • He makes seen thing more beautiful than it is • He transforms it into idol which heart adores • He lights the fire of desire • He fuels it with wood of sinful actions
  13. 13. • • He who protects his eyes from unlawful gazes, Allah(SWT) will grant him the light of the heart.“ (Ibn Kathir) • Heart looses its straight path and falls into the pit of desires and ignorance • Allah says,” And do not obey anyone whose heart We have made forgetful in remembering us, who follows his own desires and whose affairs have exceeded all bounds. “ (18:28)
  14. 14. Aisha (RA) said,”From the time of arrival to Madina till the death of the Prophet (SAW), family never ate fill of bread made of wheat three nights in a row. “
  15. 15. • Body inclines towards disobedience of Allah • Makes worship and obedience laborious • Shaytan easily controls one with full stomach • Restrict the pathways of Shaytan with fasting • Excessive food leads to excessive sleep and less time for Ibadah
  16. 16. • Anyone who controls his stomach is in control of his Deen • Anyone who controls his hunger is in control of good behavior • Disobedience to Allah (SWT) is nearest to a person who is satisfied with full stomach • Disobedience of Allah is furthest away from a person who is hungry.
  17. 17. • “And (remember) the Day when the wrongdoer will bite at his hands, he will say: O! Would that I had taken a path with the Messenger (Muhammad). Ah! Woe to me! Would that I had never taken so–and– so as a friend. He indeed led me astray from the reminder (the Qur’an) after it had come to me. And Satan is ever a deserter to man in the hour of need.” (Furqaan 25: 27–29)
  18. 18. • 1- Indispensable like food- People with knowledge of Islam, help to cure diseases of the heart. • 2- Required when a disease sets in like medicine. Mixing with such people is needed for livelihood, business. • 3- Harmful like disease- They do not speak good or listen to benefit. • 4- Doom like poison-These are people of innovation and misguidance. Sitting with them will lead to death of heart. From Purification of Soul by imam Rajab al Hanbali(ra), ibn al Qayyim(ra) & Abu Hamid al Ghazali(ra)
  19. 19. • “Man is on the religion of his friend, so let every one of you examine whom he befriends.” (Abu- Dawud and others) • The example of the good and evil companions is like a bearer of musk and a person blowing a pair of bellows. As for the musk bearer, he either gives you some, or you buy from him or at least you get a pleasant smell from him. As for the bellows blower he either gets your clothes burnt or you get an unpleasant smell from him.” (Bukhari and Muslim)
  20. 20. • No attachment to this material world Prophet (SAW) told Abdullah Ibn Omar,” Live in this world as a stranger or like a passer by.” • Love of Allah (SWT) supersedes all other forms of love • Finds genuine peace in recitation of Qurn • Remains busy in duas and zikr of Allah • Tastes true sweetness of Iman in Ibadah of Allah
  21. 21. • Its only concern is that all its thoughts and actions are in obedience to Allah • It utilizes all its time in zikr and Ibadah of Allah • It seeks company of those who guide him to the obedience of Allah • It makes effort before each action that its intention is pure for the sake of Allah • It spends more time in correction and perfection of actions than more actions • It remains aware of its shortcomings and finds humility in them
  22. 22. • When exposed to temptations, absorbs it like a sponge. It sins and leaves a dark spot on it. • It continues to sin on each temptation, till it is covered with dark stain and is corrupted. • This leads to two dangerous sicknesses; 1. Confuses good with evil. This may worsen to the extent that it may consider Sunnah as Bid'ah and vice versa 2. - Sets up its desires as its judge and guide. It is enslaved by its whims and fancies
  23. 23. Temptations by Satan and Nafs for material pleasures Desires (causes will to be corrupt) Fancy (causes belief and knowledge to be corrupt)
  24. 24. • Then as for whoever exceeded the limits and preferred the life of this world, surely his abode will be the fire; and as for whoever feared to stand before his Lord and restrained the desires of his Nafs, surely his abode will be the Garden. (79: 37- 40)
  25. 25. 3 states of the Nafs Nafs Mutma’inna Lawwama Ammarah
  26. 26. Zikr Istighfar Dua Salat on Nabi Tahajjad Zuhud Sabr Shukr Tawkkal Hubb Allah Rada Raja Khauf Taubah
  27. 27. • Zikr is to the heart what water is to the fish. (Ibn- Taimiyya.) • There are 80 benefits which come with Zikr. (Ibn Qayyam in his book- Al Wabil Al Sayyib.) • Zikr drives Shaytan away, suppresses him and breaks him • Zikr is pleasing to Allah (SWT) • Zikr dispels worries and melancholy from heart • Zikr adorns heart with delight and joy • Zikr fills heart and face with light • It instills love, fear and tawakkal on Allah.
  28. 28. • Jabir reported that the Prophet (SAW) said, “Whoever says ‘Glory be to Allah and His is the praise’ will have a palm tree planted for him in Jannah. • Ibn Masud said,”To praise Allah is more dear t me than spending the same number of dinars in the way of Allah. “ • A man once complained to Hasan about hardness of his heart. He told him to soften it with the Zikr of Allah.
  29. 29. • Subhanallah • Alhamdulillah • La Ilaha Illallah • Allaho Akbar • La Hola Wala Quwwata Illa Billahil Aliul Azeem • Recitation of Quran • Zikr with names of Allah
  30. 30. • Glorify your Lord and seek His Forgiveness: for He is Oft-Returning (in Mercy).110:3 • And those who pray for forgiveness in the early hours of the morning. (3:17) • And whoever does evil or wrongs his own soul but afterwards seeks Allah’s forgiveness, will find Allah is Forgiving, Compassionate. (4:110)
  31. 31. • Luqman once told his son,”O my son! Make it a habit for your tongue to say,’Forgive me, O Allah’ for there are certain times when Allah will not disappoint a servant who calls on him. • Al Hasan said,” Ask for Allah’s forgiveness frequently. You never know when you will be granted his forgiveness.” • Abu Huraira reported that the Prophet (SAW) said,” I swear by Allah that I supplicate for Allah’s forgiveness and turn to him in repentance more than 70 times a day.”
  32. 32. • Call on me, I shall answer you. (40:60) • Abu Huraira related that the Prophet (SAW) said,”Whoever does not supplicate to Allah, Allah invokes His wrath • A poet said: • Do not ask the son of Adam to fulfill need. • Ask Him whose gates are never concealed • Allah is wrathful when you do not ask Him • While the son of Adam is angered if you ask him
  33. 33. • Is not He(best) Who answers the one who has been wronged when he calls on Him, and removes the evil? (27:62) • And when my servants ask you about Me, I am indeed near (to them; l answer the prayer of every supplicant when he calls on Me. 2:186 • And your Lord has said,” Call on Me, I shall answer you. Surely those who are too arrogant to worship Me, will enter Hell in humiliation. 40:60
  34. 34. • Choose special times for dua: day of Arafa, month of Ramadan, Friday, after tahajjud • Prophet (SAW) said,” Dua made in time between azan and iqamah is not wasted.” • “A servant is nearest to his Lord when he is in prostration, so increase your dua when in prostration.” • “None of you should say, O’Allah forgive me if you wish’ but he should always be firm in asking Allah, for nobody can compel Allah to do something against His Will.”
  35. 35. • “If anyone invokes blessings on me once, Allah shall grant him ten blessings.” Muslim • “If I am mentioned in anyone’s presence then he should invoke blessings on me, Allah shall grant him ten blessings, wipe out ten of his sins and raise him up ten levels.” • “Miser is the one in whose presence I am mentioned and yet he does not invoke blessings on me.” • “Nearest to me on the Day of Akhirah shall be those who invoke blessings on me frequently.”
  36. 36. • Surely your Lord knows that you stand two thirds of the night, or a half of it or a third of it. 73:20 • And those who spend the night before their Lord, in prostration and standing. 25:64 • Prophet said, “The best Salah after obligatory one is Tahajjud.”
  37. 37. • Ibn Masud used to get up when other people were asleep and a continuous humming like the humming of bees could be heard coming from him until daybreak. • Al Hasan was once asked,” How is it that those who stay up at night have most attractive faces?” He replied,” Because they are on the intimate terms with the Merciful and he robes them with light.” • Al Hasan also said,”A man commits a sin and so he is deprived of staying up at night.” Qiyam at night is must for you since it is the way of righteous before you. It brings you closer to your Rabb. It brings forgiveness of your sins. It stops you from sins and removes ailments of your bodies.
  38. 38. • Honored amongst my Ummah are those who hold Quran and the people of night ,i.e., who stand in Salah at night. • Ibn Mubarak said,” When the night is completely dark, it finds them staying up in the night. Fear has chased away their sleep, while those who feel secure in this life quietly sleep on.” • Ibn Al Munkadir said,” Only three pleasures remain in this life: 1- Staying up at night 2- Meeting one’s brother 3- Obligatory prayer in Jama'ah
  39. 39. • Yes, you prefer the life of this world, but the next world is better and more lasting. 87:16-17 • You desire the attractions of this world but Allah desires the next world for you. 8:67 • And they are happy with the life of this world, but the life of this world is small comfort compared to the next world. 13:26
  40. 40. Ibn Maja
  41. 41. • Ibn Shaddad Al Fahri reported from the Prophet(SAW),” This world, compared to world hereafter is as if one of you were to put his finger in the ocean. Consider how much you would have when you pulled it out. “ • Sahl Ibn Sa’ad said that the Prophet (SAW) said, Had the world been worth even the wing of a gnat to Allah, He would not have given even a drink of water to a Kafir.”
  42. 42. • 1- Certitude- More certain in what is with Allah than what is in one’s hand • 2- Total trust in Allah-More desirous of reward in the hereafter than recovery of loss in this world. • 3- Seeks pleasure of Allah and says and does the right things. He is focused upon pleasing Allah only regardless of what the people think. Ibn Masud sid,”True faith is not trying to please others by doing things displeasing to Allah.”
  43. 43. • 1- is obligatory • 2- is praiseworthy like in fasting. • 3- is prudent • Ibn Mubarak said that someone calld him Zahid. He said, ‘ Real Zahid is Umar ibn Abdul Aziz. He rejected riches of this world that were placed on his feet.’
  44. 44. • 1- Withdraw from the life of this world. (Having no value for it in the heart).You may still have desire for it and you are drawn to it. • 2-Acquire detachment from this world to get rewards in hereafter. • 3- Willingly puts world to one side without a thought for it. This person has exchanged broken pottery for a jewel.
  45. 45. 7- Sabr or perseverance • And be patient, surely Allah is with those who are patient (8:46) • And we appointed leaders from among them who guided by our command, so long as they persevered and firmly believed in our signs. (32:24) • And if you persevere, that is indeed better for those who persevere. (16:126)
  46. 46. • Sabr means perseverance, patience. • It includes holding back, self restraint • In Sharia, it means keeping self from getting agitated, the tongue from complaining and hands from beating cheeks and tearing clothes as expression of grief. • Imam Junaid said,” It is swallowing something bitter without displaying distaste on face.
  47. 47. • Dhun-Nun al Misri defined it: Distancing from all transgressions Remaining calm in afflictions Appearing to have enough in face of poverty • It is also defined as : Remaining firm and courteous in face of afflictions Remaining content in afflictions without complaints
  48. 48. 1- Complaining to Allah which is OK. I only reveal my distress and sorrow to Allah(12:86) Prophet (SAW) said,” O Allah! I complain to you about the weakness of my strength and the lack of my ability.” Majma Al Zawaid 2- Complaining by objecting to the nature and character of affliction and to the people. This is not consistent with Sabr.
  49. 49. • 1- Before act of obedience- by being sincere • 2- During an act of obedience- by completing it without omissions, negligence and without distraction by any thing • 3- After completing the act of obedience by avoiding anything which may wipe out its reward. He should not be boasting about it and avoid Riya or show off.
  50. 50. • Umm Salama (RA) reported that Prophet (SAW) said,” There is no Muslim when afflicted with a misfortune says,’Surely to Allah we belong and surely to Him we are returning. O’Allah reward me in misfortune and give me better than it afterwards.’ except that Allah grants him better. “ • “Allah says,’I have nothing but the Jannah as a reward for my servant who when I take back one of the most excellent people of this world, remains patient and hopes for reward from Allah” (Muslim, Kitabur Riqaq)
  51. 51. • “A believer continues to be afflicted with hardships in his body, wealth, children until he meets Allah completely free of all sins.” Tirmidhi-Kitab Az Zuhd • Said Ibn Jubair said,” Sabr is the servant’s acceptance of afflictions that Allah caused him to befall him, his recognition that Allah has noted it and his hope that Allah shall reward him for it.
  52. 52. • Shukr is thanking Allah (SWT) who grants blessings out of His generosity. • It must have three qualities: 1. Inner recognition and appreciation of the blessing- from the heart 2. Speaking about it openly- by tongue 3. Using it as a means to worshipping Him- use limbs to obey Him and holding back from disobedience
  53. 53. • What has Allah to do with punishing you, if you are grateful and you believe. (4:147) • And thus We test some of them by means of others, so that they say,” Are these the ones whom Allah has favored from amongst us? Is not Allah aware of those who give thanks? 6:53 • We have shown him the way, whether he is grateful or ungrateful (76:3) • And when your Lord proclaimed: "If you are thankful, I shall give you more, but if you are ungrateful, then surely My punishment is terrible indeed. (14:7)
  54. 54. • “ Then will I approach them from in front of them and from behind them, and from their right and from their left; and You will find that most of them are not grateful.” 7:17 • And only a few of My servants are grateful. 34:13
  55. 55. • Prophet (SAW) used to stay up in salah at night and his feet used to get swollen. He was asked why do you do this when Allah has forgiven all your sins. He replied,”Should I not still be a grateful servant.” • Prophet (SAW) once told Muadh,” By Allah! You are dear to me. So do not forget to say at the end of each salah, ‘O Allah! Help me in remembering you in being grateful to you and in serving you well.”
  56. 56. • Umar Ibn Abdul Aziz said,” Join Allah’s generosity towards you to your gratitude to Him.” • Ali (RA) said to a man,”Allah’s generosity is connected to gratitude.” • Al Hasan said,” Speak about His generosity frequently as the speaking about it is gratitude.” • When Abu Mughirah was asked how he was he replied,”We are immersed in the Lord’s generosity and incapable of sufficiently grateful.”
  57. 57. • And for whoever relies on Allah, then He is enough for him. (65: 2-3) • Umar (RA) said that the Prophet (SAW) said,”If you had relied on Allah, He would have certainly provided for you as He provides for the birds, who wake up hungry in the morning and return with full stomachs at dusk.” Tirmidhi
  58. 58. • Sa’id Ibn Jubair said,”Reliance on Allah is an essential part of faith.” • Sahl said,” Whoever questions actions (striving to ear living) questions very validity of Sunnah and whoever questions reliance on Allah, questions faith itself.” • Yusuf Ibn Asbat said,” Do what you do like a man who can be saved by his actions and rely upon Allah like a man who can only be afflicted by the afflictions that have already been decreed for him.”
  59. 59. • And from mankind there are some who take for themselves rivals to Allah, loving them as they should love Allah. And those who believe are stronger in their love for Allah (2:165) • O you who believe, whoever of you becomes a rebel against his Deen, Allah shall bring a people whom He loves and who love Him, humble towards the believers, harsh towards the Kafirs, fighting in the way of Allah and not fearing the blame of anyone who blames. (5:54)
  60. 60. Tirmidhi
  61. 61. • Fath al Mawsili said, ” One who loves Allah, finds no other pleasure in life and does not neglect remembering Allah for an instant.” • “One who loves Allah is always with Him; he remembers Him continually and constantly with longing using every possible means and nawafil to please Him. “
  62. 62. • One may experience one of two states in face of afflictions: 1. Patience- It is a duty which a believer must have. 2. Contentment-  It is a praiseworthy quality  At some time, people of contentment witness the Devine Wisdom and Beauty behind the afflictions or tests.  At other time, they witness the Majesty and Perfection of Allah and they have no pain rather they find pleasure in the face of affliction  This station is achieved by those who have knowledge and love for Allah
  63. 63. • Restraining self • No resentment in suffering in the trial • Hoping test will end • Restraining limbs from behaving badly in trials • Feel ease in accepting Qada • Removes any feeling of suffering rather it brings joy • Not concerned with end of trial • Heart is immersed in the spirit of certitude and love and so submission to Allah is always there.
  64. 64. • No misfortune happens without the permission of Allah- and as for whoever believes in Allah, He guides his heart and Allah knows all things. (64:11) • Whoever acts righteously, whether male or female and he is a believer, We shall surely give him life a good life and We shall surely give them their reward in accordance with the best of what they used to do. (16:97) Al Aswar said,” A good life means being satisfied and content. “
  65. 65. • Anas Ibn Malik (RA) reported that the Prophet (SAW) said,” When Allah loves someone, he tests him. As for whoever is content- Allah shall be pleased with him. Whoever is discontented, Allah shall be displeased with him.” (Tirmidhi) • Ibn Masud (RA) said,”Allah in His justice and Wisdom placed joy in certainty and contentment and He has placed sadness and sorrow in doubt and discontentment.
  66. 66. • Abu Darda(RA) visited a man on his death bed. He found him praising Allah. He said to him ”You are right. Allah likes us to be content with whatever he decrees.” • Al Hasan Al Basari said,” Whoever is content with what he has, Allah shall make enough for him and give blessings and whoever is not content, Allah shall neither make it enough for him nor give him blessings.
  67. 67. • Umar ibn Abdul Aziz said,” I have nothing that gives me any joy, except when what has been decreed by Allah happens.” • He was once asked what do you desire? He replied, ”Whatever Allah decrees.” • Abdul Wahid Ibn Zaid said,” Being content is the greatest door to Allah.” • There is no station in the Akhirah better than that of those who are content with decree of Allah.
  68. 68. • Hope applies to waiting with longing and yearning for some positive things to happen after all the means at one’s disposal have been utilized. • If a servant sows the seed of belief, waters them with obedience and worship of Allah, purifies his heart from rust and then waits for the blessings of Allah, then he is truly hoping for the best.
  69. 69. • Surely those who believe and those who migrate and struggle in the way of Allah, they are the ones who have hope of the Mercy of Allah and Allah is Forgiving,Compassionate.2:218 • Say,” O’ My servants who have wronged their souls, do not despair of the Mercy of Allah, for surely Allah forgives all sins; surely He is forgiving, compassionate. (39:53) • And surely your Lord is full of forgiveness for mankind for their wrongdoing (13:6)
  70. 70. • Abu Huraira (RA) said that the Prophet (SAW) said, “Whoever is afraid of being plundered by the enemy, set out in the early part of the night, and whoever set out early, reaches his goal. Be on your guard. Treasures of Allah are dear and precious. Wake up! The treasures of Allah is the Jannah. “ Tirmidhi • Prophet (SAW) said,”When Allah created His creation, He decreed something for Himself that,’Truly my Mercy prevails over My wrath.”
  71. 71. 1-He must hold dear what he hopes for 2-He must be afraid of missing it. So he makes haste in efforts fearing he may miss it. 3- He must strive to achieve what he hopes for • If hope is not connected to these conditions, then it is just a wishful thinking.
  72. 72. • Worst kind of delusion are: Sin excessively and then hope for forgiveness Expect to draw near to Allah without worshiping Him or obeying Him. Hope for the fruits of the Garden after having only planted the seeds for the Fire Seeking abode of the obedient through committing sins Expecting rewards after having done nothing worthwhile Placing hope in Allah after having exceeded all limits.
  73. 73. • The literal definition: Ibn Manzoor and Imam Qurtubi (ra) has stated that the Arabic word KHAUF means fear in its intransitive form. In its transitive form it means to frighten (Lissanul Arab,2:1292) • The legal definition of Fear: • Islamic meaning of Khauf is fear of Allah, His Presence and accountability before him. • When humans fear the creation they run away from that which they fear • In contrast, when man fears his Creator he seeks refuge in Him and begins to obey Him. • So run (escape) towards Him (Zariyat,51:50) • Ibn Abbas (ra) ‘ Run towards Him by repentance; escape to Him and obey Him.’ Has not the time arrived for the Believers that their hearts in all humility should engage in the remembrance of Allah and of the truth which has been revealed (to them) and that they should not become like those to whom was given Revelation aforetime but long ages passed over them and their hearts grew hard? For many among them are rebellious transgressors. (Hadeed,57:16)
  74. 74. • Fear of Allah comprises fear of Hell, crying through apprehension of Allah’s Presence and remorse for not fulfilling all the duties towards Him. • This is positive quality and creates a positive reaction • It leads towards loving Allah and abstaining from evil • This attribute of fearing Allah is one of perfection just as loving Allah is an act of perfection, i.e. it illustrates the might and perfection of Allah. • It is unlike fear of the creation where being frightened is considered (and is) a sign of imperfection and weakness.
  75. 75. • Abu Qasim (ra) used to say: ‘Whoever fears something runs away from it, and whoever fears Allah runs to Him.’(Ihyaul Uloom) • Abu Hafs (ra) said: ‘Khauf is the whip of Allah that disciplines those who desert Him. Khauf is a lamp in the heart: a person can see by its light what is good and what is evil. (Madarij Salaikeen) • Ibn Qayyim (ra) said: ‘Escaping means to run away from something to something. There are two kinds of escape: 1. The unfortunate ran away from Allah, not to Him. 2. The fortunate ran to Him. (Madarij Slikeen)
  76. 76. • Khauf is general, could be from Allah and could be from anything else • If you fear the snake to bite you and poison you that is a natural fear which is not from the shirk. • When you fear someone the way you fear your Lord, then this is a way of worship, which is SHIRK. • Khashya is specific for Allah which settles in the heart that no harm can come to you except by Allah’s (Will). It motivates you to do something to save from wrath of Allah.
  77. 77. • Taqwa is Khauf+Khashyah and more as love, hope etc. • This is the Book; in it is guidance without doubt to those who fear Allah. Who believe in the Unseen are steadfast in prayer and spend out of what We have provided for them. (2:2,3) • “Muttaqeen are those who fear Allah’s Punishment, if they abandoned the true guidance & hope in Allah’s Mercy by believing in what He revealed.” (Ibn Abbas) • “The servant will not acquire the status of the Muttaqeen until he abandons what is harmless out of fear of falling into that which is harmful.” (Tirmizi)
  78. 78. • 1. General Repentance: • Individual acknowledges all his past sins, mistakes & shortcomings and repents. • He leaves these transgressions all together, • Feels ashamed of disobeying his Lord and • Makes a solemn determination of not committing them ever again.
  79. 79. • He takes account of his life in details. • If he missed any Salah, fasts, Zakah or hajj he remakes them. • If he has loans, material or money he was not legally entitled to receive, he repays them. Or acknowledges his mistake and ask forgiveness from the concerned authority. • If he had hurt others by his speech or actions he asks their forgiveness. • It requires having the resolve to bear all the difficulties (physical or financial) or worldly loss or public disregard that may come in doing so. If he does not have this determination it is evident that he is not looking for Allah’s pleasure. Hence, he is not a genuine Seeker.
  80. 80. but do good; for Allah loves those who do good. (2:195) Is there any Reward for Good other than Good? (55:60) again guard themselves from evil and do good. For Allah loves those who do good.(5:93)
  81. 81. • Ihsan also ehsan or ahsan is an Arabic term meaning "perfection" or "excellence," which is related to the word "goodness" (Arabic. husn). • In Islam, Ihsan is the Muslim responsibility to obtain perfection, or excellence in worship, such that Muslims try to worship Allah as if they see Him (as if they are in His presence), and although they cannot see Him • Ihsan, also meaning "to do beautiful and righteous things," is one of the three dimensions of the Islamic religion (Arabic. ad-din): Islam, Iman and Ihsan.
  82. 82. • Some Islamic scholars explain Ihsan as being the inner dimension of Islam whereas Shariah is often described as the outer dimension. • Ihsan then means striving to reach the best standards of performance in excellence, graciousness and benevolence • While ‘Adl (fairness and justice) requires satisfactory performance of one’s obligations to others and fulfilling the rights of others on oneself, Ihsan suggests doing more than that which a person is obligated to do.
  83. 83. 1.Sincerity (Ikhlas) 3.Tastefulness (do in a nice manner) 2-Completeness3- Correctness (Do in the right way)
  84. 84. He (Gabriel) asked,” Tell me about Ihsan?” Prophet (SAW) said,” (Ihsan is) that you worship Allah (SWT) as if you see him. If you are not able to (reach that level of Certitude to) see Him, then know indeed He is seeing you.” This describes two levels of obedience and worship of Allah: 1- Ihsan- To worship and obey Allah (SWT) as if we see Him and are doing right in front of Him. Such acts of worship will be done with utmost attention, finesse, beauty. This level of Ibadah is done by those at the highest level of piety 2- If one is not able to achieve Ihsan, then at least one must worship with the realization that Allah is watching him.
  85. 85. To Allah To People In Social obligations Excellence in servitude to Allah so that a person performs his servitude to Allah as if Allah is right in front of him keenly observing his Benevolence to people and graciousness in dealings including • Generosity • Patience • Showing love • Forgiveness • Best behaviorin face of negative response 1. Fearing Allah both secretly and openly; 2. Saying only the words of justice 3. Maintaining moderation 4. Making up with one who breaks away from me; 5. Giving to the person who deprives me; 6. Forgiving who is unjust 7. Reflecting when I am quiet; 8. Remembering Allah when I speak 9. Learning lessons from what I see, 10. Enjoining good, forbidding evil.”
  86. 86. • Tasawwuf, like many other Islamic disciplines, its name was not known to the first generation of Muslims. • It is a branch of the sciences of Sacred Law that originated within the Ummah • It basically consists of Dedication to worship of Allah Most High Disregard for the finery and ornament of the world, Abstinence from the pleasure, wealth, and prestige sought by most men, and Retiring from others to worship alone
  87. 87. • When involvement in this-world became widespread from the second Islamic century onwards, those devoted to worship came to be called Sufiyya or People of Tasawwuf. (Ibn Khaldun, al-Muqaddima) • Word did not exist in earliest times like many other Islamic disciplines :  Tafsir, ‘Quranic exegesis,’ ‘Ilm al-jarh wa ta‘dil, ‘the science of the positive and negative factors that affect hadith narrators acceptability,’ ‘Ilm al-aqaid, the science of belief in Islamic tenets of faith,
  88. 88. • “Suf" meaning wool. The earlier ascetics often wore it to reject excessive materialism • Safa, meaning purification. • Safwe, which means those who are selected. • Suffa, meaning a bench or low veranda. Ashaab us-Suffa were Prophet’s companions who spent their lives in devotion in his mosque. • Saff, meaning rank, line, or row. The first row in Salah is accorded a special status for it symbolizes those who are in the first rank of spirituality.
  89. 89. Tasawwuf is an Islamic discipline through which are learned: 1- Matters related to purification of self 2- Beautification of morals 3- Construction of inner and outer matters (spiritual) In order to 1- Achieve eternal success ( in the Akhirah0 2- Achieve correction of Nafs or self 3- Attain recognition of and pleasure of our Lord, Allah (SWT) Its subjects are: 1- Tazkiyah 2- Beautification of Nafs 3- Construction of inner states of nafs Its ultimate objective is to achieve eternal bliss
  90. 90. • Allah Most High says: “He who is hostile to a Wali (friend) of Mine I declare war against. • My slave approaches Me with nothing more beloved to Me than what I have made obligatory upon him, and My slave keeps drawing nearer to Me with voluntary works until I love him. • And when I love him, I am his hearing with which he hears, his sight with which he sees, his hand with which he seizes, and his foot with which he walks. • If he asks me, I will surely give to him, and if he seeks refuge in Me, I will surely protect him” (Fath al-Bari, 11.340–41, hadith 6502);
  91. 91. • Muslim is to eliminate haram inner states as arrogance, envy, and fear of anyone besides Allah; • He is to acquire such obligatory inner states as mercy, love of one’s fellow Muslims, presence of mind in prayer, and love of the Prophet (SAW) • These inward states could not be dealt with in books of Fiqh, whose purpose is to specify the outward, quantifiable aspects of the Shari‘a • Tasawwuf, as an ancillary discipline to ‘Aqida, emphasizes the systematic increase of this certainty through both mudhakara, ‘teaching tenets of faith’ and dhikr, ‘the remembrance of Allah,’ in accordance with the words of the Prophet (SAW) about Ihsan that “it is worship Allah as though you see Him
  92. 92. • 1-Accept its constituents separately, but deny it if it is referred to as a whole under the title Tasawwuf. • 2-Acceptable if proposed under a different name. Tazkiyah- as mentioned in Quran Ihsan- named in Hadith Fiqh al-batin (spiritual jurisprudence)- by jurists They would then reply that there is no contradiction and that all of these are declarations of Allah and His Messenger
  93. 93. • Their characters were a reflection of the character of the Messenger of Allah (SAW). • Their lives, actions and dealings were weighed and molded according to the Shariah. • They laid stress on realities by staying away from and disregarding technical terms. • They did not attach any importance to customs • They were staunch opponents and denouncers of innovations. • Imam Malik (RA) put it well when he said: "He who learns jurisprudence and neglects Tasawwuf becomes a reprobate; and he who learns Tasawwuf and neglects jurisprudence becomes an apostate. But he who combines both will reach the Truth".
  94. 94. • Futuh al-Ghayb and Ghunyat at-Talibin -Shaykh Abd al-Qadir al-Jilani (RA) • ‘Awarif al-Ma‘arif- Shaykh Shihab ad-Deen as- Suharwardi (RA) • Maktubat Imam Rabbani of Mujaddid al-Alf ath- Thani (RA) • Works of Shah Wali-Allah Dehlwi (RA) • Sirat Mustaqim of Sayyid Ahmad al-Shahid (RA), • The letters written by Rashid Ahmed Gangohi (RA) • Tarbiyat al-Salik and Qasd al-Sabil of Ashraf Ali Thanwi (RA)
  95. 95. • Repentance (taubah) • Sincerity (ikhlas) • Slavehood (abdeyat) • Love of Allah swt (muhabbat) • Awe (khashoo) • Fear (khauf) • Hopefulness (raja’) • Humility (tawaduh) • Thankfulness (shukur) • Patience (saber) • Reliance (tawakul) • Dependence (tafweedh) • Acceptance (radha) • Abstinence (zuhud) , etc. •
  96. 96. • Love of the worldly (hubb e dunyah) • Love of fame (hubb e jah) • Arrogance (kibr) • Showing off (riya) • Backbiting (ghibah) • Being stingy (bukhl) • Being spend-thrift (israf) • Greed (hirs) • Calamities of Tongue: Lying (kazb), o carrying tales (namemah) o humiliating others o talking harshly & rudely, o talking unnecessarilry. • Anger (gazab) • Envy and Hatred (hasad wa bughz wa kena)
  97. 97. • Tasawwuf of the Qur'an and hadith, was practiced by the pious predecessors of Islam and their true followers. • Pseudo-Tasawwuf, is a mixture of Islam and other religious and spiritual systems of the world • It not only reforms the exoteric self, but it lays greater stress on purifying the esoteric self, which encompasses spiritual dimensions unseen by the physical eye. (Abd al-Bāri Nadwi, Tajdid-e suluk-o tasawwuf)
  98. 98. • Both terms interestingly enough, are of latter-day origin. (Early Islam used only Islam or Din which encompassed every aspect of man's self.) • Shariah and Tariqah have exactly the same meaning- the way • In early Islam, the two streams, of Sufis and the jurists (Fuqaha) never flowed separately • Hasan Basri, the doyen of Sufis, is a major pillar of Fiqh and tafsir • Ja'fer Sadiq, Abu Hanifa, Malik, Shafi'i and Ahmad - the founders of the main schools of Muslim jurisprudence - find pride of place in Fariduddin 'Attar's classical Tadhkira-al-Awliya (The Book of Saints).
  99. 99. • ‘Who in their prayers are humble' (al-Muminun 23: Prayer is what one is likely to categorize as the Shariah, humility as the Tariqah • Those who believe, love God most' (2: 165), love is likely to be taken to belong to Tariqah • 'Say: If you love God, follow me'. • Thus prayer and humility, love and obedience are inseparable, two sides of the same coin.
  100. 100. • Becoming aware of future or hidden affairs (kashf- e- kuni) • Performance of supernatural phenomenon (karamat) • Being in Tasawwuf is no guarantee for salvation. (one has to strife and follow Shariah for it • Success in wordily affairs or increase in one’s income or cure from some illness or foretelling of future events is not promised • Neither does it entail that by sheikh’s spiritual powers (tasarrufat) mureed’s condition will improve itself, without his determination to strife for good works and abstain from sins. [common error].
  101. 101. • Nor does it assure that his intelligence & memory may increase for hifz of Quran or religious knowledge. • Nor is there a time limit that such a spiritual state is reached that one finds pleasure in worship, does not get disturbing thoughts, cries a lot (either from love or fear of Allah swt), or reaches a state where he in unaware of everything else except Allah swt. [This is the most common error]. • It is not necessary that one sees lights (anwar) etc. or hears voices during dhikr or shughal (special remember ace techniques) • Nor seeing good and spiritual dreams is necessary.
  102. 102. • Shariah commands that every Muslim must pray five times daily on time, according to Sunnah • A Muslim, who has not rectified internal moral states may fall into following traps; Skip the prayer due to love of dunya Prays to show off (riya) with lack of sincerity (ikhlas) Prays hastily due to occupation in worldly affairs Prays with absence of Khushoo or awe Prays with lack of humility and shows kibr Prays and feels superior to others. This is Ujub
  103. 103. On seeing someone better, he may be jealous (Hasad) Not thinking that Allah is watching him. This is absence of slave hood (Ihsan & Uboodiyyah) After praying he may boast to others or feel superior to them. This is a arrogance (Kibr) May feel dejected by the poor concentration during Salah. This is disappointment (Yaas) • These internal moral states are the very soul of physical form of worship to be accepted and rewarded
  104. 104. • Imam Abu Hanifa (85 H. - 150 H) • "If it were not for two years, I would have perished." He said, "for two years I accompanied Sayyidina Ja'far as- Sadiq and I acquired the spiritual knowledge that made me a gnostic in the Way." • [Ad-Durr al-Mukhtar, vol 1. p. 43] • Imam Malik (95 H. - 179 H.) • "whoever studies Jurisprudence [tafaqaha] and didn't study Sufism [tasawwaf] will be corrupted; and whoever studied Sufism and didn't study Jurisprudence will become a heretic; and whoever combined both will reach the Truth." • ['Ali al-Adawi , vol. 2, p 195.]
  105. 105. • Imam Shafi'i (150 - 205 AH.) • "I accompanied the Sufi people and I received from them three knowledge: ...how to speak; how to treat people with leniency and a soft heart... and they... guided me in the ways of Sufism." [Kashf al-Khafa, 'Ajluni, vol. 1, p 341.] • Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal (164 - 241 AH.) • "O my son, you have to sit with the People of Sufism, because they are like a fountain of knowledge and they keep the Remembrance of Allah in their hearts. they are the ascetics and they have the most spiritual power." [Tanwir al-Qulub p. 405]
  106. 106. • Imam Ghazali (450 - 505 AH.) • "I knew verily that Sufis are the seekers in Allah's Way, and their conduct is the best conduct, and their way is the best way, and their manners are the most sanctified. They have cleaned their hearts from other than Allah and they have made them as pathways for rivers to run receiving knowledge of the Divine Presence." • [al-Munqidh, p. 131].
  107. 107. • Fakhr ad-Din ar-Razi (544 - 606 AH) • "The way of Sufis for seeking Knowledge, is to disconnect themselves from this worldly life, and they keep themselves constantly busy with Dhikrullah, in all their actions and behaviors." • ['Itiqadaat Furaq al-Muslimeen, p. 72, 73] • Imam Nawawi (620 - 676 AH.) • "The specifications of the Way of the Sufis are ... to keep the Presence of Allah in your heart in public and in private; to follow the Sunnah of the Prophet (s) ... to be happy with what Allah gave you..." • [in his Letters, (Maqasid at-tawhid), p. 20]
  108. 108. Tasawwuf is not one particular defined thing: • Practised by Sufis like Fudayl bin ‘Ayyad, Ibrahim Adham, Ma’ruf Karkhi • Conception and ideas, its rites and practices, derived from the Qur’an and the Sunnah • Its object and ideal for life set by Islam, viz., devotion to and contemplation of Allah • And they have been commanded no more than this: to worship Allah, offering Him sincere devotion, being true (in faith); to establish regular prayer; and to practice regular charity; and that is the Religion Right and Straight.” (98:5) • We support it and propagate it
  109. 109. • Greek and Stoic, Zoroastrian and Vedantic philosophies are mixed up here • Incorporated monastic and yogic practices and customs and polytheistic ideas • Recognizes the Shariah, Tariqah, and Marifah as independent and more often contradictory aspects of life, • It aims at training man for other purposes than training him for his duties as Allah’s vicegerent on the earth. • This is the Tasawwuf we reject and condemn. • It is as essential to eradicate it as the other evils of the present day for the establishment of Allah’s Religion.
  110. 110. • Initiated and propounded by some very righteous and pious men who were scholarly and noble minded • Practices and customs could not remain wholly free from alien influence and the effects of un-Islamic mysticism. • Ends of this Tasawwuf are more or less different from those desired and cherished by Islam • It doe not aim at preparing man for his duties of Allah’s vicegerency and making him a “witness unto mankind • It can’t produce such men as may have a comprehensive view of Religion, and may also be qualified to establish it. • We neither approve of it nor wholly reject it. • We seek critical appraisal of it, in the light of the Qur’an and the Sunnah, and try to reform it.