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Relationship between


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This slide program explains the nature of relations between Muslims and Non Muslims in the light of Quran, Sunnah and the writings of Islamic scholars of the past and present. It promotes peaceful mutual relations and building bridges between faith communities based on commonalities.

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Relationship between

  1. 1. • Peace, tolerance, compassion, and good relationships are the normal, and original state between Muslims and Non-Muslims. • Islam promotes and protects this good relationship. • Animosity and war are exceptions to this original state, • When these exceptions do not exist, then we should return to the original peaceful state
  2. 2. Allah is One and is impartial toward His creation. • He provides for all, including those who reject faith in Him, or even those who defy Him. • He cares for the well being of all and gives them ample opportunity to repent to Him and end the state of separateness suffered by those who reject Him or are unmindful of Him.
  3. 3. • That core message is peace in submission to Allah; literally Islam. • According to the Qur’an, a Muslim must accept, revere and believe in all the prophets of Allah, without discrimination. • They all represent one brotherhood of faith extending vertically to include many generations and horizontally to embrace all humanity. • In the Qur’an we read: “ …we *Muslims+ make no distinction between any of His messengers *i.e. God’s messengers+” 2:285
  4. 4. • The Qur’an gives various reasons why each human being must be honored • Human beings are dignified on account being human irrespective of his or her chosen beliefs. • Such honor is symbolized by the way the Qur’an describes Allah’s creation of the human in the best of molds. (95:4) • Allah commanded the angels to bow down in respect to Adam (2:43) • The Qur’an describes the human as the trustee of Allah on earth (2:30)
  5. 5. • The Arabic term for justice is “Adl” means “to be in a state of equilibrium, to be balanced.” • That balance is inherent in the cosmic order and ecology as much as it is inherent in spiritual and ethical values. The Qur’an warns against disturbing that balance.(55:5-9) • Justice is a universal concept that should be observed without nepotism, even with the “enemy”: • “O you who believe! Stand out for justice, as witnesses to Allah, and even as against yourselves, or your parents, or your kin, and whether it be [against] rich or poor…” 4:134
  6. 6. • Addressing the entire human race, the Qur’an states: “ O humankind! We [Allah] have created you from a single [pair] of a male and a female and have made you into nations and tribes, so that you may come to know one another. Verily, the most honored of you in the sight of Allah is the most righteous [or Allah-conscious] of you. Surely, Allah is all-knowing, all-aware” 49:13. • It must be noted that this verse begins with “O humankind”, an address that embraces all. • It reminds humanity that they belong to one family, with the same set of parents
  7. 7. • While the notion of plurality is not new to those who are familiar with the Qur’an. • The Qur’an reminds all that if God willed, he would have made of all mankind one nation • If Allah had so willed He would have made you a single people but (His plan is) to test you in what He hath given you:[5:48) If thy Lord had so willed He could have made mankind one People .(11:118].
  8. 8. • Likewise, the Qur’an states that had it been God’s will, He would have made all believer • If it had been the Lord's Will they would all have believed all who are on earth! Wilt thou then compel mankind against their will to believe! [10:99]. • Acceptance of plurality does not mean accepting the plurality of ultimate truths, nor does it preclude sharing one’s faith with others and even inviting them to it. • Plurality means peaceful co-existence with those who hold differing beliefs and convictions
  9. 9. • In numerous verses in the Qur’an compulsion in religion is forbidden • There shall be no coercion in matters of faith.2:256, • • “And so *O Prophet+, exhort them; your task is only to exhort. You cannot compel them [to believe]. As for one who turns away, being bent on denying the truth, him/her will God cause the greatest suffering [in the life to come]. For verily, unto Us will be their return, and verily, it is for Us to call them to account.” 88:21-26,
  10. 10. • “Had your Lord so willed, all those who live on earth would surely have attained faith, will you then compel people, against their will, to believe?” *10:99+. • “But if they turn away *from accepting Allah’s message, then know that] We have not sent you to be their keeper. Your duty is only to convey *the message+” 42:48
  11. 11. • The essence of Islam and its prophet’s mission is summed up in the following verse: • “And *thus, O Muhammad+, We have not sent you, but as mercy to all the worlds” 21:107. • To remove any particularization of this mercy, the Prophet Muhammad [P] explained that mercy is not being merciful to one’s companion but merciful to all. • He also explained “He who is not merciful to others, will not be treated mercifully
  12. 12. • The basic rule governing the relationship between Muslims and non-Muslims is that of peaceful coexistence, justice and compassion. (60:8) • Birr means more than kindness, since it includes also love and respect • Other scholars argue that the Qur’anic term “Qist” means going beyond justice by giving more than what is due to others. (ibn Al Arabi, Qurtubi)
  13. 13. • The Qur’an accords the People of the Book *Jews and Christians] a special position. • The very term to designate them distinguishes them from others such as idolatrous Arabs • Those who reject (Truth) among the People of the Book and among the Polytheists were not going to depart (from their ways) until there should come to them Clear Evidence[98:1]. • It is a complimentary title as it acknowledges that, like Muslims, their faiths are based on revealed books or scriptures. • The Qur’an exhorts Muslims to engage in peaceful dialogue with Jews and Christians:
  14. 14. “ Say [O Muslims], O People of the Book! Come to a common term which we and you hold in common: that we shall worship none but Allah, and that we shall not ascribe divinity to none beside Him, and that we shall not take human beings for our lord beside Allah, and if they turn away, then say: bear witness that we submit ourselves unto Him” 3:64.
  15. 15. • Asma bint Abu Bakr said,”I asked Prophet,“My mother (Qateelah) who is ill-disposed to Islam, has come to visit me. She wants something from me. Shall I maintain relations with her?” He (SAW) replied, “Yes, maintain relations with your mother.” (Bukhari, Muslim, Ahmad) • “The most correct opinion in understanding the verse (60:8) is that Muslims should be just, fair, and have the best relationship with all Non-Muslims who ‘do not fight against them on account of their religion and do not drive them out of our homes.” (Imam Tabari in Tafsir Tabari)
  16. 16. • In this ayah (60:8), Allah (SWT) has directed to treat justly the non Muslims who are not at war with Muslims. (Tafsir Qurtubi) • Imam Razi(Tafsir Kabir)- Commentators have said that this ayah (60:8) is evidence that there ought to be good relations between Muslims and non Muslims.
  17. 17. • Justice demands that you should not be hostile to those who are not hostile to you • It is not justice to treat the enemy and the non-enemy alike. • You have every right to adopt a stern attitude towards those who persecuted you for embracing Islam and compelled you to leave your homes and pursued you even after your expulsion. • But as for those who were not partners in persecuting you, you should treat them well and should fulfill the right they have on you because of blood and other relationships. (Tafhimul Quran, tafsir Surah Mumtahina)
  18. 18. • Islam is a Deen of peace and a conviction of love. • It is a system that has compassion to all people. • It gathers all people (Muslim and Non-Muslim) under the banner of Allah like brethren in accord and love. • There is no obstacle that prevents this from happening except an aggression from its enemies against it and its people. • If those enemies show peace, Islam does not want animosity or to start it. • Even when the enemies still show animosity, Islam always looks for ways to bring the relationship to normalcy through great conduct and justice • (In the Shade of Al-Qur’an, 6:3544)
  19. 19. • To convey the message of Islam to all people, to deliver it freely, to ensure the freedom of religious beliefs, and to establish justice on earth within the system of Islam • "Thus We have made you (Muslims), a just (and the best) nation, that you be witnesses over mankind, and the Messenger (Muhammad) be a witness over you…”( 2:143) • You (Muslims) are the best of peoples ever raised up for mankind, you enjoining what is good (AlMa'roof) and forbidding what is evil (AlMunkar), and you believe in Allah…”(2:110)
  20. 20. • 1- At peace with Muslims- We must treat them with tolerance, patience, kindness and fairness for Allah loves those who are fair • 2- At war with Muslims-those who fight Muslims for the sake of religion and drive them out of their homelands ,then Allah forbids them from taking them as allies. • 3- Non Muslims in Islamic State- Non Muslims are obliged to abide by the laws of the land. They are to be treated with kindness, respect, fairness and their worship places are protected.
  21. 21. • Greeting and exchanging visits with them in their homes and places of worship. Also, welcoming them in our homes and our mosques. • Accepting their invitation, offering them a meal. • Offering congratulations in happy occasions like weddings, having a newborn, and etc… • Exchanging gifts with them, but not giving them gifts during their holidays.
  22. 22. • If a non-Muslim sneezes and says, “Allah be praised” Then we should say, “May Allah guide you and keep you in a good condition.” • Visiting their sick people, and asking Allah (S.W.T.) for their recovery and their guidance. • Offering condolences when they are struck by any disaster, tragedy, or death. But, do not ask for Allah’s mercy on their death. • Collaborating with them in all good things.
  23. 23. • We must be firm upon our beliefs and express differences with clarity and mutual respect • We must not give them support against a Muslim when that is done unjustly. • We must not imitate them in their rituals, or in what is considered specifically from their own symbols • We must not greet them on their rituals with any statements that may give acceptance to their practices. Other statements are permissible. • We must not attend any event where there is blasphemy against Allah (S.W.T.) and His verses
  24. 24. • Auliya is pleural of “wali”. • Word “Wali” is used for closeness. • This closeness could be for the place, relationship, religion, friendship, help and creed. If there is closeness of any type with a person, then he is called wali or maula. • Imam Qurtubi said,” Auliya are those who are very close and share secrets.”
  25. 25. • There was a state of war between Muslims/non Muslims. • Polytheists were determined to annihilate Muslims • A groups of Jews and Christians were openly supporting polytheist enemies against Muslims • Group of hypocrites was also supporting the enemies of Muslims • Under these circumstances, it was obviously very detrimental for Muslims to keep close alliance with these three groups of enemies. • Quran, therefore, prohibited relation of wilayah with these groups
  26. 26. • "Let not the believers take for friends or helpers unbelievers (Kuffar) rather than believers; if any do that in nothing will there be help from Allah; except by way of precaution that ye may guard yourselves from them. But God cautions you (to remember) Himself for the final goal is to Allah." (Qur’an; 3:28)
  27. 27. • O believers! Take neither Jews nor Christians as your protecting friends (auliya): they are only protecting friends of one another. Whoever of you disobeys this commandment will be counted as one of them. Surely God does not guide the wrongdoers." (Qur’an; 5:51)
  28. 28. . • They but wish that ye should reject faith as they do and thus be on the same footing (as they): but take not friends from their ranks- (Nisa,4:89) • Quran stresses that if your father, brothers prefer polytheism over Islam, you should not make them your Wali. • O ye who believe! take not for protectors your fathers and your brothers if they love infidelity above faith: if any of you do so they do wrong. (Tauba, 9:23)
  29. 29. "O believers! Do not make your protecting friends those, from among the people given the Book before you and the unbelievers, who have made your religion a mockery or pastime, fear God if you are true believers. (5:57) When you call for Salah (prayers) they make it as an object of mockery and pastime; this is because they are a
  30. 30. • We must avoid the company of those non-Muslims who have dubious character, are hostile and who make fun of the religion. • The Almighty wants us to avoid the company of such people whose "... real wish is to see that you become a disbeliever, as they have disbelieved, so that you may become exactly like them. • Such devious people are only a few and not all the people of the Book. The Qur’an says: • “O believers! If you were to obey a group of those who were given the Book, they will turn you back from belief to unbelief.” (Qur’an; 3:100)
  31. 31. • They are not all alike. Among the people of the Book there is a party who stand by their covenant; they recite the Word of God in the hours of night and prostrate themselves before Him. They believe in God and the Last Day, and enjoin good and forbid evil, and hasten to vie with one another in good works. And these are among the righteous.” (3:113)
  32. 32. • And surely among the People of the Book there are some who believe in God and in what has been sent down to you and in what was sent down to them, humbling themselves before Allah. They trade not the signs of God for a paltry price. It is these who shall have their reward with their Lord. Surely God is swift in settling account.” (3:199
  33. 33. • In Mecca, the Prophet began his prophetic career under the protection of his uncle Abu Talib, who was not a Muslim but a polytheist. There is no evidence at all that his being a polytheist made the Prophet love and respect him any less. • On returning from a missionary tour to Taif, where he was badly persecuted, the Prophet sought refuge with polytheist, under whose protection he entered Mecca
  34. 34. • When he migrated from Mecca to Medina, the Prophet made a polytheist, Abdullah Ibn Oraiqit, his guide because he was not familiar with the route leading to Medina • In Medina, to begin with, the Prophet and his followers established friendly relations with the town’s Jews. • They engaged in commercial dealings with them, participated in their joys and sorrows and gave and received help from them
  35. 35. • He sometimes borrowed money from Jews and also arranged for loans from them for some of his companions. • At the time of his demise his armor had been given in pawn to a Jew • Once, while in Medina, the funeral procession of a Jew passed by and the Prophet stood up in respect • The Sahih al-Bukhari is replete with narrations that speak of how the Prophet would visit non-Muslims who were sick to enquire about their health. • During the life of Prophet Muhammad, the Jews in Madina had a synagogue and an educational institute by the name of Bait-Al-Madras. He made sure it was preserved as well as all the Jews attending it were protected
  36. 36. • The Prophet of Islam made several treaties with the Jews. • Following is an extract of a message that he wrote to form a treaty: “In the name of God, Most Gracious, Ever Merciful. This message is from Muhammad, Messenger of God. Verily, whoever follows us from the Jews shall have the help and the aid; and shall neither be victim of injustice, nor taken vengeance upon. The Jews of the children of Awf are safe with the Faithful. They have their religion and the Muslims theirs and themselves, except those who oppress or sin, they will forfeit themselves and their families. The Jews of Bani Al-Najjar, of Bani Al-Harith, of Bani Saaedah, of Bani Aws and of Bani Belanah are Jews like the others. “
  37. 37. • He exchanged gifts with several non-Muslims. • Often, they would attend his sermons and even visit his home. • They would question him and sometimes seek his advice. • According to a hadith report, a Jewish woman once invited the Prophet and his companions to her home, which the Prophet accepted. • It is said that some Jews would taunt the Prophet by using bad words to address him, but this did not deter him from his mission of establishing friendly relations with his non-Muslim neighbors.
  38. 38. • There are numerous traditions that speak of the Prophet bringing non-Muslim guests to the mosque in Medina where he discussed various matters with them • The Prophet honored the Christians of Najran from Yemen who visited him in his own mosque in Madina. The Christians prayed according to Christian fashion inside the mosque, and the Prophet and his followers prayed in Muslim tradition.
  39. 39. • Battles of the Prophet-The actual reason for these battles against non Muslims, or what is called Qital in the Quran, was their having revolted (Muharaba) against the Prophet or their aggression, as the Quran clearly indicates • Exile of the Bani Nazir from Medina-They broke their treaty with the Prophet, something that was even in pre-Islamic times considered to be a major crime. Furthermore, the Bani Nazir tried several times to kill the Prophet. Even after he forgave them they did not relent.
  40. 40. • The Muslims were in a treaty with the Banu Qurayza • -The Pagans launched an offensive against the Muslims • -The Banu Qurayza broke the treaty and joined the pagan offensive • -The Banu Qurayza were simply waiting for the pagans to launch their complete offensive against the Muslims so they too could launch their offensive against the Muslims from the south • -The Banu Qurayza had every intention of killing the prophet Muhammad and the entire Muslim community
  41. 41. • When the battle ended, the Prophet ordered it to be announced that none should perform the afternoon prayer until after he reached Bani Qurayza • Bani Qurayza forts were besieged. • In the Morning they submitted to the Prophet’s judgment and • Al-Aus tribe leaders said, O Prophet, they are our allies • Prophet said: Will you be satisfied, O’ Aus, if one of your own member pronounces judgment on them? • When they agreed he said that Sa'd b. Mu'adh (RA) was the man
  42. 42. • Sa'd bin Muadh (RA) a former Jew judged these Jews by THEIR OWN LAW! Here is the law from the Jewish Bible: • “And if it will make no peace with thee, but will make war against thee, then thou shalt besiege it: And when the LORD thy God hath delivered it into thine hands, thou shalt smite every male thereof with the edge of the sword: But the women, and the little ones, and the cattle, and all that is in the city, even all the spoil thereof, shalt thou take unto thyself; and thou shalt eat the spoil of thine enemies, which the LORD thy God hath given thee.” (Deuteronomy 20:10-
  43. 43. • This story is extremely doubtful, although it is mentioned in some detail in the books of Hadith. • On the basis of detailed research, the Indian scholar Barkat Ahmad, in his Urdu book Rasul Akram Aur Yahud-e Hijaz (‘The Noble Prophet and the Jews of the Hijaz’) argues that this story is false. • He provides numerous eyewitness accounts to back his claim
  44. 44. • 'Umar’s Governor in Syria appointed a Christian to head his Administration. • 'Umar respectfully declined to pray inside the church of Resurrection in Jerusalem, but he did pray outside. He was concerned that his followers would take it over from the Christians, if he prayed inside • Muslims were given the key of the Church of Basilica in Jerusalem during the days of the Caliph 'Umar. The Muslims are still taking care of it today • During the time of Caliph 'Umar certain Muslims had taken a piece of land belonging to a Jew. They constructed a mosque on it. 'Umar ordered the demolition of the mosque and the restoration of the land to the Jew
  45. 45. • Non-Muslims were holding the rank of ministers, administrative positions and membership in Executive Councils. • Non-Muslims were given judicial autonomy, not only for personal status, but for all affairs of their life: Civil, penal and others. • During the Abbasid Caliphs, Christian Patriarchs and Jewish Hakhams (Rabbis) held highest positions in the Islamic state. • They held the position of advisors in the cabinet of the Caliph himself.
  46. 46. • Christians and Jews lived peacefully with Muslims. • Non-Muslims flourished among Muslims. • The mere presence of a large number of Christians and Jews in the Muslim world is a sign of the tolerance of Muslims to the non-Muslims. • Jews fled from Spain during the Inquisition, and Muslims welcomed them in their lands. • They protected them and helped them to establish themselves and they indeed flourished
  47. 47. • Non-Muslims flourished in the Muslim world in all aspects of life even after the abolition of colonialism. • Anywhere a person goes in both the Arab world and the non-Arab Muslim world, he will see Christians and Jews. • They have lived freely in the Muslim community and have thrived in the fields of religion, education, economics, politics, health, industry , farming, housing, banking, festivities, and social services. • In several Muslim countries like Jordan, Egypt, Lebanon, Palestine, Syria, Algeria or Sudan, etc. there are a large number of Christians in
  48. 48. • Today there are forces that seem to be propelling a clash of civilizations, • Let us build bridges of understanding and mutual respect through the exploration of commonalities among all civilizations.