Towards Effective Public Speaking• Planning and Preparation of Content• Delivery Techniques• Questions and Answers: Challenge and Opportunity• Models of Effective Public Speaking• Public Speaking Checklist
I-Planning and Preparation of ContentsA-Step by Step Approach:a. Know the audience-Come early and leave late and know your allies and adversariesb. Establish credibility: Prophet (S) gathered Mekkans and asked “If I tell you that an army is about to come from the foot of this mountain, will you believe me.” They replied, "Yes.”
2- How to Structure the Speecha. State the subjectb. Analyze the subjectc. Report previous solutionsd. Diagnose and suggest solutionse. Conclude
B-Increase Effectiveness1. Continuity- Speech should flow smoothly. Transition could be – Rhetorical or vocal2. Diction-Use mature language.3. Notes- It is best not to stray away from notes Do not read continuously from notes Notes indicate that we prepared the talk and all points are covered.
II-Delivery Techniques• Dua of Prophet Musa (A): Taha,20:25-28
II-Delivery TechniquesA. Practice- for effective delivery. Record the speech and then listen to evaluateB. Body language, voice and visual contact1-Body Position:• Gesturing- Rehearse in front of mirror using different gestures• Standing- Appear confident, feel free to move around, do not pace the floor. Less distance to audience gives impression of intimacy.
2-Visual Contact• Look people in the eyes• Not to fix gaze on opposite sex• Do not focus on people’s head or stare on faces• Faraway gaze indicates we are not in touch with them• Public speaking requires more volume• Try to speak to each area of audience
3-Voicea. Volume- Raise the voice to be clearly heardb. Pitch- Monotone is tiring Patterned pitch, which goes up and down at regular intervalsc- Rate- Talk fast without stumbling and be clear.d- Pause- at important points and at criticalpoints.
C-End of talk• A brief capitulation of main points can be useful• Impromptu rambling summary with many repetitions of “Finally” or in “conclusion” can ruin a talk.• To safeguard against this, plan a definite beginning and ending.
D-The Speaker’s Self• Speaker must possess and project qualities that earn him the respect• Sincerity, affability and energy• Communicate a feeling of excitement, interest and enthusiasm• If we are not enthusiastic about the subject, audience quickly loses interest and turns itself off to the speech.
III-Questions and Answers• Challenging opportunity to accomplish remaining goals.• To neutralize hostility restate the question• Normally answers should be short• If opportunity is to offer new information then do so.
IV-Models of Effective Public Speaking• Prophet’s speech to the Ansar after the campaigns of Hunayn and Ta’if.• Prophet’s last sermon at Hajjatul Wada• Speech of Jafar Ibn Abi Talib (R) in the court of Najjashi, King of Abyssinia.• Speech of Khalifa Abu Bakr (R) after he took oath of office.
Towards Better WritingI. PurposeII. ProblemsIII. The Writing Process A-Planning B-Drafting C-Revising D-ProofreadingIV-Writer’s BlockV-Tips
I-Purpose• Ideas and information to be made permanent and easily accessible• Motivate others to act according to message• Free up time of writer when his ideas are replicated and distributed to wider readers• Guide and direct others with new ideas• Establishing credibility and authority of writer• Increase chances of success by permanently spelling out choices of course of action• Be an effective means of Dawah
II-Problems• Researching too little or too much data• Poor organization of subject matter• Failing to revise the first draft• Using too long sentences or words• Expressing writer-centered point of view• Directing the writing to wrong audience• Mistakes of grammar and style
III-Writing ProcessA. Planning- What can be written about the subject. Jot down the points and ideas.B. Drafting- Prepare first draft in concise form.C. -Revising- Weed out un important details. Eliminate anything confusing.D. Proof reading- Check for grammar, spelling and punctuation errors.
IV-Writer’s Block• This means writer is stuck and can’t think of another word to write.• Force oneself to keep writing. One idea leads to another and one gets back to the subject• Talk to someone about the block and get new leads or ways to approach the subject• Leave the writing aside and come back to it latter with a fresh outlook.
V-Some tips on writing• Base your prose on facts• Avoid business jargon, over used phrases• Edit for a leaner and crisper style• Strengthen prose by using more verbs• Use the active voice and let subjects do actions• Avoid repetitions and use synonyms instead• Prophet (S) said, "The best of words are those that are precise and concise.”
Nasihah (Advice)I. The Nature of NasihahII. Nasihah as FeedbackIII. Nasihah as an ObligationIV. Nasihah in Action A-From Generalities to Specifics B-From Knowledge to Behavior
Learning Objectives• Identify the elements of advice giving process• Give advice in Islamically recommended way• Receive advice in an Islamically accepted manner.
I-The Nature of Nasihah• Prophet (S) said, “Religion is sincere advice.”• Prophet (S) took pledge from Jarir Bin Abdullah on 3 things; establishing Salah, paying Zakah and offering Nasiha to every Muslim( including ruler and the ruled.• If we love our fellow Muslims, then one measure of this love is how much sincere advice we give him.• Giving Nasihah was always the mission of the Prophets. (7:68,7:93)
II-Nasihah as a Feedback• As humans we can’t observe our actions. Our brothers and sisters are to observe these and correct us.• Prophet (S) said,” A believer is a mirror to his brother” Mirror is to reflect exact image- nothing more and nothing less.• Omar (R) said,”May Allah have mercy on him who sends my faults to me as a gift.”
Nasihah Feedback• Advisor must be patient, tactful, use proper words and choose proper atmosphere• One who is advised must welcome it with open heart, open mind and smiling face. He should then act to improvement.• Advisor must express love and sincerity. Tone must not show superiority, ridicule or censure• Communicate advice in private first.• While we welcome advice yet we must guard against being deceived. (7:21, 12:11)
III-Nasihah as an Obligation• Advice must be offered for the sake of Allah• Prophet (S) said,” Nations before were destroyed due to neglect of advice.”• We should not be put off by those who are not receptive to our advice.• We must realize that our opinion may be in error. So, we advice should not turn into a vain debate. It should be brotherly discussion.• Advice is sometimes not well received.(7:79)
IV-Nasihah in Action A-Generalities to Specifics• And remind, surely reminding benefits the believers. 51:55• Reminding is not educating. Knowledge is there but we tend to forget or be unaware of our behavior.• Allah has prescribed 2 solutions: 1-Continuous remembrance of Allah through Zikr(3:191) 2-Reminder by mirror believers in pointing outmistakes and correcting them.
B-From Knowledge to Behavior• In the fieldwork , we must point our specific behavior mistakes and correct these.• This practice springs out of our love and care for others. Others must reciprocate it.• Prophet (S) said, “You shall not attain Iman until you love for others what you love for yourself.• This is in contrast to materialist socieities.
CommunicationI. What is communication A- Judgment and Interpretation B-The Prophetic Way C-Please make me feel importantII-Ways to Communicate A-Tips on Communicating B-Do you say what you mean and mean what you say?III-Cross Checking of InformationIV-Communication Check Lists A-Communicating Without Words B-Do’s and Don’ts of Communication
I-What is Communication?• To let people know and allow them to come to mutual understanding with you.• A-Pre-Judgement and Interpretation- It is a major obstacle in dealing with people. We should replace it with description of behavior• B-The Prophetic Way- Receive people with love and accept them as they are. Treat them with care, gentleness and encouragement. Be sensitive to their needs and show sympathy and affection.
C- Please make me feel important• Everyone is borne with this sign on their forehead.• Prophet (S) used to address everyone turning his body towards the addressee• When people do not get response to their phone calls or e mails, you are telling them, "You do not exist.
II-Ways to Communicate• A-Tips on Communicating:1. Do not try to seek power over people.2. Interact with everyone3. Spend each break period in a meeting with someone different.4. Do not wait for latecomers in a meeting5. Paraphrase the message you hear to ensure proper reception6. More we understand, more we manage. Less we understand, more we manipulate7. Prophet (S) teaches us to find over 70 excuses for other’s bad behavior
B- Do you say what you mean?• Words do not have meanings, people do.• Words are just symbols, not realities• Words are not absolute, they are learned in a certain context.• Meanings can be hidden or buried.• Words reflect cultural and personal dimensions.
Words To Forget Words To Remember • I should, I have to • I want to , I choose to • I shall try to do it • I will do it, in sha Allah • Someday • Today, now • But (negates previous • And statement) • Risk • Opportunity • Problem • Challenge, opportunity • Too difficult • Challenging • Worried • Interested • I am sorry • Excuse me, I regret • Why (stopper, attack) • Help me understand • I feel helpless • I would like your help • That is just the way I am • My potential for change is • I need you to • I want you • You (it is blameful, accusative) • I(honest, responsible)
III-Cross-Checking of Information• We hear often,” It is a problem of communication.” Response should be, “Fix it”.• We trust our brothers and sisters but put the news in the hold mode till you confirm it.• It is useful to repeat instructions loudly to assure correct transmission and reception• Intention is to get to the truth and not accusing others of purposely misleading.
IV-Communication Check List• A-Communicating without words:• Body-Head position Face Eyes Shoulders Posture Movements Actions and Gestures Dress
Communicating without Words• Voice- Tone Softness Speed• Space-Distance, Marking, Changing• Touch-Shaking hands Hands on shoulders Holding hands Hug Kiss
Do’s Don’t’s• Make eye contact (same • Interrupt when having a gender only) when listening point to make• Check for understanding • Ridicule what others and use of paraphrase say, even if it seems silly.• Affirm with nods and • Give personal opinion on gestures isses.• Share laughter with people • Ask why all the time• Share feeling of sadness • Carry the conversation• Get others involved in the single handed. conversation • Criticize other’s ideas• Graciously accept opinions without being asked to do which are different so.• Compliment other people
Words of Importance6 most important words I appreciate you and your efforts• 5 most important words • I am proud of you• 4 most important words • What is your opinion• 3 most important words • Would you please• 2 most important words • Thank you• 1 most important word • We• The least important word • I
SMILE IT HELPS TO COMMUNICATE• Your smile in the face of your brother is an act of charity (Sadaqah). Sunan Al Tirmidhi.
How to manage your time?I. The Nature of TimeII. The Use of TimeIII. Lost Time A-One Day at a Time B-The Meaning of TimeIV. How the Time PassesV. Some Hints for Saving Time A-Take Time B-Time Well SpentVII. A Case Study; What does a minute cost?
Learning Objectives• Identify and minimize major time wasting habits• Identify and cultivate time saving habits• Do more in the time available• Lead a more productive work and personal life.
I. The Nature of Time• What is the longest, yet the shortest;• The swiftest, yet the slowest; (happy, suffering)• All of us neglect it , and then we regret it;• Nothing can be done without it;• It swallows up all that is small; (i.e., unworthy)• It builds up all that is great.
II- The Use of Time• Two categories of people:1- Unfortunate, procrastinators- Always going tostart something tomorrow2-Fortunate-Ready to go right now. For themthere is no tomorrowKilling Time: It is crime like murder“I don’t have time.” This phrase means there areother things more important to me.
A-One Day at a Time• The Prophet (S) tells us:Not a single dawn breaks out without twoangels calling out: “Oh! Son of Adam! I am anew day and I witness your actions, so make thebest out of me because I will never come backtill the Day of Judgment.”(Al Ma’thur of the Prophet)
B-The Meaning of Time 3 Concepts• 1-Moment when the opportunity is the highest• 2-A measure of seconds, minutes, hours and years. This is the shallowest concept. It destroys initiative and creative impulses• 3-Time is not imprisoned by the clock. They commit their hearts to a task/mission they love which is blazing with purpose. Success is governed by spirit of dedication and sacrifice.Getting people to organize their time is the mostdifficult task
III-Spare Time What could you do with your unused time?• Quran and Hadith could be memorized• Books can be written• Degrees could be earnedSpare time can be lot when calculated:15 minutes a day= 11 days a year30 minutes a day=22 days a yearTime=MoneyWe do not let anyone steal our money but we doTime= our life
IV-How Time Passes• Time passes fast• You will have to plan and program actions into your busy schedule to accomplish things• Set aside a certain time each day for things to achieve and stick to it• Regret for time wasted can be good for the time remaining.• Time remaining is enough if we will only stop the waste.
V-Some Hints for Saving Time• Jot down things to do each morning• Never visit someone without informing• Always jot down plans and ideas in spare time• Plan rest time and match them with prayers• Utilize spare time by reading, memorizing• When you make appointment with someone, make sure both parties understand time• Adjust travelling time to reach in time• Have all items at hand when doing any thing
Hints for Saving Time• Avoid people who are selfish enough to steal your time• Do not make a trip if you can accomplish the same with phone, e mail or conference call• Fill your car with gas whenever you pass by your favorite gas station• Keep proper change for tolls or parking meters• Before shopping , make a list.• Take time off periodically to pray, meditate, contemplate and charge the batteries of faith.
VI- Things to Remember About Time• A- Take Time-• To think, it is the source of power• To play, it is the cistern of perpetual youth• To read, it is the foundation of wisdom• To pray, it is the greatest power on earth• To love and be loved, iman is love and hate• To be friendly, it is the road to happiness• To laugh, it is the best medicine• To give, life is too short to be selfish• To work, it is the price for success
B-Time Well Spent• Prophet (S) said, "He whose two days are equal (in accomplishments) is a sure loser.” Sunan al Daylami.• Great minds discuss ideas• Small minds discuss people• Very small minds discuss themselves
Two Time Tamers The Pareto Principle (80/20 Rule)• Theory-• The significant items in a given group constitute a relatively small portion of the total items in the group.• Application-• List all items you must act on.• Recognize the 20% of the items that are likely to yield 80% of the desired results.• Act on them first
Parkinson’s Law• Theory-• Work expands to fill the time available for its completion• Applications-• Set a deadline to each task and stick to that deadline.
Questions for Discussion• 1- Why is time today more valuable than tomorrow?• 2-How do people who succeed differ in their use of time from those who fail?• 3- How do you calculate the monetary value of time? Give an example.• 4- Why is making schedules necessary for good time management?• 5-What are three common major time wasting actions?• 6-How do you guard your time against them?