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Concept of Justice or Adal in Islam

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  • Had there been justice in the world, billions and billions of people need not have to suffer today.
    The world needs justice and it is only Islam that can deliver the goods!
    There is no other way whatsoever!
    Jazakallah Khayr for this timely presentation.
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  2. 2.  Allah commands justice, the doing of good(acts ofkindness) , and giving (due rights) to the kith and kin,and He forbids all shameful deeds(immoral sins), andinjustice (or forbidden deeds done openly) andrebellion(tyrannical aggression): He instructs you, thatye may receive admonition. Al-Quran, 016.090 (An-Nahl [The Bee])
  3. 3.  Just (Al-Adil) Dispenser of Justice. (Al-Muqsit)
  4. 4.  O ye who believe! stand out firmly for Allah, as witnesses to fair dealing, and let not the hatred of others to you make you swerve to wrong and depart from justice. Be just: that is next to piety: and fear Allah. For Allah is well-acquainted with all that ye do. Al-Quran, 005.008 (Al-Maeda)
  5. 5.  We sent aforetime our messengers with Clear Signs and sent down with them the Book and the Balance (of Right and Wrong), that men may stand forth in justice; Al-Quran, 057.025 (Al-Hadid)
  6. 6.  “There are seven categories of people whom God will shelter under His shade on the Day when there will be no shade except His. [One is] the just leader.”(Saheeh Muslim) “O My slaves, I have forbidden injustice for Myself and forbade it also for you. So avoid being unjust to one another.” (Saheeh Muslim)
  7. 7.  Haqq al din- respect for religion Haqq al nafs-respect the human person Haqq al mal- right of private property. Haqq al hurriyah- respect of self determination( khilafa, shura, ijma, judiciary.) Haqq al kirama- respect for human dignity including religious freedom and gender equality.
  8. 8.  Haqq al Ilm- respect for knowledge. It requires freedom of thought, press, assembly. Justice is at the core of Islam. This paradigm of human responsibilities is being revived.Such principles of justice do exist in all world religions in lesser degree.
  9. 9.  He says, discussing the relationship between two words justice (al-Adl), and distributive justice (al-Qist), "Justice is the basis of all human relations and a foundation of Islamic rule.” Quoted in Ibn Humayd, Nadr al-Naim, 8:3153
  10. 10.  Social Justice facilitates amicable relations between people, engenders obedience to the Divine Law, and brings about the prosperity of countries. It is the basis of a thriving economy, strong families, and stable government Nothing devastates the land nor corrupts the mind as quickly as tyranny. Quoted in Ibn Humayd, Nadr al-Naim, 7:2793.
  11. 11.  Justice has signs and portents. As for its signs, they are shyness, generosity, humility, and gentleness. As for its portents, they are embodied in mercy. He has [likewise] made for every affair a gate, and He has made that gate accessible by providing a key. The gate of justice is a deep consideration of consequences, and its key is concern for Akhirah. (Nadr An Na’im,7:2811)
  12. 12.  Justice denotes placing things in their rightful place. It also means giving others equal treatment. Justice is a moral virtue and an attribute of human personality it creates a state of equilibrium in the distribution of rights and duties
  13. 13.  1-The absolute freedom of conscience, means the psychological liberation from submissiveness and worship of anyone but Allah because only Allah is Who can benefit and harmSay: "It is not in my power to cause you harm,or to bring you to right conduct.“ (Jinn,72:21)
  14. 14.  O mankind! reverence your Guardian-Lord, who created you from a single person, created, of like nature, His mate, and from them twain scattered (like seeds) countless men and women;- reverence Allah, through whom ye demand your mutual (rights), and (reverence) the wombs (That bore you): for Allah ever watches over you.(4:1)
  15. 15.  Means individuals commitment towards each other to take care of the society and its needs. The social symbiosis does not mean moral sympathy and affection only, but also positive concrete action such as extending helpful hand to the needy through paying zakat and sadaqat.
  16. 16.  1- Distributive or Social Justice- Extending inherent rights [to their possessors] equitably 2- Commutative or Judicial Justice- To rule based on that contained in the Book of God and the tradition (Sunnah) of His Messenger and refraining from ruling based on empty opinion.
  17. 17.  Justice must transcend considerations of race, religion, color, and creed Muslims are commanded to be just to their friends and foes alike They ought to be just at all levels
  18. 18.  O ye who believe! stand out firmly for justice, as witnesses to Allah, even as against yourselves, or your parents, or your kin, and whether it be (against) rich or poor: for Allah can best protect both. Follow not the lusts (of your hearts), lest ye swerve, and if ye distort (justice) or decline to do justice, verily Allah is well-acquainted with all that ye do. (Nisa 4:135)
  19. 19.  O ye who believe! stand out firmly for Allah, as witnesses to fair dealing, and let not the hatred of others to you make you swerve to wrong and depart from justice. Be just: that is next to piety: and fear Allah. For Allah is well- acquainted with all that ye do. (Maida,5:8)
  20. 20.  Allah forbids you not, with regard to those who fight you not for (your) Faith nor drive you out of your homes, from dealing kindly and justly with them: for Allah loves those who are just.(Mumtahina,60:8)
  21. 21.  If thou judge, judge in equity between them. For Allah loves those who judge in equity. Maida,5:42 "I believe in the Book which Allah has sent down; and I am commanded to judge justly between you. (Shura,42:15)
  22. 22.  The word of thy Lord doth find its fulfillment in truth and in justice: None can change His words: for He is the one who hears and knows all. (Al-Anaam,6:115)
  23. 23.  Be just: that is next to piety: and fear Allah. For Allah is well-acquainted with all that ye do. (Maida,5:8) whenever ye speak, speak justly, even if a near relative is concerned; and fulfil the covenant of Allah: thus doth He command you, that ye may remember (Anaam,6:152)
  24. 24.  Osama (R) tried to intercede for the lady, who belonged to a high-class family, in order to prevent the punishment for her theft. Prophet (SAW) said, "What destroyed the nationspreceding you, was that if a noble amongstthem stole, they would forgive him, and if apoor person amongst them stole, they wouldinflict Allahs Legal punishment on him. ByAllah, if Fatima, the daughter of Muhammadstole, I would cut off her hand." (Al-Bukhari)
  25. 25.  Khalifah Ali (R) had his shield stolen by a Christian. He filed the case against him. In the court of Qadi Shureh (The Judge) he had to stand next to the accused. He was asked to present evidence. He did not have any. Judgment was given against him. That Christian was so impressed with this system of justice that he confessed the theft, returned the shield and became Muslim. Ali (R) gave him the shield as a gift.
  26. 26.  Abu Darda (R) decided to forsake his wife, used to fast every day and stood in Salah all night. When his adopted brother Salman Farsi (R) observed this he told him,” "Your Lord has a right on you, your soul has a right on you, and your family has a right on you; so you should give the rights of all those who have a right on you." Abu Ad-Darda(R) came to the Prophet and narrated the whole story. The Prophet said: "Salman has spoken the truth." Al-Bukhari
  27. 27.  it prohibits injustice strictly Injustice toward oneself or toward others, The strong people’s injustice toward the weak, The rich people’s injustice toward the poor Rulers’ injustice toward the people they rule..
  28. 28.  Prophet told Mu’az ibn Jabal: “Be afraid of the curse of an oppressed person as there is no screen between his invocation and Allah” (Al- Bukhari). The Prophet also said: “Three men whose supplications are never rejected (by Allah) are: The fasting person until he breaks his fast, the just ruler and the one who is oppressed, whose prayer is taken to heavens and heavens’ doors are opened for it and Allah says to it: I swear with My honor I will uphold you (the supplication) even after a while” (At-Tirmidhi
  29. 29.  The Prophet Muhammad said: People, beware of injustice, for injustice shall be darkness on the Day of Judgment. Prophet said: On the Day of Judgment, rights will be given to those to whom they are due (and wrongs will be redressed).
  30. 30.  Individuals- we should do justice to ourselves by fulfilling the rights of our body and souls. Family- We must deal with our spouses, children and rest of the family with justice Society- We must deal with our neighbors, customers and all human beings and even animals with justice Position of authority- Principles of justice should be our guide in all matters