Islam, Judaism and Christianity


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Islam, Judaism and Christianity

  1. 1. ISLAM AND JUDEO CHRISTIAN TRADITIONS Similarities and Differences
  2. 2. Christianity Vs. Islam Bridge Building Between Christians and Muslims  
  3. 3. Why build bridges? <ul><li>Islam and Christianity are major religions that influence the thinking and values of over 40 percent of the world population. </li></ul><ul><li>While there are theological differences, some of which might be significant, there are nonetheless other important areas of belief that are shared by both communities. </li></ul><ul><li>Muslims have obligation to be emissaries of Islam to share its true message. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Islam and Christianity <ul><li>Islam is the only non Christian based religion in the whole world that requires Muslims to believe in Jesus and the Bible </li></ul><ul><li>Believing in Jesus and the Bible is among the pillars of faith. Thus, (s)he is not a Muslim if (s)he does not believe in either Jesus or the Bible </li></ul><ul><li>Muslims do not believe the Bible is 100% accurate because of translation issues and existence of different versions of the bible, e.g. Catholic Bible is seven more books than King James Version, however, Muslims believe in the portion of the Bible confirmed by the Holly Quran </li></ul>
  5. 5. Muslim Christian Dialogue <ul><li>قُلْ يَا أَهْلَ الْكِتَابِ تَعَالَوْا إِلَى كَلِمَةٍ سَوَاءٍ بَيْنَنَا وَبَيْنَكُمْ أَلا نَعْبُدَ إِلا اللَّهَ وَلا نُشْرِكَ بِهِ شَيْئًا وَلا يَتَّخِذَ بَعْضُنَا بَعْضًا أَرْبَابًا مِنْ دُونِ اللَّهِ فَإِنْ تَوَلَّوْا فَقُولُوا اشْهَدُوا بِأَنَّا مُسْلِمُونَ </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;O People of the Book! come to common terms as between us and you: That we worship none but Allah; that we associate no partners with him; that we erect not, from among ourselves, Lords and patrons other than Allah.&quot; If then they turn back, say ye: &quot;Bear witness that we (at least) are Muslims (bowing to Allah's Will). 3:61 </li></ul>
  6. 6. Methodology of the dialogue <ul><li>ادْعُ إِلَى سَبِيلِ رَبِّكَ بِالْحِكْمَةِ وَالْمَوْعِظَةِ الْحَسَنَةِ وَجَادِلْهُمْ بِالَّتِي هِيَ أَحْسَنُ إِنَّ رَبَّكَ هُوَ أَعْلَمُ بِمَنْ ضَلَّ عَنْ سَبِيلِهِ وَهُوَ أَعْلَمُ بِالْمُهْتَدِينَ </li></ul><ul><li>Invite (all) to the Way of thy Lord with wisdom and beautiful preaching; and argue with them in ways that are best and most gracious: for thy Lord knoweth best, who have strayed from His Path, and who receive guidance. 16:125 </li></ul><ul><li>Both communities should not learn about each other through sources that are unsympathetic, critical, or even hostile: they should rather try to formulate an honest idea as to how the other faith is seen in its own authentic scriptures and as practiced by those who are truly committed to it . </li></ul>
  7. 7. Common Beliefs <ul><li>One God </li></ul><ul><li>Life hereafter </li></ul><ul><li>Scriptures including The Old Testament </li></ul><ul><li>History of Abraham </li></ul><ul><li>History of Moses </li></ul><ul><li>History of David </li></ul><ul><li>Jesus </li></ul><ul><li>Social and moral teachings </li></ul>
  8. 8. Concept of one God
  9. 9. Allah <ul><li>Holy Quran chapter 114 </li></ul><ul><li>In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful. </li></ul><ul><li>[1] Say: He is Allah, the One and Only; </li></ul><ul><li>[2] Allah, the Eternal, Absolute; </li></ul><ul><li>[3] He begetteth not, nor is He begotten; </li></ul><ul><li>[4] And there is none like unto Him. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Allah :name in the bible <ul><li>ALLELUYA = YA ALLA HU = OH! Allah </li></ul><ul><li>Elohim =Eloh +im (pleural), translated to Allah in Arabic bible. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Allah <ul><li>Allah is the name of Almighty God in Arabic. </li></ul><ul><li>Jews used the name Abdullah before prophet’s birth. </li></ul><ul><li>The word Allah is used in Arabic translation of the bible. Also it exists in some old versions of English translations. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Allah has many names, they all have beautiful meanings. <ul><li>[Holy Quran 17:110] Say: &quot;Call upon Allah, or call upon Rahman: by whatever name ye call upon Him, (it is well): for to Him belong the Most Beautiful Names. “ </li></ul>
  13. 13. Allah <ul><li>[22] Allah is He, than Whom there is no other god; Who knows (all things) both secret and open; He, Most Gracious, Most Merciful. </li></ul><ul><li>[23] Allah is He, than Whom there is no other god; the Sovereign, the Holy One, the Source of Peace (and Perfection), the Guardian of Faith, the Preserver of Safety, the Exalted in Might, the Irresistible, the Supreme: Glory to Allah! (High is He) above the partners they attribute to Him. </li></ul><ul><li>[24] He is Allah, the Creator, the Evolver, the Bestower of Forms (or Colours). To Him belong the Most Beautiful Names: whatever is in the heavens and on earth, doth declare His Praises and Glory; and He is the Exalted in Might, the Wise. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Belief in the hereafter <ul><li>Those who disbelieve say: The Hour will never come unto us. Say: Nay, by my Lord, but it is coming unto you surely. (He is) the Knower of the Unseen. Not an atom's weight, or less than that or greater, escapes Him in the heavens or in the earth, but it is in a clear Record. That He may reward those who believe and do good works. For them is pardon and a rich provision. But those who strive against our revelations, challenging (Us), theirs will be a painful doom of wrath. (34:3-5) </li></ul>
  15. 15. There are very convincing reasons to believe in life after death <ul><li>First, all the prophets of God have called their people to believe in it. </li></ul><ul><li>Secondly, whenever a human society is built on the basis of this belief, it has been the most ideal and peaceful society, free of social and moral evils. </li></ul><ul><li>Thirdly, history bears witness that whenever this belief is rejected collectively by a group of people in spite of the repeated warning of the Prophet, the group as a whole has been punished by God, even in this world. </li></ul><ul><li>Fourthly, moral, aesthetic and rational faculties of man endorse the possibility of life after death. </li></ul><ul><li>Fifthly, God's attributes of Justice and Mercy have no meaning if there is no life after death. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Belief on the revealed books <ul><li>The Qur'an talks about the TAURAT, ZUBOOR and INJEEL which were the books revealed by Allah to the Prophets Musa, Dawood and 'Isa 'alaihumus-salaam , respectively, which are not the same books as the Bible. </li></ul><ul><li>Due to the similarity of some contents of TAURAT, ZUBOOR and INJEEL, some people equate them with the Torah and Psalms of David and the Gospels respectively, which is an error. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Christian Scriptures <ul><li>The Muslims consider Qur’an and Christians consider the Bible to be their respective books of guidance </li></ul><ul><li>The Bible is called a scripture and if asked about the authorship, Christians tell you that there were forty-some persons, rarely a prophet or a messenger among them, who wrote the Bible under divine inspiration </li></ul><ul><li>The concept of divine inspiration is an assumption without verification. </li></ul><ul><li>One of the major sources of corruption of the Bible is translation and translations of translations. </li></ul><ul><li>It is believed by the Christians that the first records of the teachings of Jesus (A) and his life were made decades after his disappearance and it was in the Greek language. The earliest manuscript available is from the fourth century after Jesus. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Old Testament <ul><li>In the case of the Old Testament, it was written in Hebrew and its dialects, </li></ul><ul><li>It was destroyed at least twice by the enemies of Judaism in ancient times without leaving a single copy </li></ul><ul><li>It was rewritten from memory, one of the sources of corruption. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Qur’an – Al Kitab <ul><li>In the Qur'an, Allah describes the Qur'an as &quot; Al-Kitab &quot;, meaning &quot;the Book&quot;, which is the right name for it. </li></ul><ul><li>The Qur'an was revealed to the Prophet Muhammad Sall-Allahu 'alaihi wa sallam who dictated to his scribes, the most honorable companions. </li></ul><ul><li>The Qur'an was recorded in writing as well as in the memory of many people in the lifetime of the Prophet Muhammad (S) and was compiled in book form according to his directions by his companions shortly after his death. </li></ul>
  20. 20. The belief in all the prophets of God is enjoined upon the Muslims <ul><li>Say (O Muslims): We believe in Allah and that which is revealed to us and that which was revealed to Abraham and Ishmael, and Isaac and Jacob, and their children, and that which Moses and Jesus received and that the prophets received from their Lord. We make no distinction between any of them and unto Him we have surrendered. (2:136) </li></ul>
  21. 21. Three features of a prophet may be recognized <ul><li>He is the best in his community morally and intellectually </li></ul><ul><li>He is supported by miracles to prove that he is not an imposter. Those miracles are granted by the power and permission of God and are usually in the field in which his people excel and are recognized </li></ul><ul><li>Every prophet states clearly that what he receives is not of his own, but from God for the well-being of mankind So the message is one in essence and for the same purpose. Therefore, it should not deviate from what was revealed before him or what might come after him </li></ul>
  22. 22. The contents of the prophets' message to mankind <ul><li>a) Clear concept of one God: His attributes, His creation, what should and should not be ascribed to Him. </li></ul><ul><li>b) Clear idea about the unseen world, the angels, jinn (spirits), Paradise and Hell. </li></ul><ul><li>c) Why God has created us, what He wants from us and what rewards and punishments are for obedience and disobedience. </li></ul><ul><li>d) How to run our societies according to His will. That is, clear instructions and laws that, when applied correctly and honestly, will result in a smoothly functioning, harmonious society </li></ul>
  23. 23. Islamic moral values <ul><li>It is not righteousness that you turn your faces towards the East or West; but it is righteousness to believe in God and the Last Day and the Angels, and the Book, and the Messengers; to spend of your substance, out of love for Him, for your kin, for orphans, for the needy, for the wayfarer, for those who ask, and for the freeing of captives; to be steadfast in prayers, and practice regular charity; to fulfill the contracts which you made; and to be firm and patient in pain and adversity and throughout all periods of panic. Such are the people of truth, the God-conscious. (2:177) </li></ul>
  24. 24. We are given 4 standards of moral conduct <ul><li>a) Our faith should be true and sincere, b) We must be prepared to show it in deeds of charity to our fellow-men, c) We must be good citizens, supporting social organizations, and d) Our own individual soul must be firm and unshaken in all circumstances. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Forbidden in Islam <ul><li>Shirk: worshiping anybody/anything other than God. </li></ul><ul><li>Treating parents badly: not obeying there orders, speaking to them in loud voice even if they have a different faith. </li></ul><ul><li>murder, suicide. </li></ul><ul><li>Stealing. </li></ul><ul><li>Adultery, homosexuality. </li></ul><ul><li>Usury and interest transactions. </li></ul><ul><li>Gambling. </li></ul><ul><li>Treating neighbors badly. </li></ul><ul><li>Backbiting. </li></ul><ul><li>Drinking Alcohol. </li></ul><ul><li>Eating pork. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Behavioral aspects  Muslims should: <ul><li>Love Allah, his messengers and the believers. </li></ul><ul><li>Be honest. </li></ul><ul><li>Be generous. </li></ul><ul><li>Visit the ill. </li></ul><ul><li>Help the weak. </li></ul><ul><li>Smile to others. </li></ul><ul><li>Be clean. </li></ul><ul><li>Remove dirt from the road. </li></ul><ul><li>Dress conservatively. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Islam condemns the use of violence against innocent lives <ul><li>&quot;There is no justification in Islam for extremism or terrorism.” </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;It is haram for a Muslim to cooperate with any individual or group that is involved in any act of terrorism or violence.“ </li></ul>Fiqh Council of North America (FCNA) Thursday, July 28,2006. The fatwa was signed and endorsed by some 130 North American Muslim organizations and scholars.
  28. 28. Differences <ul><li>Authenticity of Bible </li></ul><ul><li>Position of Jesus (AS) </li></ul><ul><li>Doctrine of Trinity </li></ul><ul><li>Doctrine of original sin </li></ul><ul><li>Doctrine of atonement through Jesus crucifixion </li></ul>
  29. 29. Jesus in Christianity <ul><li>The &quot;who question&quot; about Jesus is key, I unpack all the rest of Christianity from Christology (the study of Christ),&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Thomas A. Noble , professor of theology at Nazarene Theological Seminary of Kansas City tells his students. </li></ul><ul><li>“ There wasn't a monolithic understanding in the New Testament&quot; about Jesus and that church doctrine about him continued to develop after New Testament times. </li></ul><ul><li>Professor Warren Carter of St. Paul School of Theology </li></ul>
  30. 30. Jesus in Christianity <ul><li>It took traditional Christianity time to reduce its beliefs to written creeds to which church structures gave approval, but eventually those creeds declared the church's historic </li></ul><ul><li>Nicene Creed, which first was articulated in 325 C.E declared that Jesus is God's fully human, fully divine son and one of the persons of the Trinity </li></ul><ul><li>Various other views (under such names as Arianism, Nestorianism and Monophysiticism) were expressed in early Christianity - and have continued to emerge in other times and places - but eventually were declared heretical </li></ul>
  31. 31. Variant views of other faith communities with connections to Christianity <ul><li>MORMONS, call Jesus the &quot;Heavenly Father's Only Begotten Son in the flesh.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Book of Mormon, tells a story of how, after Jesus was resurrected, he appeared to people in what is now known as America, taught them his gospel and formed his church. </li></ul><ul><li>The Book of Mormon says the people to whom Jesus appeared here were descendents of a prophet named Lehi, who the book says lived in Jerusalem about 600 B.C.E. and whom God commanded to lead a small group of people to the American continent. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Jesus in Christianity UNITARIAN UNIVERSALISM <ul><li>In this tradition, Jesus is often honored as a wisdom teacher but is not considered divine and certainly not part of any Trinity, which Unitarians reject. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;We say that Jesus was fully human, no different than you or I, except that he made use of that humanity more fully than you or I ever will. ... Jesus' ministry did not so much point to a kingdom in a time to come. It said that the kingdom is already here.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>The Rev. Thom Belote, pastor of the Shawnee Mission Unitarian Universalist Church </li></ul>
  33. 33. CHRISTIAN SCIENCE <ul><li>we acknowledge that man is saved through Christ, through Truth, Life and Love as demonstrated by the Galilean Prophet in healing the sick and overcoming sin and death. </li></ul><ul><li>The founder, Mary Baker Eddy. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;We look at him as the savior of the world, as the son of God, as pretty much as he identifies himself as scripture. </li></ul><ul><li>Riley Seay of the Christian Science Committee on Publication for Missouri </li></ul>
  34. 34. JEHOVAH'S WITNESSES <ul><li>The group's Web site explains: &quot;In every period of his existence, whether in heaven or on earth, his (Jesus') speech and conduct reflect subordination to God. God is always the superior, Jesus the lesser one who was created by God. ... After his resurrection, he continues to be in a subordinate, secondary position.&quot; </li></ul>
  35. 35. Is Jesus really God? Bible which is used as a basis for this clearly belies this claim <ul><li>1. God is All Knowing... but Jesus was not. “but of that day and hour knoweth no man, no, not the angels which are in Heaven, neither the son, but the Father.&quot; (Mark 13:32 and Matt 24:36) </li></ul><ul><li>2. God is All-Powerful... but Jesus was not. &quot;Verily I say unto you, the Son can do nothing of himself, but what he seeth the Father do...&quot; (John 5:19) </li></ul><ul><li>3. God does not have a God... but Jesus did have a God. &quot;My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me?&quot; (Matt 27:46) </li></ul>
  36. 36. Is Jesus really God? <ul><li>4. According to the Bible, God is invisible to humans... but Jesus was flesh and blood &quot; No man hath seen God at any time.&quot; (John 1:18) </li></ul><ul><li>5. No one is greater than God and no one can direct Him... but Jesus acknowledged someone greater than himself whose will was distinct from his own. John 14:28, &quot;My Father is greater than I.&quot; When someone referred to him as a &quot;good master&quot; in Luke 18:19, Jesus responded, &quot;Why callest thou me good? There is none good but one, that is God...&quot; </li></ul>
  37. 37. Jesus (Isa) in Islam <ul><li>Muslims call Jesus Isa (variously spelled Issa or I'sa) and call him a highly honored prophet, though not divine. </li></ul><ul><li>The Qur'an mentions Jesus many times and includes a story of his virginal birth. </li></ul><ul><li>. Islam believes Jesus was calling people to surrender to God, which is what the word &quot;Islam&quot; means. So they view him as a Muslim </li></ul>
  38. 38. Jesus (Isa) in Islam <ul><li>Muslims believe Jesus performed miracles </li></ul><ul><li>They deny he was crucified. God merely made it appear so to Jesus' enemies. </li></ul><ul><li>. Muslims believe Jesus ascended bodily to heaven. </li></ul><ul><li>They believe Jesus shall return back near the end of time to tell these truths about him and his true message. </li></ul>
  39. 39. What is the word of God in Qur’an about Jesus? <ul><li>A. Regarding the Sonship of Jesus: </li></ul><ul><li>It is not for God to take a son unto Him. Glory be to Him! When He decrees a thing, He but says to it &quot;Be&quot;, and it is. (Qur'an 19:34-35) </li></ul><ul><li>B. Regarding Jesus being God: </li></ul><ul><li>And when God said, 'O Jesus, son of Mary, did you say unto men, &quot;Take me and my mother as gods, apart from God?&quot; He said, 'To You be glory! It is not mine to say what I have no right to. If I indeed said it, You knew it, knowing what is within my soul, and I do not know what is within Your soul; You know the things unseen. I only said to them what You did command me: &quot;Serve God, my Lord and your Lord.&quot; And I was a witness over them, while I remained among them; but when You did take me to Yourself the Watcher over them; You are the witness over everything. (Qur'an 5:116-117 </li></ul>
  40. 40. C. Regarding the Crucifixion of Jesus <ul><li>And for their unbelief, and their uttering against Mary a mighty calumny, and for their saying 'We slew the Messiah, Jesus son of Mary, the Messenger of God'... yet they did not slay him, neither crucified him, only a likeness of that was shown to them. Those who are at variance concerning him surely are in doubt regarding him, they have no knowledge of him, except the following of surmise; and they did not slay him of certainty... no indeed; God raised him up to Him; God is Almighty, All-Wise. There is not one of the people of the Book but will assuredly believe in him before his death, and on the Resurrection Day he will be a witness against them. (Qur'an 4:156-159). </li></ul>
  41. 41. Christian concepts of atonement and salvation <ul><li>Salvation can be defined as the deliverance from sin and its penalties </li></ul><ul><li>In Christianity, salvation is found through the Doctrine of Vicarious Atonement. </li></ul><ul><li>this doctrine states that Jesus &quot;rendered full satisfaction&quot; to God for the sins of man through his death and resurrection. In a nutshell, Jesus took our place, and his death absolves us of our sins. </li></ul>
  42. 42. Salvation According to Jesus <ul><li>Nowhere in the four gospels did Jesus explicitly state that he would die to save mankind from sin. </li></ul><ul><li>When approached by a man who asked what he could do to gain eternal life, Jesus told him to keep the Commandments (Mat. 19: 16,17); in other words, to obey God's Law. </li></ul><ul><li>To a similar question put to him by a lawyer, as recorded in the gospel of Luke, Jesus told him to love God and his fellow man (Luke 10:25-28). </li></ul><ul><li>In the Old Testament, God says: &quot;... the son shall not bear the iniquity of the father, neither shall the father bear the iniquity of the son&quot; (Ez.18:20-22). </li></ul>
  43. 43. Salvation according to Qur’an <ul><li>God says we are all created in a state of goodness (30:30); </li></ul><ul><li>He has not burdened man with any &quot;original sin&quot;, having forgiven Adam and Eve (2:36-38; 7:23,24) as He forgives us (11:90; 39:53-56). </li></ul><ul><li>As we are all personally responsible for our actions (2:286; 6:164) there is no need for a human savior in Islam; </li></ul><ul><li>salvation comes from God alone (28:67). </li></ul>