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Industrial Hemp The Medicinal Superstar
Cannabis Sativa, has two major Distinct types.
Marijuana with THC ( the Psychoactive
cannabinoid) “Marijuana” is cultivated and
used for high levels of THC.
Industrial hemp contains all the cannabinoids
but contains only, 0.3% THC. It has a major
Beneficial cannabinoid Cannabidiol AKA CBD.
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Medicinal constituents of Full spectrum Hemp extracts
Cannabinoids: are chemical compounds present in cannabis
plants as well as present naturally in the body, have
diversified effects on body. Some Key cannabinoids
present in hemp are:
THC ( Less than 0.3 %).
CBD as main constituents quantitatively.
CBDA, CBDV, CBG, CBN, CBC and
Terpenes are other constituents.
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Cannabinoids & benefits
Cannabinoids: are chemical
compounds present in cannabis
plants as well as present naturally
in the body, have diversified
effects on body.
Entourage effects of combined effects of Hemp
Research to date indicates full
spectrum naturally derived flower
oil extract to be more effective in
treating health issues in
comparison to a highly refined
CBD extract or isolate.
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Terpenes in Hemp
Besides cannabinoids,
terpenes are also
important constituents.
They also have diversified
biological effects in
human body.
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The Endocannabinoid System
Everyone has an endocannabinoid system (ECS).
It regulates variety of biological processes, like
pain, sleep, mood, and appetite. However, experts
believe that the overall function of the ECS is the
regulation of homeostasis. there are two main types
of cannabinoid receptors— CB1 and CB2—on cells
throughout the body. They are most abundant in the
brain and immune system respectively. Research
on the ECS has shown that as part of regulating
homeostasis, and is responsible for repairing
damaged cells.
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CBD is a natural constituent of cannabis, a plant
that has been utilized for centuries as medicine.
Cannabidiol is “a cannabinoid devoid of
psychoactive effect,”& have broad clinical potential
for a wide spectrum of ailments.
CBD
Hemp ‘Cannabidiol’ the key Player in Hemp extract.
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CBD is considered to be the single most important cannabinoid ever
discovered. CBD is responsible for most of the health and wellness
benefits of the cannabis plant without the psychoactivity of THC.
CBD
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CBD’S MECHANISMS OF ACTION
Cannabidiol (CBD), is a promising drug to treat several neuropsychiatric and non-neuropsychiatric disorders.
CBD's effects seem to involve various neurotransmitter and transduction signaling systems.
It acts on CB1, CB2, GPR55, and vanilloid receptor TRPV1 receptors and inhibits the adenosine transporter and
the fatty acid amide hydrolase enzyme, indirectly increasing the levels of endocannabinoids. In addition,
several studies indicate that one of the main CBD targets is the serotonergic system, particularly 5HT1A
receptors.
CBD has several molecular targets, and new ones are currently being uncovered. CBD antagonizes the action
of CB1 and CB2 receptors agonists, and is suggested to act as an inverse agonist of these receptors. Moreover,
recent evidence point to CBD as a non-competitive negative allosteric modulator of CB1 and CB2 .
CBD inhibits the enzymatic hydrolysis and the uptake of the main endocannabinoid anandamide, an agonist
of CB1, CB2 and TRPV1 receptors. The increase in anandamide levels induced by CBD seems to mediate some
of its effects.
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CBD in CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics—
Cannabidiol: A Promising Drug for
Neurodegenerative Disorders … CBD, may
represent the most promising candidate for
clinical utilization due to its remarkable lack
of psychoactive actions, in addition to its
excellent tolerability profile in humans as
well as various effects on CNS (Antioxidant,
neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory &
immunomodulatory).
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Cannabidiol Effects on Brain
Anxiolytic
Anxiolytic
Antidepressive
Antipsychotic
Anti inflammatory
Anti seizure
Anti spasticity
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Cannabidiol as Neuroprotective: Effects on
inflammation.
Anti Inflammatory properties in several in vitro and
in vivo models; inhibition of inflammatory cytokines
and pathways. CBD decreases the production of
inflammatory cytokines, the activation of microglial
cells and brain leukocytes infiltration in
experimental autoimmune encephalitis.
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Cannabidiol as Neuroprotective: Action on the 5-
HT1a Receptor.
One of the receptors through which a lot of CBD’s
activity is mediated is the serotonin 5-HT1a receptor (5-
hydroxytryptamine type 1a). Facilitation of 5HT1A-
mediated neurotransmission is involved in the acute
anxiolytic, antidepressant, neuroprotective, anti nausea, &
motor control effects of CBD. CBD IS a novel fast
antidepressant drug, via enhancing both serotonergic and
glutamate cortical signalling through a 5-HT1A receptor-
dependent mechanism.
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Cannabidiol & Neuroplasticity:
Neuroplasticity means brain rebuilding nerve connections that might have lost or the
brain creating new nerve connections resulting from damage to the brain due to stroke
or a traumatic brain injury (TBI). Neuroplasticity also helps the brain with building new
connections, like when you learn new information or have a new experience. It also play
a role in mental health as well. Aging actually can lead to decreased neuroplasticity
abilities in our brains.
In Disorders such as depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
neuroplasticity may be able to modulate it.
Cannabidiol reduces neuroinflammation and promotes neuroplasticity and functional
recovery after brain ischemia
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Cannabidiol As Neuroprotective & Anxiolytic: Effect
on cerebral blood flow.
CBD has anxiolytic effects that are mediated through an
action on limbic and paralimbic areas of the brain. CBD
in stressful conditions, increases cerebral blood flow
(CBF) in mouse models of stroke. It is confirmed by
various research findings that CBD improves cerebral
blood thereby improving oxygenation and resulting in
neuroprotection in ischemic or traumatic brain damage.
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Cannabidiol: Enhancer of Adenosine Signaling
It seems reasonable to assume that CBD is immunosuppressive, because it
enhances endogenous adenosine signaling. In vivo treatment with a low dose of
CBD is known to decrease TNF-a production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated
mice [10]; this effect is reversed with an A2A adenosine-receptor antagonist,
and abolished in A2A receptor knockout mice. Thus, it was demonstrated that
CBD has the ability to enhance adenosine signaling through inhibition of uptake
and provide a further non-cannabinoid-receptor mechanism by which CBD can
decrease inflammation.
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CBD and mitochondria
CBD has also been reported to act on mitochondria. Chronic and
acute CBD administration increases the activity of
mitochondrial complexes (I, II, II-III, and IV), and of
creatine kinase in the brain of rats. CBD has also
been shown to strengthen and improve the efficiency of
mitochondria, the “powerhouses” of cells that are responsible for
ensuring that your cells work the way they should.
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CBD & Inflammation
CBD treatment decreases the levels
of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-
1β, TNF-α, IFN-β, IFN-γ, IL-17, and IL-
6, and increases the levels of the anti-
inflammatory cytokines IL-4 & IL-10.
In addition, it inhibits the expression
of iNOS and COX-2 induced by
distinct mechanisms.
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Cannabidiol, Cytokines, and Related Endogenous
Constituents.
Lymph-node cells (LNC) from mice treated
with CBD (2) showed a diminished IFN-g
release. In separate in vitro experiments, it
was found that CBD suppressed the
collagen-type-IIspecific proliferation of LNCs
from arthritic mice in a dose-dependent
manner [10].
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Cannabidiol: A Potent Antioxidant.
CBD, prevents hydroperoxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative
damage equally well, or better, than ascorbate (vitamin C)
or tocopherol (vitamin E). Their data suggest that CBD may
be a potentially useful therapeutic agent for the treatment
of oxidative neurological disorders such as cerebral
ischemia
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Cannabidiol for Arthritis
Cannabidiol (CBD) attenuates inflammation and pain without side-effects by virtue of its
analgesic and anti-inflammatory.
CBD Suppressed Spontaneous TNF Release by Synovial Cells in Arthritis.
CBD Treatment Suppresses ex Vivo LNC (Lymph Node Cell) Proliferation and IFN-γ Production.
CBD Blocks Mitogen-Induced Lymphocyte Proliferation As Well As Antigen-Specific LNC
Proliferation.
CBD Suppresses the Production of Reactive Oxygen Intermediates by Granulocytes.
Systemic Administration of CBD Blocks LPS-Induced Serum TNF.
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CBD & Arthritis
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Cannabidiol Inflammatory bowel & Crohn's diseases
Cannabidiol (CBD) can reduce the permeability of the human gastrointestinal tract and may help to
treat conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).
CBD can reduce inflammation-induced hyperpermeability in the human gut due to anti-
inflammatory effects.
The beneficial & immunomodulatory effects of CBD have been widely evidenced in
experimental animal models of IBD and may slow the course of the disease, ameliorate
symptoms and potentially increase the efficacy of the drugs actually available for the therapy of
invalidating gut disorders such as ulcerative colitis or Crohn’s disease.
CBD use result in Inhibition of macrophage recruitment and TNF-α secretion in vivo and ex vivo;
reduction in disease activity index in Crohn's patients.
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Cannabidiol & Cardiovascular diseases
CBD can Reduced infarct size through anti-oxidant and
anti-inflammatory properties in vitro and in vivo. CBD
causes endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation in human
mesenteric arteries with the involvement of CB1 receptor
activation. CBD may induce vasodilation due to
reductions of reactive oxygen species (ROS) promoted by
SOD radical scavenger activity. cannabinoids appeared to
be cardioprotective and able to attenuate myocardial
impairment and also to prevent ischaemia-reperfusion
damage.
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Cannabidiol for Diabetes & complications.
“Unlike insulin and other existing medications for diabetes, CBD may actually suppress, reverse and perhaps cure
the disease,” Dr. Daniel Rosenfeld – Hebrew University of Jerusalem.
Chronic inflammation has long been known to play a key role in the development of insulin resistance and
therefore type 2 diabetes. The researchers believe that the anti-inflammatory properties of CBD could treat this
inflammation and therefore improve the body's metabolism.
Cannabidiol improves cardiac dysfunction, oxidative stress, fibrosis, inflammatory and cell death signaling
pathways in diabetic cardiomyopathy. CBD have great therapeutic potential in the treatment of diabetic
complications such as cardiac, neuropathy, kidney and retinal complications, and perhaps other cardiovascular
disorders, by attenuating oxidative/nitrosative stress, inflammation, cell death and fibrosis.
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Cannabinoid & pain
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Cancer & Cannabidiol
Cannabinoids may cause anti-tumor effects by various mechanisms, including induction of
cell death, inhibition of cell growth, and inhibition of tumor angiogenesis invasion and
metastasis. One review summarizes the molecular mechanisms of action of cannabinoids
as anti-tumor agents. Cannabinoids appear to kill tumor cells but do not affect their non-
transformed counterparts and may even protect them from cell death. These compounds
have been shown to induce apoptosis in glioma cells in culture and induce regression of
glioma tumors in mice and rats. Cannabinoids protect normal glial cells of astroglial and
oligodendroglial lineages from apoptosis mediated by the CB1 receptor. Antiproliferative
and anti-invasive actions in a large range of cancer types; induction of autophagy-
mediated cancer cell death; chemopreventive effects
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Cancer Cannabis and Cannabinoids
Cannabinoids may cause anti-tumor effects by various mechanisms, including induction
of cell death, inhibition of cell growth, and inhibition of tumor angiogenesis invasion and
metastasis. Cannabinoids appear to kill tumor cells but do not affect their non-
transformed counterparts and may even protect them from cell death. These compounds
have been shown to induce apoptosis in glioma cells in culture and induce regression of
glioma tumors in mice and rats. Cannabinoids protect normal glial cells of astroglial and
oligodendroglial lineages from apoptosis mediated by the CB1 receptor.
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Cancer & Cannabidiol
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Seizures & Epilepsy
Cannabidiol (CBD) reduces seizure severity and lethality in the well-established in vivo
model of pentylenetetrazole induced generalised seizures.
Cannabidiol has Anticonvulsant in vitro and in vivo; reduced seizures frequency in
children and adults with treatment-resistant epilepsy.
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Alzheimer’s disease
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Cannabidiol Schizophrenia, cognitive dysfunction & Psychosis
CBD improved of the behavioural and glial changes in animal models of schizophrenia;
anti-psychotic properties on ketamine-induced symptoms. CBD, through the inhibition of
anandamide reuptake and thanks to its multiple effects on the nervous system, could be
used for the prevention and treatment of psychosis. The antipsychotic effect of CBD is
possibly mediated by the activity patterns in key brain regions implicated in the
pathophysiology of schizophrenia opposite to Δ9 -THC, such as the hippocampus, striatum
and prefrontal cortex, as demonstrated previously by the fMRI results The evidence for
the antipsychotic-like properties of CBD was supported by the results of two studies on
healthy volunteers using perception of binocular depth inversion and ketamine induced
psychotic symptoms.
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Cannabidiol & anxiety
Use of CBD resulted in Reduction of muscular tension, restlessness, fatigue, problems in
concentration, improvement of social interactions in rodent models of anxiety and stress;
reduced social anxiety in patients. CBD has shown therapeutic efficacy in a range of
animal models of anxiety and stress, reducing muscular tension, restlessness, fatigue,
problems in concentration, both behavioural and physiological (e.g., heart rate)
measures of stress and anxiety.CBD reduced anxiety, cognitive impairment and
discomfort in speech performance in patients with social anxiety subjected to a stressful
public speaking task. Pre-treatment with CBD also significantly decreased alert in
anticipatory speech.
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Cannabinoids and drug interactions
● THC and CBD interact with many common pharmaceuticals. Cannabinoids can inhibit or
potentiate the effects of various drugs.
● More than half of all pharmaceuticals – including THC and CBD – are metabolized by a family of
enzymes called cytochrome P450.
● Interactions between cannabinoids and other drugs can be exploited to mitigate side effects
while synergistically improving a patient’s quality of life.
● Cannabinoid-opioid interactions show great therapeutic potential. THC significantly enhances
the painkilling effects of opiates, while CBD is most promising for reducing withdrawal and
dependence.
Enhancing the bioavailability of cannabinoids..
Oral bioavailability of phytocannabinoids such as
Cannabidiol is limited . For example , the oral
bioavailability of cannabidiol was found to be about
6 % . The limited bioavailability of these
phytocannabinoids is believed to be because
cannabidiol is a natural fat soluble compound that is
hydrophobic and thus insoluble in water . This can
be attained by formulating water soluble powders
through nano-emulsion or liposomal technology to
improve absorption of these cannabinoids resulting
in improved Bioavailability.
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Synergistic Blend of CBD Formulation the way forward.
In order to get the maximum benefits of Hemp
based supplements, the novel approach is to
develop and formulate synergistic blends
considering the molecular mechanisms of
therapeutics effects of Hemp cannabinoids as
well as nutraceuticals along with interrections
for a resultant synergistic cumulative effects .
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Biofortification of micronutrients Natural vs Synthrtic...
Currently Isolated non-food ‘vitamins’ (often called ‘natural’
or USP or pharmaceutical grade) are not naturally "included
in the diet", do not necessarily "originate primarily in
plant/animal tissues", and cannot fully replace all natural
vitamin activities. Synthetic vitamins were originally
developed because they cost less. Chemically derived
vitamins are not same as their naturally occurring
counterparts in structure as well as function and later is
superior in quality bioavailability and effects and the body
treats them as food and not as a drug.
Curcuma a powerful anti inflammatory & antioxidant
Turmeric is a spice that comes from the turmeric plant.
Turmeric is used for arthritis, heartburn (dyspepsia), joint
pain, stomach pain, Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis,
bypass surgery, hemorrhage, diarrhea, intestinal gas, stomach
bloating, loss of appetite, jaundice, liver problems,
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection, stomach ulcers,
irritable bowel syndrome(IBS), gallbladder disorders, high
cholesterol, a skin condition called lichen planus, skin
inflammation from radiation treatment, and fatigue.
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Moringa oleifera Nutrition and powerful antioxidant
Moringa oleifera, native to India, Pakistan
and grows in the tropical and subtropical
regions of the world. The leaves are rich in
minerals, vitamins and other essential
phytochemicals. It is used as potential
antioxidant, anticancer, anti-inflammatory,
antidiabetic and antimicrobial agent.
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Schisandra Chinensis a powerful adaptogen
Schisandra is a fruit is an "adaptogen" for increasing resistance to disease
and stress, increasing energy, and increasing physical performance and
endurance. It is also used for preventing early aging and increasing
lifespan, normalizing blood sugar and blood pressure, stimulating the
immune system, and speeding recovery after surgery.
It is also used for treating liver disease (hepatitis) and protecting the liver
from poisons.
Some people use schisandra for improving vision ad muscular activity,
protecting against radiation, preventing motion sickness, preventing
infection, boosting energy at the cellular level, and improving the health of
the adrenal glands.
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Resveratrol & Grape Seed Extract
grape seed extract is beneficial for a number of
cardiovascular conditions. Grape seed extract may help with
a type of poor circulation (chronic venous insufficiency) and
high cholesterol. Grape seed extract also reduces swelling
caused by injury and helps with eye disease related to
diabetes.
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Saffron
Saffron is used for asthma, cough, whooping cough
(pertussis), and to loosen phlegm (as an expectorant).
It is also used for sleep problems (insomnia), cancer,
“hardening of the arteries” (atherosclerosis), intestinal
gas (flatulence), depression, Alzheimer’s disease, fright,
shock, spitting up blood (hemoptysis), pain, heartburn,
and dry skin.
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Cordyceps
Cordyceps is a fungus that lives on certain caterpillars in the
high mountain regions of China. Natural cordyceps is hard to
get and may be expensive. Most supplements are made with
cordyceps grown in a laboratory.
Cordyceps is most commonly used for kidney disorders and
male sexual problems. It is also used after a kidney transplant.
It is also used for liver problems, improving athletic
performance, and many other conditions
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Salvia miltiorrhiza
Danshen is used for circulation problems, type of stroke caused by
a blood clot in the brain (ischemic stroke) , chest pain (angina
pectoris), fat build up in the blood vessels (atherosclerosis), high
cholesterol, high blood pressure, heart attack, and other diseases
of the heart and blood vessels. It is also used for menstrual
disorders, high blood pressure during pregnancy, diabetes, chronic
liver disease, inflamed pancreas, and trouble sleeping caused by
complaints such as rapid heartbeat and tight chest. Some people
use danshen for skin conditions including acne, psoriasis, and
eczema. It is also used for weight loss, to relieve bruising, and to aid
in wound healing.
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Sea buckthorn
Sea buckthorn berries are used for preventing infections, improving sight,
and slowing the aging process. Sea buckthorn leaves and flowers are
used for treating arthritis, gastrointestinal ulcers, gout, and skin rashes
caused by infectious diseases such as measles. A tea containing sea
buckthorn leaves is used as a source of vitamins, antioxidants, protein
building blocks (amino acids), fatty acids and minerals; for improving
blood pressure and lowering cholesterol; preventing and controlling
blood vessel diseases; and boosting immunity.
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Withania a potent adaptogenic & stamina booster
Ashwagandha is used for arthritis, anxiety, bipolar disorder,
attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), balance,
obsessive-compulsive dirorder (OCD), trouble sleeping
(insomnia), tumors, tuberculosis, asthma, a skin condition
marked by white patchiness (leukoderma), bronchitis, backache,
fibromyalgia, menstrual problems, hiccups, Parkinson's disease,
and chronic liver disease. It is also used to reduce side effects of
medications used to treat cancer and schizophrenia.
Ashwagandha is used to reduce levels of fat and sugar in the
blood. Ashwagandha is also used as an "adaptogen" to help the
body cope with daily stress, and as a general tonic.
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Piper longum the Bioavailability enhancer
Oral absorption of active ingredients is very important issue
especially when it is poorly bioavailable, given for long periods
and expensive. Poorly bioavailable actives remain sub-
therapeutic because a major portion of a dose never reaches the
plasma or exerts its pharmacological effect unless and until very
large doses are given which may also lead to serious side effects.
Piper longum contains approximately 5-9% piperine.The bio-
enhancing dose of piperine is approximately 15 -20
mg/person/day.
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Services and support provided by AHL
Product & Formulation development by scientific & evidenced based activity in published
literature.
Dossier development based on scientific evidence based published literature.
Raw material standardisation, manufacturing management and total quality
management.
Raw material resourcing & supplier evaluation assistance for best quality and price..
Raw material testing for specification & Marker substances.
Ethical Technical literature development based on scientific evidence based published
literature, web content development and promotion regulatory & compliance support.
Thank you
For enquiries & assistance
Web:www.ahlabspk.com
Email:ahlabspk@gmail.com
https://www.facebook.com/Hempakistan/

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Formulation and product development of CBD formulations at AHL _wo_ingredients.pdf

  • 2. Industrial Hemp The Medicinal Superstar Cannabis Sativa, has two major Distinct types. Marijuana with THC ( the Psychoactive cannabinoid) “Marijuana” is cultivated and used for high levels of THC. Industrial hemp contains all the cannabinoids but contains only, 0.3% THC. It has a major Beneficial cannabinoid Cannabidiol AKA CBD. www.ahlabspk.com
  • 3. Medicinal constituents of Full spectrum Hemp extracts Cannabinoids: are chemical compounds present in cannabis plants as well as present naturally in the body, have diversified effects on body. Some Key cannabinoids present in hemp are: THC ( Less than 0.3 %). CBD as main constituents quantitatively. CBDA, CBDV, CBG, CBN, CBC and Terpenes are other constituents. www.ahlabspk.com
  • 4. Cannabinoids & benefits Cannabinoids: are chemical compounds present in cannabis plants as well as present naturally in the body, have diversified effects on body.
  • 5.
  • 6. Entourage effects of combined effects of Hemp Research to date indicates full spectrum naturally derived flower oil extract to be more effective in treating health issues in comparison to a highly refined CBD extract or isolate. www.ahlabspk.com
  • 7. Terpenes in Hemp Besides cannabinoids, terpenes are also important constituents. They also have diversified biological effects in human body. www.ahlabspk.com
  • 8. The Endocannabinoid System Everyone has an endocannabinoid system (ECS). It regulates variety of biological processes, like pain, sleep, mood, and appetite. However, experts believe that the overall function of the ECS is the regulation of homeostasis. there are two main types of cannabinoid receptors— CB1 and CB2—on cells throughout the body. They are most abundant in the brain and immune system respectively. Research on the ECS has shown that as part of regulating homeostasis, and is responsible for repairing damaged cells. www.ahlabspk.com
  • 9.
  • 10.
  • 11. CBD is a natural constituent of cannabis, a plant that has been utilized for centuries as medicine. Cannabidiol is “a cannabinoid devoid of psychoactive effect,”& have broad clinical potential for a wide spectrum of ailments. CBD Hemp ‘Cannabidiol’ the key Player in Hemp extract. www.ahlabspk.com
  • 12. CBD is considered to be the single most important cannabinoid ever discovered. CBD is responsible for most of the health and wellness benefits of the cannabis plant without the psychoactivity of THC. CBD www.ahlabspk.com
  • 13.
  • 15. CBD’S MECHANISMS OF ACTION Cannabidiol (CBD), is a promising drug to treat several neuropsychiatric and non-neuropsychiatric disorders. CBD's effects seem to involve various neurotransmitter and transduction signaling systems. It acts on CB1, CB2, GPR55, and vanilloid receptor TRPV1 receptors and inhibits the adenosine transporter and the fatty acid amide hydrolase enzyme, indirectly increasing the levels of endocannabinoids. In addition, several studies indicate that one of the main CBD targets is the serotonergic system, particularly 5HT1A receptors. CBD has several molecular targets, and new ones are currently being uncovered. CBD antagonizes the action of CB1 and CB2 receptors agonists, and is suggested to act as an inverse agonist of these receptors. Moreover, recent evidence point to CBD as a non-competitive negative allosteric modulator of CB1 and CB2 . CBD inhibits the enzymatic hydrolysis and the uptake of the main endocannabinoid anandamide, an agonist of CB1, CB2 and TRPV1 receptors. The increase in anandamide levels induced by CBD seems to mediate some of its effects. www.ahlabspk.com
  • 16. CBD in CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics— Cannabidiol: A Promising Drug for Neurodegenerative Disorders … CBD, may represent the most promising candidate for clinical utilization due to its remarkable lack of psychoactive actions, in addition to its excellent tolerability profile in humans as well as various effects on CNS (Antioxidant, neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory & immunomodulatory). www.ahlabspk.com
  • 17. Cannabidiol Effects on Brain Anxiolytic Anxiolytic Antidepressive Antipsychotic Anti inflammatory Anti seizure Anti spasticity www.ahlabspk.com
  • 18. Cannabidiol as Neuroprotective: Effects on inflammation. Anti Inflammatory properties in several in vitro and in vivo models; inhibition of inflammatory cytokines and pathways. CBD decreases the production of inflammatory cytokines, the activation of microglial cells and brain leukocytes infiltration in experimental autoimmune encephalitis. www.ahlabspk.com
  • 19. Cannabidiol as Neuroprotective: Action on the 5- HT1a Receptor. One of the receptors through which a lot of CBD’s activity is mediated is the serotonin 5-HT1a receptor (5- hydroxytryptamine type 1a). Facilitation of 5HT1A- mediated neurotransmission is involved in the acute anxiolytic, antidepressant, neuroprotective, anti nausea, & motor control effects of CBD. CBD IS a novel fast antidepressant drug, via enhancing both serotonergic and glutamate cortical signalling through a 5-HT1A receptor- dependent mechanism. www.ahlabspk.com
  • 20. Cannabidiol & Neuroplasticity: Neuroplasticity means brain rebuilding nerve connections that might have lost or the brain creating new nerve connections resulting from damage to the brain due to stroke or a traumatic brain injury (TBI). Neuroplasticity also helps the brain with building new connections, like when you learn new information or have a new experience. It also play a role in mental health as well. Aging actually can lead to decreased neuroplasticity abilities in our brains. In Disorders such as depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) neuroplasticity may be able to modulate it. Cannabidiol reduces neuroinflammation and promotes neuroplasticity and functional recovery after brain ischemia www.ahlabspk.com
  • 21. Cannabidiol As Neuroprotective & Anxiolytic: Effect on cerebral blood flow. CBD has anxiolytic effects that are mediated through an action on limbic and paralimbic areas of the brain. CBD in stressful conditions, increases cerebral blood flow (CBF) in mouse models of stroke. It is confirmed by various research findings that CBD improves cerebral blood thereby improving oxygenation and resulting in neuroprotection in ischemic or traumatic brain damage. www.ahlabspk.com
  • 22. Cannabidiol: Enhancer of Adenosine Signaling It seems reasonable to assume that CBD is immunosuppressive, because it enhances endogenous adenosine signaling. In vivo treatment with a low dose of CBD is known to decrease TNF-a production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated mice [10]; this effect is reversed with an A2A adenosine-receptor antagonist, and abolished in A2A receptor knockout mice. Thus, it was demonstrated that CBD has the ability to enhance adenosine signaling through inhibition of uptake and provide a further non-cannabinoid-receptor mechanism by which CBD can decrease inflammation. www.ahlabspk.com
  • 23. CBD and mitochondria CBD has also been reported to act on mitochondria. Chronic and acute CBD administration increases the activity of mitochondrial complexes (I, II, II-III, and IV), and of creatine kinase in the brain of rats. CBD has also been shown to strengthen and improve the efficiency of mitochondria, the “powerhouses” of cells that are responsible for ensuring that your cells work the way they should. www.ahlabspk.com
  • 24. CBD & Inflammation CBD treatment decreases the levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL- 1β, TNF-α, IFN-β, IFN-γ, IL-17, and IL- 6, and increases the levels of the anti- inflammatory cytokines IL-4 & IL-10. In addition, it inhibits the expression of iNOS and COX-2 induced by distinct mechanisms. www.ahlabspk.com
  • 25. Cannabidiol, Cytokines, and Related Endogenous Constituents. Lymph-node cells (LNC) from mice treated with CBD (2) showed a diminished IFN-g release. In separate in vitro experiments, it was found that CBD suppressed the collagen-type-IIspecific proliferation of LNCs from arthritic mice in a dose-dependent manner [10]. www.ahlabspk.com
  • 26. Cannabidiol: A Potent Antioxidant. CBD, prevents hydroperoxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative damage equally well, or better, than ascorbate (vitamin C) or tocopherol (vitamin E). Their data suggest that CBD may be a potentially useful therapeutic agent for the treatment of oxidative neurological disorders such as cerebral ischemia www.ahlabspk.com
  • 27. Cannabidiol for Arthritis Cannabidiol (CBD) attenuates inflammation and pain without side-effects by virtue of its analgesic and anti-inflammatory. CBD Suppressed Spontaneous TNF Release by Synovial Cells in Arthritis. CBD Treatment Suppresses ex Vivo LNC (Lymph Node Cell) Proliferation and IFN-γ Production. CBD Blocks Mitogen-Induced Lymphocyte Proliferation As Well As Antigen-Specific LNC Proliferation. CBD Suppresses the Production of Reactive Oxygen Intermediates by Granulocytes. Systemic Administration of CBD Blocks LPS-Induced Serum TNF. www.ahlabspk.com
  • 29. Cannabidiol Inflammatory bowel & Crohn's diseases Cannabidiol (CBD) can reduce the permeability of the human gastrointestinal tract and may help to treat conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). CBD can reduce inflammation-induced hyperpermeability in the human gut due to anti- inflammatory effects. The beneficial & immunomodulatory effects of CBD have been widely evidenced in experimental animal models of IBD and may slow the course of the disease, ameliorate symptoms and potentially increase the efficacy of the drugs actually available for the therapy of invalidating gut disorders such as ulcerative colitis or Crohn’s disease. CBD use result in Inhibition of macrophage recruitment and TNF-α secretion in vivo and ex vivo; reduction in disease activity index in Crohn's patients. www.ahlabspk.com
  • 30. Cannabidiol & Cardiovascular diseases CBD can Reduced infarct size through anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties in vitro and in vivo. CBD causes endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation in human mesenteric arteries with the involvement of CB1 receptor activation. CBD may induce vasodilation due to reductions of reactive oxygen species (ROS) promoted by SOD radical scavenger activity. cannabinoids appeared to be cardioprotective and able to attenuate myocardial impairment and also to prevent ischaemia-reperfusion damage. www.ahlabspk.com
  • 31. Cannabidiol for Diabetes & complications. “Unlike insulin and other existing medications for diabetes, CBD may actually suppress, reverse and perhaps cure the disease,” Dr. Daniel Rosenfeld – Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Chronic inflammation has long been known to play a key role in the development of insulin resistance and therefore type 2 diabetes. The researchers believe that the anti-inflammatory properties of CBD could treat this inflammation and therefore improve the body's metabolism. Cannabidiol improves cardiac dysfunction, oxidative stress, fibrosis, inflammatory and cell death signaling pathways in diabetic cardiomyopathy. CBD have great therapeutic potential in the treatment of diabetic complications such as cardiac, neuropathy, kidney and retinal complications, and perhaps other cardiovascular disorders, by attenuating oxidative/nitrosative stress, inflammation, cell death and fibrosis. www.ahlabspk.com
  • 32.
  • 33.
  • 35. Cancer & Cannabidiol Cannabinoids may cause anti-tumor effects by various mechanisms, including induction of cell death, inhibition of cell growth, and inhibition of tumor angiogenesis invasion and metastasis. One review summarizes the molecular mechanisms of action of cannabinoids as anti-tumor agents. Cannabinoids appear to kill tumor cells but do not affect their non- transformed counterparts and may even protect them from cell death. These compounds have been shown to induce apoptosis in glioma cells in culture and induce regression of glioma tumors in mice and rats. Cannabinoids protect normal glial cells of astroglial and oligodendroglial lineages from apoptosis mediated by the CB1 receptor. Antiproliferative and anti-invasive actions in a large range of cancer types; induction of autophagy- mediated cancer cell death; chemopreventive effects www.ahlabspk.com
  • 36. Cancer Cannabis and Cannabinoids Cannabinoids may cause anti-tumor effects by various mechanisms, including induction of cell death, inhibition of cell growth, and inhibition of tumor angiogenesis invasion and metastasis. Cannabinoids appear to kill tumor cells but do not affect their non- transformed counterparts and may even protect them from cell death. These compounds have been shown to induce apoptosis in glioma cells in culture and induce regression of glioma tumors in mice and rats. Cannabinoids protect normal glial cells of astroglial and oligodendroglial lineages from apoptosis mediated by the CB1 receptor. www.ahlabspk.com Cancer & Cannabidiol
  • 39. Seizures & Epilepsy Cannabidiol (CBD) reduces seizure severity and lethality in the well-established in vivo model of pentylenetetrazole induced generalised seizures. Cannabidiol has Anticonvulsant in vitro and in vivo; reduced seizures frequency in children and adults with treatment-resistant epilepsy. www.ahlabspk.com
  • 41. Cannabidiol Schizophrenia, cognitive dysfunction & Psychosis CBD improved of the behavioural and glial changes in animal models of schizophrenia; anti-psychotic properties on ketamine-induced symptoms. CBD, through the inhibition of anandamide reuptake and thanks to its multiple effects on the nervous system, could be used for the prevention and treatment of psychosis. The antipsychotic effect of CBD is possibly mediated by the activity patterns in key brain regions implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia opposite to Δ9 -THC, such as the hippocampus, striatum and prefrontal cortex, as demonstrated previously by the fMRI results The evidence for the antipsychotic-like properties of CBD was supported by the results of two studies on healthy volunteers using perception of binocular depth inversion and ketamine induced psychotic symptoms. www.ahlabspk.com
  • 42. Cannabidiol & anxiety Use of CBD resulted in Reduction of muscular tension, restlessness, fatigue, problems in concentration, improvement of social interactions in rodent models of anxiety and stress; reduced social anxiety in patients. CBD has shown therapeutic efficacy in a range of animal models of anxiety and stress, reducing muscular tension, restlessness, fatigue, problems in concentration, both behavioural and physiological (e.g., heart rate) measures of stress and anxiety.CBD reduced anxiety, cognitive impairment and discomfort in speech performance in patients with social anxiety subjected to a stressful public speaking task. Pre-treatment with CBD also significantly decreased alert in anticipatory speech. www.ahlabspk.com
  • 43. Cannabinoids and drug interactions ● THC and CBD interact with many common pharmaceuticals. Cannabinoids can inhibit or potentiate the effects of various drugs. ● More than half of all pharmaceuticals – including THC and CBD – are metabolized by a family of enzymes called cytochrome P450. ● Interactions between cannabinoids and other drugs can be exploited to mitigate side effects while synergistically improving a patient’s quality of life. ● Cannabinoid-opioid interactions show great therapeutic potential. THC significantly enhances the painkilling effects of opiates, while CBD is most promising for reducing withdrawal and dependence.
  • 44. Enhancing the bioavailability of cannabinoids.. Oral bioavailability of phytocannabinoids such as Cannabidiol is limited . For example , the oral bioavailability of cannabidiol was found to be about 6 % . The limited bioavailability of these phytocannabinoids is believed to be because cannabidiol is a natural fat soluble compound that is hydrophobic and thus insoluble in water . This can be attained by formulating water soluble powders through nano-emulsion or liposomal technology to improve absorption of these cannabinoids resulting in improved Bioavailability. www.ahlabspk.com
  • 45. Synergistic Blend of CBD Formulation the way forward. In order to get the maximum benefits of Hemp based supplements, the novel approach is to develop and formulate synergistic blends considering the molecular mechanisms of therapeutics effects of Hemp cannabinoids as well as nutraceuticals along with interrections for a resultant synergistic cumulative effects . www.ahlabspk.com
  • 46. Biofortification of micronutrients Natural vs Synthrtic... Currently Isolated non-food ‘vitamins’ (often called ‘natural’ or USP or pharmaceutical grade) are not naturally "included in the diet", do not necessarily "originate primarily in plant/animal tissues", and cannot fully replace all natural vitamin activities. Synthetic vitamins were originally developed because they cost less. Chemically derived vitamins are not same as their naturally occurring counterparts in structure as well as function and later is superior in quality bioavailability and effects and the body treats them as food and not as a drug.
  • 47. Curcuma a powerful anti inflammatory & antioxidant Turmeric is a spice that comes from the turmeric plant. Turmeric is used for arthritis, heartburn (dyspepsia), joint pain, stomach pain, Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, bypass surgery, hemorrhage, diarrhea, intestinal gas, stomach bloating, loss of appetite, jaundice, liver problems, Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection, stomach ulcers, irritable bowel syndrome(IBS), gallbladder disorders, high cholesterol, a skin condition called lichen planus, skin inflammation from radiation treatment, and fatigue. www.ahlabspk.com
  • 48. Moringa oleifera Nutrition and powerful antioxidant Moringa oleifera, native to India, Pakistan and grows in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The leaves are rich in minerals, vitamins and other essential phytochemicals. It is used as potential antioxidant, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic and antimicrobial agent. www.ahlabspk.com
  • 49. Schisandra Chinensis a powerful adaptogen Schisandra is a fruit is an "adaptogen" for increasing resistance to disease and stress, increasing energy, and increasing physical performance and endurance. It is also used for preventing early aging and increasing lifespan, normalizing blood sugar and blood pressure, stimulating the immune system, and speeding recovery after surgery. It is also used for treating liver disease (hepatitis) and protecting the liver from poisons. Some people use schisandra for improving vision ad muscular activity, protecting against radiation, preventing motion sickness, preventing infection, boosting energy at the cellular level, and improving the health of the adrenal glands. www.ahlabspk.com
  • 50. Resveratrol & Grape Seed Extract grape seed extract is beneficial for a number of cardiovascular conditions. Grape seed extract may help with a type of poor circulation (chronic venous insufficiency) and high cholesterol. Grape seed extract also reduces swelling caused by injury and helps with eye disease related to diabetes. www.ahlabspk.com
  • 51. Saffron Saffron is used for asthma, cough, whooping cough (pertussis), and to loosen phlegm (as an expectorant). It is also used for sleep problems (insomnia), cancer, “hardening of the arteries” (atherosclerosis), intestinal gas (flatulence), depression, Alzheimer’s disease, fright, shock, spitting up blood (hemoptysis), pain, heartburn, and dry skin. www.ahlabspk.com
  • 52. Cordyceps Cordyceps is a fungus that lives on certain caterpillars in the high mountain regions of China. Natural cordyceps is hard to get and may be expensive. Most supplements are made with cordyceps grown in a laboratory. Cordyceps is most commonly used for kidney disorders and male sexual problems. It is also used after a kidney transplant. It is also used for liver problems, improving athletic performance, and many other conditions www.ahlabspk.com
  • 53. Salvia miltiorrhiza Danshen is used for circulation problems, type of stroke caused by a blood clot in the brain (ischemic stroke) , chest pain (angina pectoris), fat build up in the blood vessels (atherosclerosis), high cholesterol, high blood pressure, heart attack, and other diseases of the heart and blood vessels. It is also used for menstrual disorders, high blood pressure during pregnancy, diabetes, chronic liver disease, inflamed pancreas, and trouble sleeping caused by complaints such as rapid heartbeat and tight chest. Some people use danshen for skin conditions including acne, psoriasis, and eczema. It is also used for weight loss, to relieve bruising, and to aid in wound healing. www.ahlabspk.com
  • 54. Sea buckthorn Sea buckthorn berries are used for preventing infections, improving sight, and slowing the aging process. Sea buckthorn leaves and flowers are used for treating arthritis, gastrointestinal ulcers, gout, and skin rashes caused by infectious diseases such as measles. A tea containing sea buckthorn leaves is used as a source of vitamins, antioxidants, protein building blocks (amino acids), fatty acids and minerals; for improving blood pressure and lowering cholesterol; preventing and controlling blood vessel diseases; and boosting immunity. www.ahlabspk.com
  • 55. Withania a potent adaptogenic & stamina booster Ashwagandha is used for arthritis, anxiety, bipolar disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), balance, obsessive-compulsive dirorder (OCD), trouble sleeping (insomnia), tumors, tuberculosis, asthma, a skin condition marked by white patchiness (leukoderma), bronchitis, backache, fibromyalgia, menstrual problems, hiccups, Parkinson's disease, and chronic liver disease. It is also used to reduce side effects of medications used to treat cancer and schizophrenia. Ashwagandha is used to reduce levels of fat and sugar in the blood. Ashwagandha is also used as an "adaptogen" to help the body cope with daily stress, and as a general tonic. www.ahlabspk.com
  • 56. Piper longum the Bioavailability enhancer Oral absorption of active ingredients is very important issue especially when it is poorly bioavailable, given for long periods and expensive. Poorly bioavailable actives remain sub- therapeutic because a major portion of a dose never reaches the plasma or exerts its pharmacological effect unless and until very large doses are given which may also lead to serious side effects. Piper longum contains approximately 5-9% piperine.The bio- enhancing dose of piperine is approximately 15 -20 mg/person/day. www.ahlabspk.com
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