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Fresh Cut Fruits and Vegetables

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Fresh Cut Fruits and Vegetables

  1. 1. Dr. Sreekanta Sheel B.Sc. Agril. Engg - with major in Food Technology M.Sc. (Agril. Engg) in Food Technology, Ph.D in Food Technology Logistics (Transportation and Storage) Expert National Agricultural Technology Project (Funded By: The World Bank, IFAD and Govt. of Bangladesh}
  2. 2.  Factors affecting the FreshnessFactors affecting the Freshness of Freshof Fresh Horticultural ProducesHorticultural Produces Some Low-cost Storage Techniques forSome Low-cost Storage Techniques for PerishablesPerishables Minimal processing of Fruits andMinimal processing of Fruits and VegetablesVegetables Out line of the presentationOut line of the presentation
  3. 3. Horticultural Produces are Perishable!Horticultural Produces are Perishable!  Extremely Large loss due to above factExtremely Large loss due to above fact  Horticulture produces are different inHorticulture produces are different in character even from one piece to anothercharacter even from one piece to another  Amount of gas released after harvestingAmount of gas released after harvesting varies widelyvaries widely  Sensitivity to gas released by themselvesSensitivity to gas released by themselves also differ from one to anotheralso differ from one to another
  4. 4. Factors affecting the FreshnessFactors affecting the Freshness ofof Fresh Horticultural ProducesFresh Horticultural Produces  Temperature  Humidity  Gas atmosphere  Volatiles adsorption
  5. 5. Temperature  Degree of influence varies from one to anotherDegree of influence varies from one to another  Quality deteriorates with increase inQuality deteriorates with increase in TemperatureTemperature  Minimizing temperature rise in packages is aMinimizing temperature rise in packages is a very important element for preservation ofvery important element for preservation of Quality of packaged Fresh ProduceQuality of packaged Fresh Produce  Chilling injuryChilling injury
  6. 6. Humidity  Moisture Content of most products are 90% or moreMoisture Content of most products are 90% or more  Loss of 5%MC will result extreme loss of commodityLoss of 5%MC will result extreme loss of commodity valuevalue  Water Evaporation mechanism differs from one toWater Evaporation mechanism differs from one to anotheranother  5% MC loss is the maximum limit that can be5% MC loss is the maximum limit that can be tolerated in terms of commodity valuetolerated in terms of commodity value  Methods to keep MC within limit:Methods to keep MC within limit: 1. Using humidifier- (difficult in open shelf !)1. Using humidifier- (difficult in open shelf !) 2. Package should give protection for water loss2. Package should give protection for water loss
  7. 7. Gas Atmosphere  Influence of OxygenInfluence of Oxygen  Normal respirationNormal respiration Even when O2 concentration in the environment falls fairy  Irregular respirationIrregular respiration: Leads to Physiological disturbance-resulting in corruption, when O2 concentration is below the “Threshold Valued (A boundary, where something starts or ends).” it is related to the CO2 concentration. Threshold value varies from one to another  Low OLow O22 concentration but above “Threshold Valued”concentration but above “Threshold Valued” extends the storable period because of Respiration Suppressing Effects  Correct selection of packaging filmCorrect selection of packaging film To ensure adequate balance of O2 and CO2  Use of 1-MCPUse of 1-MCP To preserve freshness, 1-MCP can be used but -used but -RESEARCHRESEARCH NEEDED for indigenous commodities!NEEDED for indigenous commodities!
  8. 8. Influence of Ethylene Gas  Air mixed with ethylene promotes colouring/Air mixed with ethylene promotes colouring/ ripeningripening  It is believed 0.1 ppm ethylene in atmosphereIt is believed 0.1 ppm ethylene in atmosphere causes ageing & colour changecauses ageing & colour change  Removal of ethylene will extend storageRemoval of ethylene will extend storage periodperiod
  9. 9. Influence of Carbonic Acid Gas  High Carbonic Acid gas concentration-suppressHigh Carbonic Acid gas concentration-suppress Respiration- favourable effect on StorageRespiration- favourable effect on Storage  Abnormality to metabolic physiology includingAbnormality to metabolic physiology including respiration when the concentration reachesrespiration when the concentration reaches threshold levelthreshold level
  10. 10. Some Low-cost Storage TechniquesSome Low-cost Storage Techniques for Perishablesfor Perishables  Zero Energy Evaporative Cooler  CoolBot Technology  Storage in Film package - Passive Modified Atmosphere Packaging- Passive Modified Atmosphere Packaging (PMAP)(PMAP)
  11. 11. Storage of Horticultural Produces at Zero Energy Evaporative Cooler (IARI Model)
  12. 12. CoolBot technology for small scale cold rooms A small-scale option of cold room using a modified room air conditioner (developed by Boyett and Rohrbach in 1993.) The cost of installation of a CoolBot technology for a 20 m2 small scale cold rooms having capacity of 6 MT pptato is around US$ 5000.00 only. The coolbot technology utilizes a typical window type air conditioning unit to create a cold room capable of 0o C temperatures. Inside the Coolbot cold room Source: WFLO Grant Final Report,2010 Further Information: http://www.storeitcold.com/
  13. 13. Costs and Benefits of the Small-scale Cold room withCosts and Benefits of the Small-scale Cold room with CoolBot technology in India for Potato StorageCoolBot technology in India for Potato Storage COSTSCOSTS 20m20m22 Cold room with air conditioner & CoolBot (6MT capacity)Cold room with air conditioner & CoolBot (6MT capacity) $4300$4300 Capital costs (initial investment assuming no labor cost)Capital costs (initial investment assuming no labor cost) $4300$4300 Electricity for initial cooling ($85 per MT, $0.09/kWh)Electricity for initial cooling ($85 per MT, $0.09/kWh) $ 510$ 510 Electricity $18 per month for 3 months, $0.09/kWh at 7 CElectricity $18 per month for 3 months, $0.09/kWh at 7 C $ 54$ 54 World Food Logistics Organization Grant Number 52198 257World Food Logistics Organization Grant Number 52198 257 Recurring costsRecurring costs $564$564 Relative total costRelative total cost $ 4864*$ 4864* EXPECTED BENEFITSEXPECTED BENEFITS % losses% losses 30%30% 5%*5%* Amount for saleAmount for sale 4200 kg4200 kg 5700 kg5700 kg Market value/kgMarket value/kg $0.10$0.10 $0.40$0.40 Total market value of one loadTotal market value of one load $420$420 $ 2280$ 2280 Market value – recurring costsMarket value – recurring costs $420$420 $ 2280- $564= $1716$ 2280- $564= $1716 Relative profit for one load stored for 4 monthsRelative profit for one load stored for 4 months + $ 1296+ $ 1296
  14. 14. A passive modified atmosphere is created within the package by the respiration process of the fresh-cut produce, combined with the permeability of the package. MAs by definition are atmospheres that differ in composition from that of normal air. Typically, MAs consisting of low oxygen and high CO2 concentrations are used to reduce respiration Passive Modified Atmosphere PackagingPassive Modified Atmosphere Packaging (PMAP)(PMAP)
  15. 15. What is Minimal Processing? Minimal processing for agricultural crops refers to a method in which as much of the original product as possible remains in the finished product. Commodity Minimally processed Processed Rice De-husked paddy Parboiled, De-husked, Removal of bran layer and germ, enrichment with vit and minerals, etc. Mango Peeled Mango Slices Mango leather (Pulping, blanching, cooling, sulphiting, adding sugar and citric acid and other additives and drying
  16. 16. Ready to eat productsReady to eat products Given minimal processing treatmentsGiven minimal processing treatments Have the attributes of convenienceHave the attributes of convenience Fresh-like quality (aroma, flavour and nutrientsFresh-like quality (aroma, flavour and nutrients are retained)are retained) More perishable than the intact produce as theseMore perishable than the intact produce as these are subjected to physical stress such as peeling,are subjected to physical stress such as peeling, cutting, slicing, etccutting, slicing, etc Tissues are still livingTissues are still living The preparation entails physical wounding-The preparation entails physical wounding- respiration, ethylene production and biochemicalrespiration, ethylene production and biochemical changes - limit the shelf lifechanges - limit the shelf life Nature of Minimally Processed FruitsNature of Minimally Processed Fruits
  17. 17. Limited as it faces the following factorsLimited as it faces the following factors deeply:deeply: 11. Microbial spoilage. Microbial spoilage 2. Desiccation2. Desiccation 3. Oxidative browning3. Oxidative browning 4. Loss of colour, bleaching4. Loss of colour, bleaching 5. Loss of textural integrity5. Loss of textural integrity 6. Off-flavour or off odour development6. Off-flavour or off odour development Shelf-life of Minimally Processed ProductShelf-life of Minimally Processed Product
  18. 18. Market demand high. as consumers moreMarket demand high. as consumers more conscious in their food choices but haveconscious in their food choices but have less time to prepareless time to prepare The market outlet for minimally processedThe market outlet for minimally processed products has expanded from traditional toproducts has expanded from traditional to exclusive outlets such as supermarkets,exclusive outlets such as supermarkets, hotels, airlines catering serviceshotels, airlines catering services Market PotentialMarket Potential
  19. 19.  HarvestingHarvesting Fruit maturity: Selection of the optimum maturity isFruit maturity: Selection of the optimum maturity is essential to provide the best combination of eatingessential to provide the best combination of eating quality & postharvest life.quality & postharvest life.  Receiving at the processing facilityReceiving at the processing facility  Pre-coolingPre-cooling Minimal Processing OperationsMinimal Processing Operations (from harvest to market)(from harvest to market) Washing and disinfectionWashing and disinfection For vegetable wash water the parameters may be used: Temperature (0-5o C), pH (4.5-5.5) [Adding acidulent] Chlorine concentration (50-100 ppm), Oxidation reduction potential (ORP) (650-750 ppm). During the washing process any defective produce must be removed and discarded.
  20. 20. In small processing plants, knives are used to trimIn small processing plants, knives are used to trim and peel fresh produce. Large processing plantsand peel fresh produce. Large processing plants make use of abrasive peelers and automatedmake use of abrasive peelers and automated trimmers to accelerate the process.trimmers to accelerate the process. Cutting operations Chopping boards and knives are used to createChopping boards and knives are used to create the desired size and shape for finished products.the desired size and shape for finished products. Research has shown that using a sharp knifeResearch has shown that using a sharp knife reduces physical damage to cut fruits andreduces physical damage to cut fruits and vegetables in that less stress is observed in thevegetables in that less stress is observed in the cells of produce cut with a sharp knife.cells of produce cut with a sharp knife. Peeling, trimming and deseeding
  21. 21. Cutting : Use Suitable ToolsCutting : Use Suitable Tools -Accelerates respiration process -Mechanical shock to tissue -Bruises, cracks, fractures in tissue -Removal of protective epidermal layer -Alter gas diffusion -Provides entry for contaminants -Cell fluids on cut surface -Reduced gas diffusion -Provides substrates for microbes -Exposure to contaminants -Physical & chemical change Sorting for defectsSorting for defects
  22. 22. Rinsing of pre-cut fruits and vegetables It is recommended that only water of the highestIt is recommended that only water of the highest quality be used for the final rinse of pre-cut fruitsquality be used for the final rinse of pre-cut fruits and vegetables. Many operations inject chlorine asand vegetables. Many operations inject chlorine as a disinfectant along with acid in order to maintain aa disinfectant along with acid in order to maintain a pH range of 4.5-5.5 and to assure the effectivenesspH range of 4.5-5.5 and to assure the effectiveness of chlorine.of chlorine. Dipping Produce can be optionally dipped in a solution of anProduce can be optionally dipped in a solution of an acidulant/antioxidant blend consisting of aacidulant/antioxidant blend consisting of a combination of ascorbic acid/citric acid for example,combination of ascorbic acid/citric acid for example, or in an anti-softening agent such as calciumor in an anti-softening agent such as calcium chloride.chloride.
  23. 23. Prevention of Oxidative BrowningPrevention of Oxidative Browning Rate of respiration high after cutting / cutting sizeRate of respiration high after cutting / cutting size Refrigeration (slows enzymatic reactions)Refrigeration (slows enzymatic reactions) Exclusion of oxygen (CA, MAP, edible coating)Exclusion of oxygen (CA, MAP, edible coating) Inhibition of Polyphenol Oxidase (PPO)Inhibition of Polyphenol Oxidase (PPO) Use of reducing agents (ascorbic acid, etc)Use of reducing agents (ascorbic acid, etc) Treating with Ascorbic Acid Oxidative browningTreating with Ascorbic Acid Oxidative browning –– is caused by the PPOis caused by the PPO Ascorbic acid used to prevent oxidative - browning as:Ascorbic acid used to prevent oxidative - browning as: –– It plays the unique role of a reducing agent (convert phenolic cpdIt plays the unique role of a reducing agent (convert phenolic cpd to their reduced form)to their reduced form) –– It lowers the pH of the productIt lowers the pH of the product
  24. 24. Treatment with CoatingTreatment with Coating The use of edible coating create a barrierThe use of edible coating create a barrier that can retard loss of desirable flavourthat can retard loss of desirable flavour volatiles and water vapour, while restrictingvolatiles and water vapour, while restricting the exchange of CO2 and O2. These willthe exchange of CO2 and O2. These will create MA slow down respiration &create MA slow down respiration & ethylene production maintain the qualityethylene production maintain the quality & shelf life extension of minimally processed& shelf life extension of minimally processed productsproducts
  25. 25. Drying _ Use of conveyor shakers to remove water through a mesh. The cut fruit or vegetable vibrates on the conveyor mesh. _ Air drying on conveyors with forced air or polar wind used to blow excess water off the surface of the wet produce. _ Spin-drying baskets, both automated and manual, that make use of centrifugation to remove excess water. Packaging/Labeling MAP reduces the respiration rate of produce and thus slows the rate of spoilage. In addition, it creates anaerobic conditions or high carbon dioxide and low oxygen levels in the pack, to extend fresh produce shelf-life. Oriented polypropylene (OPP) is generally used in the MAP of fresh-cuts. Other packaging films used include perforated, thin, low density polyethylene (LDPE) and ethylene vinyl acetate.
  26. 26. Suitable Packing SystemSuitable Packing System Protect the product Ensure food Safety Maintain quality Attract consumers Major Requirement for Proper PackagingMajor Requirement for Proper Packaging Control moisture loss, gas transfer, Protection against external physical or mechanical damage -Compliance with regulatory requirements and guidelines -Cost effective -Facilitate transport, handling, storage and marketing
  27. 27. Types of PackagesTypes of Packages Rigid packages •Reduce physical injury •Provide sufficient gas exchange Polypropylene containerPolypropylene container » Easy to handle • packing faster • can be stacked Bulk Package • Low temperature - provide cool environment to preserve the quality & freshness during transportation & marketing
  28. 28. Temperature Affects All Causes of Deterioration 1. Metabolic changes; respiration, ethylene, texture, aroma, etc 2. Transpiration 3. Mechanical injury 4. Physiological disorders 5. Decay, microbial growth Signs of deterioration in fresh cut produceSigns of deterioration in fresh cut produce • Bruished –packaging too tight/rough handling • Wilting -excessive drying/water loss • Mushiness -excessive tissue softening • Development of offcolour-enzymatic browning • Undesirable odour/fermented aroma-accumulation of ethanol
  29. 29. Minimal Processing of Pineapple and JackfruitMinimal Processing of Pineapple and Jackfruit •• Wider range for market planningWider range for market planning •• Convenient to eat/carry:Convenient to eat/carry: •• Provide more uniform & constant qualityProvide more uniform & constant quality •• Require less storage space :Require less storage space : •• Allow consumer to inspect closely & reassure of the qualityAllow consumer to inspect closely & reassure of the quality •• Ensure of product safetyEnsure of product safety •• Overcome waste disposal problems at the importer ends.Overcome waste disposal problems at the importer ends. •• The consumer can see the product to be eatenThe consumer can see the product to be eaten •• Reassure quality and freshness (retain colour, flavour & aromaReassure quality and freshness (retain colour, flavour & aroma Export PotentialExport Potential At 2At 2oo C, Pineapple, 2wks and Jackfruit-3 wksC, Pineapple, 2wks and Jackfruit-3 wks Air shipment -Air shipment - Sea shipment –Sea shipment –
  30. 30. Scope for retail packaging - Minimally processed fruits and vegetables with modified atmosphere packaging (MAP)
  31. 31. Minimally processed fruits and vegetables with modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) using tray
  32. 32. Vacuum Packaging (Vac Pack)
  33. 33. Conclusion Consumer demand for convenience and added valueConsumer demand for convenience and added value means that minimally processed fruits withmeans that minimally processed fruits with extended shelf life will play a significant role in theextended shelf life will play a significant role in the FRUIT and VEGETABLES INDUSTRY in the future.FRUIT and VEGETABLES INDUSTRY in the future. -Application of strict sanitation in processing,-Application of strict sanitation in processing, improved technology in packaging, and intenseimproved technology in packaging, and intense commitment to strict attention to maintainingcommitment to strict attention to maintaining correct low temperatures throughout the cold chaincorrect low temperatures throughout the cold chain -from distribution, storage, and display to handling-from distribution, storage, and display to handling and use by the consumer.and use by the consumer. Success will ultimately depend on providing a safe,Success will ultimately depend on providing a safe, wholesome product with FRESH-LIKE quality at thewholesome product with FRESH-LIKE quality at the consumer’s table.consumer’s table.

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