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Neurobiology" Understanding Dopamine Serotonin & GABA

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Neurobiology" Understanding Dopamine Serotonin & GABA

  1. 1. Dr. Dawn-Elise Snipes PhD, LPC-MHSP, LMHC, NCC, CCDC Executive Director, AllCEUs.com
  2. 2.  Define Neurobiology  For the following neurotransmitters, Dopamine, GABA, Serotonin, Acetylcholine, identify ◦ Their mechanism of action/purpose ◦ Where they are found ◦ Symptoms of excess & insufficiency ◦ Nutritional building blocks ◦ Medications
  3. 3.  Neurobiology is the study of the brain and nervous system which generate sensation, perception, movement, learning, emotion, and many of the functions that make us human
  4. 4.  Mechanism of action/purpose ◦ movement ◦ memory ◦ pleasurable reward ◦ behavior and cognition ◦ attention ◦ inhibition of prolactin production ◦ sleep ◦ mood ◦ learning
  5. 5.  Mechanism of action/purpose ◦ Altered dopamine neurotransmission is implicated in  Cognitive control (racing thoughts)  Attentional control  Impulse control  Working memory
  6. 6.  Where is it found ◦ Precursor, L-DOPA is synthesized in brain and kidneys ◦ Dopamine functions in several parts of the peripheral nervous system  In blood vessels, it inhibits norepinephrine release and acts as a vasodilator (relaxation)  In the kidneys, it increases sodium and urine excretion  In the pancreas, it reduces insulin production  In the digestive system, it reduces gastrointestinal motility and protects intestinal mucosa  In the immune system, it reduces lymphocyte activity.
  7. 7.  Symptoms of excess & insufficiency ◦ Excess of dopamine  Unnecessary movements, repetitive tics  Psychosis  Hypersexuality  Nausea  Most antipsychotic drugs are dopamine antagonists  Dopamine antagonist drugs are also some of the most effective anti-nausea agents
  8. 8.  Symptoms of excess & insufficiency ◦ Insufficient dopamine  Negative symptoms of schizophrenia  Pain  Parkinson’s Disease  Restless legs syndrome  Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)  Neurological symptoms that increase in frequency with age, such as decreased arm swing and increased rigidity.  Changes in dopamine levels may also cause age-related changes in cognitive flexibility.
  9. 9.  Symptoms of excess & insufficiency ◦ Insufficient dopamine  Lack of motivation  Fatigue  Apathy, Inability to feel pleasure  Procrastination  Low libido  Sleep problems  Mood swings  Hopelessness  Memory loss  Inability to concentrate
  10. 10.  Nutritional building blocks ◦ Eating a diet high in magnesium and tyrosine rich foods will ensure you’ve got the basic building blocks needed for dopamine production. ◦ Here’s a list of foods known to increase dopamine: Chicken Almonds Apples Avocado Bananas Beets Chocolate Green leafy vegetables Green tea Lima beans Oatmeal Sesame & pumpkin seeds Turmeric Watermelon Wheat germ
  11. 11.  Medications ◦ Dopamine in blood is unable to cross the blood- brain barrier to reach the brain. ◦ Levodopa-Carbidopa combination is actually converted to dopamine in the brain
  12. 12.  Medications ◦ Most common dopamine antagonists (positive symptoms)  Risperdone, Haldol, Zyprexa  Metoclopramide (Reglan) is an antiemetic and antipsychotic ◦ Most common dopamine AGONISTs (Parkinson’s, Restless Legs) (negative symptoms)  Mirapex & Requip
  13. 13.  Patients with schizophrenia do not typically show measurably increased levels of brain dopamine activity  Other dissociative drugs, notably ketamine and phencyclidine that act on glutamate NMDA receptors (and not on dopamine receptors) can produce psychotic symptoms.  Those drugs that do reduce dopamine activity are a very imperfect treatment for schizophrenia: they only reduce a subset of symptoms, while producing severe short-term and long-term side effects
  14. 14.  Mechanism of action/purpose ◦ Anti-anxiety, Anti-convulsant ◦ GABA is made from glutamate ◦ GABA functions as an inhibitory neurotransmitter – ◦ Glutamate acts as an excitatory neurotransmitter ◦ GABA does the opposite and tells the adjoining cells not to “fire”
  15. 15.  Where they are found ◦ Close to 40% of the synapses in the human brain work with GABA and therefore have GABA receptors.
  16. 16. ◦ Symptoms of excess  Excess sleepiness  Shallow breathing  *Increased blood pressure ◦ Symptoms of insufficiency  Anxiety  Depression  Difficulty concentrating  Insomnia  Seizure disorders
  17. 17.  Nutritional building blocks  Fermented foods sauerkraut, yogurt  Almonds & Walnuts  Cherry Tomatoes  Banana  Brown rice  Potato  Oats  Lentils  Vitamin B6, if deficient, may impair the production of GABA as it is a cofactor nutrient.
  18. 18.  Nutritional building blocks ◦ Inositol (Vitamin B-8)  Wheat germ  Brown rice  Green leafy vegetables  Nuts  Navy and Lima beans
  19. 19.  Medications ◦ Drugs that act as allosteric modulators of GABA receptors (known as GABA analogues or GABAergic drugs) or increase the available amount of GABA typically have relaxing, anti-anxiety, and anti-convulsive effect ◦ Gabapentin (neurontin) is a GABA analogue used to treat epilepsy and neurotic pain. ◦ Benzodiazepines and Barbiturates including GHB, Valium, Xanax
  20. 20.  Mechanism of action/purpose ◦ Helps regulate  Mood  Sleep patterns  Appetite  Pain
  21. 21.  Where is it found ◦ Brain ◦ Gut/Intestines
  22. 22.  Symptoms of excess ◦ Shivering ◦ Diarrhea ◦ Muscle rigity ◦ Fever ◦ Seizures ◦ Irregular heartbeat
  23. 23.  Symptoms of excess ◦ Depression ◦ Apathy, Emotional flatness or dullness ◦ Passivity ◦ Insomnia and other sleep problems ◦ Difficulty concentrating and learning ◦ Poor memory; amnesia ◦ Difficulty making decisions and acting on them ◦ Sexual dysfunction
  24. 24.  Insufficiency ◦ Depression ◦ Anxiety ◦ Pain sensitivity
  25. 25.  Nutritional building blocks ◦ Foods rich in tryptophan, an amino acid that converts to serotonin in the brain.  Whole-wheat  Potatoes  Brown rice  Lentils  Oats  Beans
  26. 26.  Medications ◦ SSRIs ◦ SNRIs ◦ 5-HTP ◦ SAM-e
  27. 27.  Their mechanism of action/purpose ◦ In lower amounts, ACh can act like a stimulant by releasing norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA). ◦ Memory ◦ Motivation ◦ Higher-order thought processes ◦ Sexual desire and activity ◦ Sleep
  28. 28.  Symptoms of excess  Depression (all symptoms)  Nightmares  Mental Fatigue  Anxiety  Inverse relationship between serotonin and acetylcholine
  29. 29. ◦ Insufficiency  Alzheimers/dementia  Parkinsons  Impaired cognition, attention, and arousal  Cholinergic and GABAergic pathways are intimately connected in the hippocampus and basal forebrain complex.
  30. 30. ◦ Nutritional building blocks  Foods high in choline  Meats  Dairy  Poultry  Chocolate  Peanut butter  Wheat germ  Brussels sprouts and broccoli
  31. 31.  Medications ◦ Cholinergics  Used for glaucoma, bladder control and severe muscle weakness ◦ Anticholinergics  May worsen GERD  Used for extrapyrimadal symptoms is treating schizophrenia  Muscular spasms  Akathisia: A feeling of internal motor restlessness, tension, nervousness, or anxiety[  Drug-induced parkinsonism  Tardive dyskinesia: involuntary muscle movements in the lower face and distal extremities
  32. 32.  Medications ◦ Anticholinergics  Atropine  Benzatropine (Cogentin)  Chlorpheniramine (Chlor-Trimeton)  Dimenhydrinate (Dramamine)  Diphenhydramine (Benadryl, Sominex, Advil PM, Unisom)  Hydroxyzine (Atarax, Vistaril)  Bupropion (Zyban, Wellbutrin)  Dextromethorphan - Cough suppressant
  33. 33.  Anticholinergic drugs are used to treat a variety of conditions: ◦ Gastrointestinal disorders (e.g., gastritis, diarrhea, diverticulitis, ulcerative colitis, nausea, and vomiting) ◦ Genitourinary disorders (e.g., cystitis, urethritis, prostatitis) ◦ Respiratory disorders (e.g., asthma, chronic bronchitis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [COPD]) ◦ Insomnia, although usually only on a short-term basis.
  34. 34.  Higher ACh and NE, together with lower SE, produces ◦ Anxiety, emotional lability, irritability, anger, aggressiveness, negative rumination, impatience, and impulsiveness  When NE, DA, and SE are low and acetylcholine is high ◦ The result is simply depression.  Increasing serotonin ◦ lowers acetylcholine levels, and norepinephrine and dopamine.
  35. 35.  There are a variety of different neurotransmitters involved in addiction and mental health disorders  It is not always about increasing a neurotransmitter. Sometimes you need to decrease it.  Human brains try to maintain homeostasis and too much or too little can be bad  A balanced diet will provide the brain the necessary nutrients in synergystic combinations
  36. 36.  Res Nurs Health. 2014 Jun;37(3):185-93. doi: 10.1002/nur.21595. Epub 2014 Apr 3. Neurobehavioral effects of aspartame consumption.Lindseth GN1, Coolahan SE, Petros TV, Lindseth PD.  http://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/could- diet-soda-cause-clinical-depression-586801/?no-ist  Understanding our Bodies: Dopamine and Its Rewards http://nutritionwonderland.com/2009/07/understanding- our-bodies-dopamine-rewards/  http://nutritionwonderland.com/2009/06/understanding- bodies-serotonin-connection-between-food-and-mood/
  37. 37.  Myo-inositol content of common foods: development of a high-myo-inositol diet. http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/33/9/1954.abstract  Neuroscience. 2002;111(2):231-9. GABA mechanisms and sleep. Gottesmann C.  Biofactors. 2006;26(3):201-8. Relaxation and immunity enhancement effects of gamma- aminobutyric acid (GABA) administration in humans. Abdou AM1, Higashiguchi S, Horie K, Kim M, Hatta H, Yokogoshi H.
  38. 38.  Neuropsychopharmacology: The Fifth Generation of Progress Editors: Kenneth L. Davis et. Al. Publisher Lippincott, Williams, & Wilkins, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 2002 http://www.acnp.org/publications/neuro5thg eneration.aspx

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