Hiv tb

941 views

Published on

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
941
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
51
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Hiv tb

  1. 1. HIV/AIDS/TB4 Hours<br />Instructor: Dr. Dawn-Elise Snipes Ph.D., LMHC, CRC, NCC<br />Copyright AllCEUs.com 2010-2016. Unlimited CEUs for 12 months $74.99 http://AllCEUs.com<br />
  2. 2. Objectives<br />Review the signs, symptoms and modes of transmission of HIV, TB, Hepatitis<br />Identify ways to protect yourself<br />Copyright AllCEUs.com 2010-2016. Unlimited CEUs for 12 months $74.99 http://AllCEUs.com<br />
  3. 3. HIV<br />“Human Immunodeficiency Syndrome”<br />A specific type of virus (a retrovirus)<br />HIV invades the helper T cells to replicate itself.<br />No Cure<br />Copyright AllCEUs.com 2010-2016. Unlimited CEUs for 12 months $74.99 http://AllCEUs.com<br />
  4. 4. AIDS<br /> Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome<br /> HIV is the virus that causes AIDS<br /> Disease limits the body’s ability to fight infection<br />A person with AIDS has a very weak immune system<br />No Cure<br />Copyright AllCEUs.com 2010-2016. Unlimited CEUs for 12 months $74.99 http://AllCEUs.com<br />
  5. 5. New HIV Infections in 2002 by Age Group<br />Copyright AllCEUs.com 2010-2016. Unlimited CEUs for 12 months $74.99 http://AllCEUs.com<br />
  6. 6. Four Stages of HIV<br />Copyright AllCEUs.com 2010-2016. Unlimited CEUs for 12 months $74.99 http://AllCEUs.com<br />
  7. 7. Stage 1 - Primary<br />Short, flu-like illness - occurs one to six weeks after infection<br />No symptoms at all<br /> Infected person can infect other people<br />Copyright AllCEUs.com 2010-2016. Unlimited CEUs for 12 months $74.99 http://AllCEUs.com<br />
  8. 8. Stage 2 - Asymptomatic<br />Lasts for an average of ten years <br />This stage is free from symptoms<br />There may be swollen glands<br />The level of HIV in the blood drops to very low levels <br />HIV antibodies are detectable in the blood<br />Copyright AllCEUs.com 2010-2016. Unlimited CEUs for 12 months $74.99 http://AllCEUs.com<br />
  9. 9. Stage 3 - Symptomatic<br />The symptoms are mild<br />The immune system deteriorates <br />emergence of opportunistic infections and cancers<br />Copyright AllCEUs.com 2010-2016. Unlimited CEUs for 12 months $74.99 http://AllCEUs.com<br />
  10. 10. Stage 4 - HIV  AIDS<br />The immune system weakens<br />The illnesses become more severe leading to an AIDS diagnosis<br />Copyright AllCEUs.com 2010-2016. Unlimited CEUs for 12 months $74.99 http://AllCEUs.com<br />
  11. 11. Opportunistic Infections associated with AIDS<br />Bacterial<br />Tuberculosis (TB)<br />Strep pneumonia<br />Viral<br />Kaposi Sarcoma<br />Herpes<br />Influenza (flu)<br />Copyright AllCEUs.com 2010-2016. Unlimited CEUs for 12 months $74.99 http://AllCEUs.com<br />
  12. 12. Opportunistic Infections associated with AIDS<br />Parasitic<br />Pneumocystiscarinii<br />Fungal<br />Candida<br />Cryptococcus<br />Copyright AllCEUs.com 2010-2016. Unlimited CEUs for 12 months $74.99 http://AllCEUs.com<br />
  13. 13. Modes of HIV/AIDS Transmission<br />Copyright AllCEUs.com 2010-2016. Unlimited CEUs for 12 months $74.99 http://AllCEUs.com<br />
  14. 14. Testing Options for HIV<br />Copyright AllCEUs.com 2010-2016. Unlimited CEUs for 12 months $74.99 http://AllCEUs.com<br />
  15. 15. Anonymous Testing<br />No name is used<br />Unique identifying number<br />Results issued only to test recipient<br />Copyright AllCEUs.com 2010-2016. Unlimited CEUs for 12 months $74.99 http://AllCEUs.com<br />
  16. 16. Confidential Testing<br />Person’s name is recorded along with HIV results<br />Name and positive results are reported to the State Department and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention<br />Results issued only to test recipient<br />Copyright AllCEUs.com 2010-2016. Unlimited CEUs for 12 months $74.99 http://AllCEUs.com<br />
  17. 17. Administration<br />Blood<br />Urine<br />Oral<br />Copyright AllCEUs.com 2010-2016. Unlimited CEUs for 12 months $74.99 http://AllCEUs.com<br />
  18. 18. Blood Detection Tests<br />Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/Enzyme Immunoassay (ELISA/EIA)<br />Radio Immunoprecipitation Assay/Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Assay (RIP/IFA)<br />Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)<br />Western Blot Confirmatory test<br />Copyright AllCEUs.com 2010-2016. Unlimited CEUs for 12 months $74.99 http://AllCEUs.com<br />
  19. 19. Urine Testing<br />Urine Western Blot<br />As sensitive as testing blood<br />Safe way to screen for HIV<br />Can cause false positives in certain people at high risk for HIV<br />Copyright AllCEUs.com 2010-2016. Unlimited CEUs for 12 months $74.99 http://AllCEUs.com<br />
  20. 20. Oral Testing<br />Orasure<br />The only FDA approved HIV antibody.<br />As accurate as blood testing<br />Draws blood-derived fluids from the gum tissue.<br />NOT A SALIVA TEST!<br />Copyright AllCEUs.com 2010-2016. Unlimited CEUs for 12 months $74.99 http://AllCEUs.com<br />
  21. 21. Counseling<br />Copyright AllCEUs.com 2010-2016. Unlimited CEUs for 12 months $74.99 http://AllCEUs.com<br />
  22. 22. Pre-test Counseling<br />Transmission<br />Prevention<br />Risk Factors<br />Voluntary & Confidential<br />Reportability of Positive Test Results<br />Copyright AllCEUs.com 2010-2016. Unlimited CEUs for 12 months $74.99 http://AllCEUs.com<br />
  23. 23. Post-Test Counseling<br />Clarifies test results<br />Need for additional testing<br />Promotion of safe behavior<br />Release of results<br />Copyright AllCEUs.com 2010-2016. Unlimited CEUs for 12 months $74.99 http://AllCEUs.com<br />
  24. 24. Treatment Options<br />Copyright AllCEUs.com 2010-2016. Unlimited CEUs for 12 months $74.99 http://AllCEUs.com<br />
  25. 25. Antiretroviral Drugs<br />Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase inhibitors<br />AZT (Zidovudine)<br />Non-Nucleoside Transcriptase inhibitors<br />Viramune (Nevirapine)<br />Protease inhibitors<br />Norvir (Ritonavir)<br />Copyright AllCEUs.com 2010-2016. Unlimited CEUs for 12 months $74.99 http://AllCEUs.com<br />
  26. 26. Four ways to protect yourself<br />Abstinence<br />Monogamous Relationship<br />Protected Sex<br />Sterile needles<br />Copyright AllCEUs.com 2010-2016. Unlimited CEUs for 12 months $74.99 http://AllCEUs.com<br />
  27. 27. Tuberculosis <br />Copyright AllCEUs.com 2010-2016. Unlimited CEUs for 12 months $74.99 http://AllCEUs.com<br />
  28. 28. Tuberculosis<br />Usually attacks the lungs, but can attack the kidneys, spine or brain<br />Spread through the air when an infected person coughs<br />Latent<br />No symptoms<br />Not contagious<br />Generally caused when you are exposed and “fight off” the infection<br />Will show in a skin test<br />Copyright AllCEUs.com 2010-2016. Unlimited CEUs for 12 months $74.99 http://AllCEUs.com<br />
  29. 29. Persons at Risk for TB<br />Close contacts of persons known or suspected to have TB <br />Foreign-born persons who have immigrated within the last 5 years from areas that have a high TB incidence or prevalence <br />Residents and employees of high-risk congregate settings<br />Health care workers who serve high-risk clients <br />Some medically underserved, low-income populations<br />High-risk racial or ethnic minority populations defined locally as having an increased prevalence of TB <br />Infants, children, and adolescents exposed to adults in high-risk categories <br />Persons who inject illicit drugs or any other locally identified high-risk substance users <br />Copyright AllCEUs.com 2010-2016. Unlimited CEUs for 12 months $74.99 http://AllCEUs.com<br />
  30. 30. Persons at risk cont…<br />Persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection <br />Persons who were recently infected with M. tuberculosis (within the past 2 years), particularly infants and very young children <br />Persons who have medical conditions known to increase the risk for disease if infection occurs <br />Persons who inject illicit drugs or other groups of high-risk substance users <br />Persons with a history of inadequately treated TB<br />Copyright AllCEUs.com 2010-2016. Unlimited CEUs for 12 months $74.99 http://AllCEUs.com<br />
  31. 31. TB Symptoms<br />Bad cough lasting 3 weeks or more<br />Chest pain<br />Coughing up blood or sputum<br />Weakness/fatigue<br />Weightloss/loss of appetite<br />Chills<br />Fever<br />Night sweats<br />Copyright AllCEUs.com 2010-2016. Unlimited CEUs for 12 months $74.99 http://AllCEUs.com<br />
  32. 32. More TB Info<br />TB is treatable with a long course of medicine (6-12 months)<br />Failure to complete course of treatment may lead to drug resistant TB<br />TB is a leading cause of death among persons with HIV<br />Someone with HIV and latent TB is much more likely to develop active TB<br />1/3 of the world’s population has TB<br />12,904 cases of TB in the US in 2008<br />Copyright AllCEUs.com 2010-2016. Unlimited CEUs for 12 months $74.99 http://AllCEUs.com<br />
  33. 33. Hepatitis<br />Copyright AllCEUs.com 2010-2016. Unlimited CEUs for 12 months $74.99 http://AllCEUs.com<br />
  34. 34. Hepatitis<br />Transmission<br />By unprotected (without a condom) penetrative sex with someone who is infectious. Also by sex that draws blood with someone who is infected.<br />By sharing contaminated needles or other drug-injecting equipment.<br />By using non-sterilized equipment for tattooing, acupuncture or body piercing.<br />From an infected mother to her baby, most commonly during delivery. Immunization of the baby at birth prevents the transmission of hepatitis B.<br />Through a blood transfusion in a country where blood is not screened for blood-borne viruses such as HBV.<br />Copyright AllCEUs.com 2010-2016. Unlimited CEUs for 12 months $74.99 http://AllCEUs.com<br />
  35. 35. Hepatitis Types<br />Hepatitis A Virus<br />Transmitted by the fecal-oral route, by either person-to-person contact or through consumption of contaminated food or water. Hepatitis A vaccination is the most effective measure to prevent HAV<br />Hepatitis B Virus<br />HBV infection can cause acute illness and lead to chronic or lifelong infection, cirrhosis (scarring) of the liver, liver cancer, liver failure, and death. HBV is transmitted through contact with infectious blood or body fluids. Hepatitis B vaccination is the most effective measure to prevent HBV infection<br />Copyright AllCEUs.com 2010-2016. Unlimited CEUs for 12 months $74.99 http://AllCEUs.com<br />
  36. 36. Hepatitis Types cont…<br />Hepatitis C Virus<br />Sometimes results in an acute illness, but most often becomes a chronic infection that can lead to cirrhosis (scarring), liver failure, liver cancer, and death. HCV is spread by contact with the blood of an infected person. There is no vaccine for hepatitis C.<br />Hepatitis D Virus<br />Hepatitis D is a serious liver disease caused by the hepatitis D virus (HDV), and only occurs in people already infected with hepatitis B.<br />Hepatitis E Virus<br />HEV infection is primarily transmitted by the fecal-oral route, mostly through consumption of contaminated water. While rare in the United States, hepatitis E is common in many parts of the world. There is currently no approved vaccine for hepatitis E.<br />Copyright AllCEUs.com 2010-2016. Unlimited CEUs for 12 months $74.99 http://AllCEUs.com<br />
  37. 37. Hepatitis Symptoms<br />A short, mild, flu-like illness<br />nausea, vomiting and diarrhea<br />loss of appetite<br />weight loss<br />jaundice (yellow skin and whites of eyes, darker yellow urine and pale faeces)<br />itchy skin<br />abdominal pain<br />Copyright AllCEUs.com 2010-2016. Unlimited CEUs for 12 months $74.99 http://AllCEUs.com<br />
  38. 38. Hepatitis Treatment<br />Antiviral Drugs<br />Nutrition<br />Adequate rest<br />Copyright AllCEUs.com 2010-2016. Unlimited CEUs for 12 months $74.99 http://AllCEUs.com<br />
  39. 39. HIV, TB, Hepatitis Summary<br />HIV and Hepatitis may be spread through contact with contaminated body fluids, secretions or excretions<br />Tuberculosis is still an active disease today<br />Persons using illicit drugs are at a greater risk for all three of these<br />Use of personal protective equipment and standard precautions is always recommended<br />The CDC recommends that persons working with at risk populations have a Hepatitis B vaccination <br />Copyright AllCEUs.com 2010-2016. Unlimited CEUs for 12 months $74.99 http://AllCEUs.com<br />

×