Alcohol and drugs week 10


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  • Excerpt from Steroid Dangers Supplemental Reading: Steroid Users Risk: 1) Increased Liver Function. 2) Depression of Natural Testosterone Production. 3) Increase in Cholesterol Levels and Blood Pressure (Not conductive to good cardiovascular health). 4) Altered Thyroid Function. 5) Headeches. 6) Nose bleeds. 7) Cramps. 8) Development of breastlike tissue in men (Gynecomastia). 9) Insulin Insensitivity (Even though Deca Durabolin improves the insulin metabolism). 10) Androgenic Side effects such as thinning hair, enlarged prostate, oily skin, water retention, increased body hair, aggressiveness. 11) Stunted growth if you are a teenager. 12) Oral Steroid specific side effects: In addition to the above, the orals also tend to cause nausea, diarrhea, constipation, and vomiting. 13) May accelerate the growth of tumors. Again, keep in mind that different steroids offer different side effects and that everything is dosage dependent, so the list above is a generalized list of side effects. I am not even going to go into the kind of side effects that females encounter when they decide to use these drugs, especially the androgenic ones like testosterone. That could be a whole article by itself, but I think that most people could imagine what happens when you start introducing abnormal amounts of hormones from the opposite sex into your body.
  • GHB Article Text Version Club Drugs: GHB, an Anabolic Steroid Anabolic steroids, one type of club drugs being used by young people, are gaining in popularity because of their euphoric, sedative, and bodybuilding effects. Despite research that has shown a decrease in most drug use—including crack cocaine, crystal methamphetamine, and cigarette smoking—the 1999 Monitoring the Future survey found a significant increase in the use of anabolic steroids among 8th and 10th graders, primarily boys (NIDA, Monitoring the Future, 1999.) Anabolic steroids are synthetic derivatives of the male hormone testosterone, which promotes skeletal muscle growth. The most popular anabolic steroid among young people is GHB (gamma-hydroxybutyrate). GHB used to be widely available for medical purposes. The illicit use of GHB rose to such levels that the 106th Congress called the drug “an imminent hazard to the public safety.” Congress amended the Controlled Substances Act in January 2000 to a national awareness campaign, led by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and the attorney general, targeting GHB’s use and effects. (NCADI, accessed 7/12/2000.) What Is GHB? GHB is a central nervous system depressant once used by many bodybuilders and athletes. In the 1980s, GHB was widely available over the counter in health food stores, and bodybuilders used it to lose fat and build muscle. GHB has been given nicknames such as Grievous Bodily Harm, G, Liquid Ecstasy, and Georgia Home Boy. In 1990, the Food and Drug Administration banned the use of GHB except under the supervision of a physician because of reports of severe side effects, including euphoric and sedative effects similar to the effects experienced after taking Rohypnol (the “date rape” drug.) GHB also has been associated with sexual assaults in cities throughout the United States (NIDA, Infofax.) Despite the ban on use, GHB is created in clandestine laboratories, in a variety of forms, including clear liquid, white powder and tablet. Increasing use rates are being reported. In 1998, the Denver Poison Control Center received 33 calls involving GHB, and almost half of these cases were considered life-threatening. (NIDA Infofax-Club Drugs, 2000.) Because it clears from the body relatively quickly, it is often difficult to detect when patients go to emergency rooms and other treatment facilities. What Are the Side Effects of GHB? Like most steroids, GHB can cause high blood pressure, wide mood swings, liver tumors, and violent behavior. The drug’s effects typically last up to 4 hours, depending on the dosage. At lower doses, it can relieve anxiety and promote relaxation; at higher doses, the sedative effects may result in sleep, coma, or death. Other side effects include sweating, headache, decreased heart rate, nausea, vomiting, impaired breathing, loss of reflexes, and tremors. For more information about GHB and other club drugs, contact SAMHSA’s National Clearinghouse for Alcohol and Drug Information at Muscle Physiology Article Online from Anabolic Steroids and Training Although steroids and training are a bit outside of the lab's research interests, they appear to be a topic of great general interest. We've put together these few pages to serve that interest and hopefully provide some objective information and a starting point for your own investigation (meaning we probably won't answer steroid questions). Structure All anabolic steroids are chemical derivatives of the male sex hormone, testosterone. Due to testosterone's short biological half-life, pharmacological use requires the steroid be modified to slow metabolism by the liver. Typically, oral steroids are modified primarily by alkylation (replacing an H with a CH3 group), while injectable steroids are modified by esterification of the hydroxyl group. Function Anabolic steroids work by binding with the cytoplasmic (free within the cell) androgen receptor. Like all steroids, the steroid-receptor complex has a strong affinity for the nucleus. The complex is translocated into the nucleus and binds to DNA. It is also possible that the steroid and receptor dissociate in the nucleus and act on DNA separately. The rate limiting factor in this process appears to be the cytoplasmic concentration of the receptor, rather than the concentration of the steroid or translocation of the complex. Testosterone also appears to inhibit the catabolic (protein degrading) pathway associated with glucocorticoids, but it is unclear whether this is related to an interaction between testosterone and glucocorticoid or the nuclear behavior of the steroid-receptor complex. Once in the nucleus, the steroid appears to enhance transcription of specific genes. The resulting mRNA is processed and sent out of the nucleus, resulting in increased protein synthesis. Catabolic inhibition may also occur in the nucleus if the complex inhibits the transcription of catabolic enzymes. The presence of the androgen receptor indicates a tissue is androgen sensitive, and it's concentration gives an indication of how sensitive. The receptor is present in a number of organs, including skeletal muscle. Skeletal muscle typically contains 0.5-3 femto (1E-12) moles per milligram of protein, while other androgen sensitive organs, like the prostate gland, may have up to 25 times more receptors. A final observation about feedback in biological systems: in a perfect example of biological control, a byproduct of testosterone metabolism is estradiol, which enhances catabolism. Thus, overadministration of testosterone-analog steroids can feed-back and minimize results. Effects Testosterone's effects are generally broken into two classes: anabolic and androgenic . Both appear to result from the same signalling pathway as there are no proteins with anabolic effects independent of androgenic effects. References These should provide a good beginning for a more detailed investigation of anabolic steroid behavior. If you are considering them as part of a training program, please consult a physician. Hickson, R.C. and Kurowski, T.G.(86). Anabolic steroids and training. Clinics in Sports Medicine 5(3):461-469 Alén, M. and Komi, P.V. (84) Changes in neuromuscular performance and muscle fiber characteristics of elite power athletes self-administering androgenin and anabolic steroids. Acta Physiologica Scandanavia 122:535-544 Wilson, J.D. and Griffin, J.E. (80) The use and misuse of androgens. Metabolism 29(12):1278-1295 Martinez J.A., Buttery, P.J. and Pearson, J.T. (84) The mode of action of anabolic agents: the effect of testosterone on muscle protein metabolism in the female rat. British Journal of Nutrition 52:515-521. Yesalis C.E. and Bahrke M.S. (95) Anabolic-androgenic steroids: current issues. Sports Medicine19(5):326-40. Muscle Physiology Part 2 Anabolic steroid phsyiological effects Anabolic These are typically the desired effects, and although the greatest effects are seen in females and hypogonadal or castrated males, some gains can be seen in physiologically normal males. Anabolic steroids have been shown to increase weight gain, fat-free weight gain and muscle fiber area in conjuction with a strength training program. Strength gain, as measured by one-repetition-maximum tests can also be increased by steroid use. These effects are often difficult to attribute solely to action of the steroid itself, as the euphoria associated with their use can encourage more rigorous workouts. Steroids administered to previously untrained men beginning a weight training program appear to provide no benefit. It is only when highly trained individuals add a steroid regimen to their existing program that training gains are enhanced. Androgenic These are generally considered undesirable or side-effects and can be permanent and quite serious. The additional metabolic load on the liver can lead to dysfunction (including peliosis hepatis and hepatoma). This appears to be particularly true of the methylated (generally oral) derivatives. Increased levels of circulating testosterone analogs can act as negative feedback to the pituitary gland, decreasing spermatogenesis and production of natural testosterone and luteinizing hormone. Decreases in circulating HDL (beneficial lipoproteins) and increases in LDL (harmful) levels have been reported. A number of behavioral changes are also associated with steroid use. Irritability, increased aggressiveness, nervous tension accompany the euphoria and reduction in fatigue noted by up to 80% of steroid users. The masculinization of women using steroids is well accepted. Typical observations include hoarsening of the voice, hirstism, an enlarged clitoris and decreased breast size.
  • NCAA Article Text Version: Drug Free Sports What are anabolic steroids? Steroids are hormones. Anabolic steroids or more precisely, anabolic/androgenic steroids are also referred to as ergogenic or performance-enhancing drugs. They are synthetic derivatives of testosterone, a natural male hormone. Anabolic = growing or building Androgenic = masculinization; developing male sexual characteristics. Most healthy males produce between 2 to 10 milligrams of testosterone a day. The hormone's anabolic effect promotes retention of nitrogen, and this helps muscle growth. It helps the male reproductive system to grow during puberty, assists with the growth of body hair, and the deepening of the voice. Today, anabolic steroids are chemically manufactured. Steroids can be administered by injection, or can be taken orally. Injectable steroids are longer lasting in the body and can be detected in the body for a longer period of time. How do anabolic steroids work in the body? The body produces testosterone predominantly in the testes in the male, and adrenal glands in the female. During puberty the testes (20 or 40 fold increase compared to early childhood levels) release testosterone. This hormone is largely responsible for the changes in muscle, bone structure and density. Who uses anabolic steroids and why? When athletes use steroids they might believe that steroids will give them a "winning edge," in developing their power and strength, and increase recovery from heavy workouts. Fuller and LaFountain (1987) found that athletes rationalized their use by trying to justify that using steroids caused no harm either to themselves or to others. Also, individuals perceived their competitors were taking anabolic drugs, so they needed to use to compete at the same level. Some individuals use steroids because they perceive that increased muscle mass improves their appearance (Yesalis, 1998). Mottram (1996) has suggested that social norms about "bigger being better," feelings of inadequacy, and low self-esteem may influence the younger generation's use of steroids . How prevalent is the use of steroids? Surveys and anecdotal evidence indicate that the rate of non-medical steroid use may be increasing. Reports of steroid use indicate that between 250,000 and 1 million individuals use. According to Yesalis (1998) more than 300,000 used steroids during one year. The National Institute of Health (1999) reported that 2.9% of 12th graders used steroids. Which anabolic drugs does the NCAA ban? Examples of anabolic steroids banned by the NCAA are: Boldenone Testosterone Dromostanolone Dihydrotestosterone Methenolone Norethandrolone Oxymetholone Clostebol DHEA Fluoxymesterone Androstenedione Mesterolone Methyltestosterone Oxandrolone Dehydrochlormethyl-Testosterone Epitestosterone Methandienone Nandrolone Oxymesterone Stanozolol (And other agents) For more information on banned steroids please visit the NCAA web site. What are the different types of anabolic steroids? From the 1930's to the 1960's scientists modified the structure of the testosterone molecule to produce anabolic steroids to increase muscle and body protein metabolism at dose levels which tend not to increase other secondary sexual characteristics. They should not be confused with steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as cortisone, corticosteroids. Are there any differences between oral and injectable steroids? Oral Steroids: Oral, fat-soluble steroids can be detected in the body for several weeks or months after a person stops taking them. Injectable Steroids: Injectable anabolics are injected into muscle tissue. They are slowly released from the muscles into the rest of the body, and may be detectable for months after last use. The body tolerates the injectable steroids more effectively than the oral steroids. Long-term steroid abusers use them for this reason. What medical uses do anabolic steroids have? Anabolic steroids are classified as Schedule III drugs in accordance with the Controlled Substances Act (U.S. Department of Justice-DEA, 1997). These agents are available legally as prescribed medications for treating anemia, osteoporosis, growth stimulation, gonadal dysfunction, and gynecological disorders. Can anabolic steroids affect a student athlete's health? Anabolic steroid use by males and females may lead to health conditions ranging from mild, to life-threatening seriousness. Not every individual who takes anabolic steroids experiences serious side effects; however, reports of different effects include: cancer of the liver, prostate, kidney reduction in HDL the "good" cholesterol high blood pressure enlarged prostate liver damage aggressive behavior post-use depression aching joints injury to tendons, ligaments, and muscles blood coagulation disorders HIV disease from sharing needles acne, swelling of feet or ankles nosebleeds reduced libido increased sex drive increased fatty deposits heart arrhythmia's stunted growth in immature individuals breast growth in males reduced sperm count shrinking of the testicles baldness body hair growth in female masculinization, clitoral enlargement and breast reduction in females According to Yesalis (1998), "although there has been an alleged small decline in the ranks of Division I male college athletes who use steroids, the number of women athletes who use steroids has grown, a worrisome fact because they are highly vulnerable to permanent damage.“ ESPN Article Text: Anabolic steroids    Editor's note: This is the first of an eight-week series of articles examining the effects of commonly abused substances on athletic performance and overall health. There should not be a controversy over anabolic steroid use in athletics -- non-medical use of anabolic steroids is illegal and banned by most, if not all, major sports organizations. Still, some athletes persist in taking them, believing that these substances provide a competitive advantage. But beyond the issues of popularity or legality is the fact that anabolic steroids can cause serious physical and psychological side effects. In light of these hazards, measures to curtail the use of anabolic steroids are escalating. One of the nation's foremost authorities on steroid use, Dr. Gary Wadler, is part of a concerted effort to educate the public about the dangers of anabolic steroids. Dr. Wadler, a New York University School of Medicine professor and lead author of the book Drugs and the Athlete , serves as a consultant to the U.S. Department of Justice on anabolic-androgenic steroid use. He has also won the International Olympic Committee President's Prize for his work in the area of performance-enhancing drugs in competitive sports. He joined us to address the issue of steroids and sports. What are anabolic steroids? Anabolic steroids -- or more precisely, anabolic-androgenic steroids -- are the synthetic derivatives of the naturally occurring male anabolic hormone testosterone. Both anabolic and androgenic have origins from the Greek: anabolic, meaning "to build," and androgenic, meaning "masculinizing." Testosterone's natural androgenic effects trigger the maturing of the male reproductive system in puberty, including the growth of body hair and the deepening of the voice. The hormone's anabolic effect helps the body retain dietary protein, which aids in the development of muscles. "Although there are many types of steroids with varying degrees of anabolic and androgenic properties, it's the anabolic property of steroids that lures athletes," says Dr. Wadler. "They take them to primarily increase muscle mass and strength." How are steroids taken? Steroids can be taken orally or they can be injected. Those that are injected are broken down into additional categories, those that are very long-lasting and those that last a shorter time. In recent years, use has shifted to the latter category -- shorter-lasting, water-soluble injections. "The reason for that is that the side effects associated for the oral form were discovered to be especially worrisome for the liver,"says Dr. Wadler. "But the injectable steroids aren't free of side-effects either. There is no free ride and there is a price to be paid with either form." Who takes anabolic steroids and why? It is not only the football player or weightlifter or sprinter who may be using anabolic steroids. Nor is it only men. White- and blue-collar workers, females and, most alarmingly, adolescents take steroids -- all linked by the desire to hopefully look, perform and feel better, regardless of the dangers. Anabolic steroids are designed to mimic the bodybuilding traits of testosterone. Most healthy males produce less than 10 milligrams of testosterone a day. Females also produce testosterone but in minute amounts. Some athletes however, may use up to hundreds of milligrams a day, far exceeding the normally prescribed daily dose for legitimate medical purposes. Anabolic steroids do not improve agility, skill or cardiovascular capacity. What are the health hazards of anabolic steroids? "There can be a whole panoply of side effects, even with prescribed doses," says Dr. Wadler. "Some are visible to the naked eye and some are internal. Some are physical, others are psychological. With unsupervised steroid use, wanton 'megadosing' or stacking (using a combination of different steroids), the effects can be irreversible or undetected until it's too late." Also, if anabolic steroids are injected, transmitting or contracting HIV and Hepatitis B through shared needle use is a very real concern. Additionally, Dr. Wadler stresses that "unlike almost all other drugs, all steroid based hormones have one unique characteristic -- their dangers may not be manifest for months, years and even decades. Therefore, long after you gave them up you may develop side effects." Physical side effects Men - Although anabolic steroids are derived from a male sex hormone, men who take them may actually experience a "feminization" effect along with a decrease in normal male sexual function. Some possible effects include: Reduced sperm count Impotence Development of breasts Shrinking of the testicles Difficulty or pain while urinating Women - On the other hand, women often experience a "masculinization" effect from anabolic steroids, including the following: Facial hair growth Deepened voice Breast reduction Menstrual cycle changes With continued use of anabolic steroids, both sexes can experience the following effects, which range from the merely unsightly to the life endangering. They include: Acne Bloated appearance Rapid weight gain Clotting disorders Liver damage Premature heart attacks and strokes Elevated cholesterol levels Weakened tendons Special dangers to adolescents Anabolic steroids can halt growth prematurely in adolescents. "What happens is that steroids close the growth centers in a kid's bones", says Dr. Wadler. "Once these growth plates are closed, they cannot reopen so adolescents that take too many steroids may end up shorter than they should have been." Behavioral side effects According to Dr. Wadler, anabolic steroids can cause severe mood swings. "People's psychological states can run the gamut." says Wadler. "They can go from bouts of depression or extreme irritability to feelings of invincibility and outright aggression, commonly called "'roid rage. This is a dangerous state beyond mere assertiveness." Are anabolic steroids addictive? Recent evidence suggests that long-time steroid users and steroid abusers may experience the classic characteristics of addiction including cravings, difficulty in stopping steroid use and withdrawal symptoms. "Addiction is an extreme of dependency, which may be a psychological, if not physical, phenomena," says Dr. Wadler. "Regardless, there is no question that when regular steroid users stop taking the drug they get withdrawal pains and if they start up again the pain goes away. They have difficulties stopping use even though they know it's bad for them."
  • Any Kind of Steroid Will Result In Death The first thing that we need to understand is that steroids are drugs. Even Tylenol and Aspirin can cause serious problems if you take them in large quantities. All drugs when misused and abused have the potential to kill; its not only steroids. However, since taking steroids is against the law, issues of product purity and authenticity as well as innaccurate information surrounding their usage add serious risks to steroid experimentation. Steroid Myth #2. Steroids are Easy to Get Another misconception about steroids is that they are easily obtained. As far as accessibility, the truth is that they are illegal substances without a medical prescription, so your accessibility will be through the black market (good luck as far as quality). In addition, if you get caught in their possession without a prescription you may face up to 5 years in a federal prison. Steroid Myth #3. All Steroids Are Pills On the issue of variety, there are many different types of steroid out there. There are injectable steroids and oral steroids. The injectable kind are generally more androgenic (provide male characteristics like hair growth and aggression) in nature and less damaging to organs like the liver. The oral versions are more anabolic in nature and cause more side effects than their injectable brothers as they have to be processed by the liver. Different steroids have different properties so there are some that have more tendencies to build muscle mass while others have a tendency to increase strength. As their properties vary, so do their side effects. Usually the stronger the steroid (especially if oral), the more side effects you can expect. The Good Side of Steroids? Steroids do increase size and strength. In fact, they do so very significantly. In addition to gains in strength and muscle mass they also seem to provide you with more energy and aggressiveness, things that are conducive to good workouts (but not so in interpersonal relationships). Depending on the steroid used, you may also get cell voluminizing effects that promote a bigger pump. Aside from even just the legal risks of steroids, the "good side" comes at a high price. The Psychological Effects of Steroids Based on the fact that steroids give you all of these good effects that bodybuilders constantly look for, it is no surprise that they cause a psychological dependence. Think about it. If you have been taking them for the past 8 weeks, assuming good diet and training, chances are that you got very big and strong quick. You feel unstoppable after the 8 weeks of use. Suddenly you taper them off, up until you completely stop their use. A week later after cessation of use you notice that you are not getting good pumps, that your strength is diminishing regardless of your best effort and that your muscle mass is shrinking! Add to that the fact that for the first few weeks after cessation of use you will feel depressed due to low testosterone levels and it is no wonder that there are people out there that never get off from them.
  • Alcohol and drugs week 10

    1. 1. Copyright AllCEUs 2011-2020 Unlimited CEUs $99/year
    2. 2. <ul><li>To provide information about steroids </li></ul><ul><li>To assist students in understanding consequences of steroid use </li></ul><ul><li>To motivate students to make informed choices about steroid use </li></ul>Copyright AllCEUs 2011-2020 Unlimited CEUs $99/year
    3. 3. <ul><li>Steroids Overview Part 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Steroids Overview Part 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Technical Information from the National Institute of Drug Abuse </li></ul>Copyright AllCEUs 2011-2020 Unlimited CEUs $99/year
    4. 4. <ul><li>What do you think influences kids more what athletes and media stars do or what they say? </li></ul>Copyright AllCEUs 2011-2020 Unlimited CEUs $99/year
    5. 5. <ul><li>Adrenocortical: Regarding or made by the adrenal gland, which produces steroid hormones. </li></ul><ul><li>Anabolic Steroids: Steroids that promote tissue growth by creating protein in an attempt to enhance muscle growth. Testosterone (the male sex hormone) is the main steroid. </li></ul><ul><li>Androgen is any natural or synthetic compound, usually a steroid hormone , that stimulates or controls the development and maintenance of masculine characteristics. This includes the activity of the male sex organs and development of male secondary sex characteristics . Androgens are also the original anabolic steroids . The primary, and most well-known, androgen is testosterone . </li></ul>Copyright AllCEUs 2011-2020 Unlimited CEUs $99/year
    6. 6. <ul><li>Androstenedione: A type of androgen produced by the adrenal glands which is partially transformed into testosterone </li></ul><ul><li>Creatine: Protein derivative in muscle tissue. Sometimes found in body-building supplements </li></ul><ul><li>Ergogenic: Something that can increase muscular work capacity. </li></ul><ul><li>hGH (Human growth hormone): A peptide hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary gland in the brain. HGH enhances tissue growth by stimulating protein formation </li></ul>Copyright AllCEUs 2011-2020 Unlimited CEUs $99/year
    7. 7. <ul><li>Reference: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>hypertension, blood clotting and cholesterol changes, liver cysts and cancer, kidney cancer, hostility and aggression, acne; in adolescents, premature stoppage of growth; in males, prostate cancer, reduced sperm production, shrunken testicles, breast enlargement; in females, menstrual irregularities, development of beard and other masculine characteristics </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Steroid Dangers Supplemental Reading </li></ul>Copyright AllCEUs 2011-2020 Unlimited CEUs $99/year
    8. 8. <ul><li>GHB a common Anabolic Steroid </li></ul><ul><li>GHB Video 1 (60 minutes) </li></ul><ul><li>Muscle Physiology from University of California at San Diego </li></ul><ul><li>Muscle Physiology Part II Anabolic Steroids </li></ul>Copyright AllCEUs 2011-2020 Unlimited CEUs $99/year
    9. 9. <ul><li>How effective do you thing GHB could be as a bodybuilding supplement given its other effects? </li></ul>Copyright AllCEUs 2011-2020 Unlimited CEUs $99/year
    10. 10. <ul><li>Symptoms: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mood swings, fatigue, restlessness, loss of appetite, insomnia, reduced sex drive, and the desire to take more steroids. The most dangerous of the withdrawal symptoms is depression, because it sometimes leads to suicide attempts. Untreated, some depressive symptoms associated with anabolic steroid withdrawal have been known to persist for a year or more after the abuser stops taking the drugs. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tapering may not completely prevent withdrawal symptoms </li></ul>Copyright AllCEUs 2011-2020 Unlimited CEUs $99/year
    11. 11. <ul><li>If steroids are taken during pregnancy, there is the possibility of a masculinization of the female fetus. </li></ul>Copyright AllCEUs 2011-2020 Unlimited CEUs $99/year
    12. 12. <ul><li>ESPN Drugs and Sports Series </li></ul>Copyright AllCEUs 2011-2020 Unlimited CEUs $99/year
    13. 13. <ul><li>Bodybuilding Myths </li></ul>Copyright AllCEUs 2011-2020 Unlimited CEUs $99/year
    14. 14. <ul><li>Research and discuss alternatives to steroid use </li></ul>Copyright AllCEUs 2011-2020 Unlimited CEUs $99/year
    15. 15. <ul><li>Overview Online Reading Review </li></ul><ul><li>Anabolic steroids are artificial versions of a hormone that's in all of us -- testosterone </li></ul><ul><li>Anabolic steroids can weaken the immune system, lead to liver damage or cancer, permanently stop bones from growing in teenagers. </li></ul><ul><li>Doctors sometimes prescribe, but these aren't anabolic steroids, they're corticosteroids. </li></ul>Copyright AllCEUs 2011-2020 Unlimited CEUs $99/year
    16. 16. <ul><li>Identify 5 concepts or pieces of information you gained from this video and why you believe they will be useful. </li></ul>Copyright AllCEUs 2011-2020 Unlimited CEUs $99/year