Ten Years of Horticulture Research in BRAC (Bangladesh)


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For the past ten years BRAC scientists have developed a good no. of varieties in several horticultural crops and a few technologies have also been generated in its research centre (BARDC) a brief summary of which has been presented under the title.

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Ten Years of Horticulture Research in BRAC (Bangladesh)

  1. 1. Research & Development Activities of Horticulture Crops in BRAC Presented by Dr. S. C. Biswas
  2. 2. Objectives  To provide adequate nutrition to the small and fixed income groups.  Generating income opportunities to increase the purchasing power of the poor people.  Eradication of poverty and ensuring nutritional food security.  Reducing dependency for quality seeds on foreign companies and saving foreign currency.  Ensuring the supply of quality seeds to the farmers at proper time.
  3. 3. Vegetable Cultivation and Seed Production Program in BRAC Vegetable Seed Distribution Programme : 1972 Commercial vegetable cultivation started :1992 Seed production by own management system: 1996 Import of seeds of cole crops : 1998 Establishment of BARDC : 1999 Hybrid seed production : 2002
  4. 4. Target crops We are dealing with 30 different vegetable crops including fruiting vegetables, leafy & salad vegetables, podded vegetables, stem & bulb vegetables, root & tuber vegetables etc. Fruiting vegetables Leafy & salad vegetables Podded vegetables Stem & bulb vegetables Cole crops Root & tuber vegetables Okra, pumpkin, cucumber, bitter gourd, bottle gourd, ridge gourd, ash gourd, snake gourd etc. Spinach, pechay, red amaranth, leaf mustard, kang kong, prince shak, red bethua etc. Yard long bean, country bean, mung bean, ground nut etc. Onion, stem ama- ranth etc. Cauli- flower cabbage , & broccoli etc. Radish, carrot etc.
  5. 5. Major Activities A. Variety Screening B. Variety Development C. Colored Vegetables D. Improvement of Indigenous Vegetables E. Generation of New Techniques
  6. 6. A. Variety Screening • Imported seeds of cole crops & hybrid varieties of other crops are identified & suitable varieties are recommended for marketing. • Adaptive trial experiments are also conducted in other farms. • Multiseasonal trial experiments are also conducted to identify the suitable growing season. • Suitable varieties are chosen and recommendations are made for the marketing department to ensure their availability to the growers in proper season.
  7. 7. Trial experiments of different crops Cauliflower CabbageBroccoli Purple Cabbage Watermelon
  8. 8. B. Variety Development • Improved varieties (F1 hybrid & OP) of different vegetable crops are being developed. • Since most of the vegetable crops are cross pollinated, hybrids can be developed easily. • Improved OP varieties are developed from crops –where application of hybrid technique is difficult. • Some uncommon varieties like red okra, red spinach, white pumpkin & summer country bean etc. have also been developed.
  9. 9. Released hybrid and OP varieties Hybrid varieties Sl. No. Crop No. of Varieties 01 Tomato 3 02 Brinjal 2 03 Bitter gourd 1 04 Ridge gourd 1 05 Bottle gourd 1 06 Pumpkin 1 07 Okra 1 Total 10
  10. 10. OP varieties: Sl. No. Crop No. of Varieties Total no. of varieties 01 Radish 1 3 02 Cucumber 1 03 Spinach 1 Promising Hybrid and OP Varieties: Sl. No. Crop No. of Varieties 01 Ash gourd (Hybrid) 1 02 Brinjal (Hybrid) 1 03 Bottle gourd (Hybrid) 1 04 Ridge gourd (Hybrid) 1 05 Hot pepper (Hybrid) 1 06 Red Okra (Hybrid) 1 07 Red Yardlong Bean (OP) 1 Red Spinach (OP) 1 Total 8
  11. 11. Tomato - Tripti-02 Characteristics:  It has semi indeterminate type plant, also heat tolerant and early hybrid. Fruits are high round and have shining red color.  Average fruit weight 70-80g . Yield per acre 20 - 22 tons (50 - 55 tons/ha).  Fruit harvest starts from 60-65 days after transplanting. Fruits are fleshy, tasty, very firm and suitable for distant transportation.  Tolerant to leaf curl virus and bacterial wilt. Hybrid Varieties
  12. 12. Bitter Gourd – Bulbuli Characteristics: This hybrid variety is a prolific bearer. Thicker pericarp is very fleshy, solid & bitterness is moderate. Fruit protuberances are slightly blunt, hence fruits usually do not suffer from injury during transportation. Glossy green colored fruits and average fruit weight is 225-250g. Fruit harvest starts from 50-55 days after transplanting. Yield per acre is 8-12 tons.
  13. 13. Hybrid Ridge Gourd – Green Star Characteristics: •This hybrid variety is prolific bearer. •Tender fruits are fleshy, soft and tasty. • Fruit color green, length 30-40 cm and fruits have prominent ridges. •Average fruit weight 130-150 gm. •Fruit harvest starts from 40-45 days. •Yield per acre 10- 12 tons.
  14. 14. Bottle Gourd – Green Super Characteristics: It is a high yielding hybrid variety. Fruits are attractive deep green coloured with white spots and very tasty. Average fruit weight is 2.5-3.0 kg. Fruit harvest starts from 60-65 days after seed sowing. Fruit length is around 45-50 cm. It is a profuse bearer and yield per acre is 20- 25 tons.
  15. 15. Pumpkin – Beauty Characteristics: It is a high yielding F1 variety. Rind color is blackish green at young stage and brown at the ripening stage. Fruit pericarp is very solid and the flesh is yellow coloured.  Very tasty at both green and ripening stage.  Average fruit weight is 4.0 - 5.0 kg at maturity. Yield per acre is 20 - 25 tons.
  16. 16. Radish –Sufala-40 Characteristics: •Sufala 40 is a high yielding, year round and heat tolerant variety. • Roots are attractive white colored and 20-25 cm long and have no misshapen roots. •Harvest starts from 40-45 days after sowing. •Roots are tasty and have mild pungency; leaves can be used as vegetable. •Yield per acre is 20-24 tons.
  17. 17. Brinjal –F1 hybrid Characteristics •Medium early rabi season hybrid line. • Tall, erect & open type bushy plant. • Prolific & continuous bearer. • Purple coloured oblong oval type fruits can be harvested from 40-42 DAT. • Fruit size- 15 X 5 cm and fruit wt. 200 – 225 gm. • Fruits are delicious, very soft & have minimum seeds. • On an average 30 - 35 fruits are produced per plant. Production 25 – 30 tons/acre. Fig. Parents of the hybrid F1 Hybrid
  18. 18. Spinach –Sufala-01 Characteristics:  This is a quick growing and improved spinach variety. Green colored, thicker, larger, soft and fleshy leaf.  Harvest starts from 30-35 days after sowing.  It is a late bolting and year round variety.  Yield per acre is 5-6 tons. OP Varieties
  19. 19. Summer Country Bean Characteristics: •It is a year round and heat tolerant variety. •Greenish purple fruit color and fruit length is 8-10 cm. •Harvest starts from 60-65 days after sowing and fruit can be harvested for a longer period. •Tolerant to major diseases and pests. •Yield per acre 5-6 tons.
  20. 20. Pechay / Bati shakPechay / Bati shak CharacteristicsCharacteristics •Quick growing short duration leafyQuick growing short duration leafy vegetable having delicious taste.vegetable having delicious taste. •Very easy to cultivate and free from theVery easy to cultivate and free from the attack of major diseases.attack of major diseases. •Production per unit area is appreciably highProduction per unit area is appreciably high compared to traditional leafy vegetables viz,compared to traditional leafy vegetables viz, red amaranth, radish, spinach and oil seededred amaranth, radish, spinach and oil seeded Brassica.Brassica. •It can be utilized as an exportable vegetableIt can be utilized as an exportable vegetable commodity for the super markets.commodity for the super markets. •Plants having near about 14-15 leaves withPlants having near about 14-15 leaves with the leaf size- 30 cm. X 17cm. can bethe leaf size- 30 cm. X 17cm. can be harvested from 25-26 days after sowing.harvested from 25-26 days after sowing. •Seed production of pechay is also profitableSeed production of pechay is also profitable as on an average 20 gms. of seeds can beas on an average 20 gms. of seeds can be produced from a single plant.produced from a single plant. •Production of fresh vegetable is around 25-Production of fresh vegetable is around 25- 30 tons/ha.30 tons/ha.
  21. 21. Leaf Mustard Characteristics: • High yielding improved type leafy vegetable. • Harvest can be started within 30-35 days of seed sowing. • Excellent taste & has very good flavour. • Off-season cultivation is very profitable. • Yield 4-4.5 tons/acre.
  22. 22. C. Coloured Vegetables 1. Development of anthocyanin rich red okra 2. Development of red spinach 3. Development of pinkish red coloured yard long bean 4. Development of white pumpkin variety 5. Development of colourful hot pepper.
  23. 23. Characteristics: 1. It is a dual purpose vegetable crop, since it has decorative value. 2. Robust plant and has attractive red colored fruit, stem, petioles & leaf veins. 3. The flesh is soft, very tasty and has nutritive value as well. 4. No. of fruits per plant is 25-30. 5. Fruit harvest starts from 50-52 days after seed sowing. 6. Yield per acre 7- 8 tons. 7. This hybrid is tolerant to yellow vein mosaic virus disease. 8. It is an anthocyanin rich red okra Hybrid Red Okra
  24. 24. Red Spinach Characteristics: 1.This is a quick growing and high yielding advance line. 2. Leaf, stem, roots, petioles and veins are red colored. 3. Leaves are thick, larger, soft and fleshy. 4. Harvest starts from 30-35 days after sowing. 5. It is a late bolting line and yield per acre around 5-6 tons. 6. Anthocyanin, carotene & iron rich advance line.
  25. 25. Yard Long BeanYard Long Bean (Red)(Red) CharacteristicsCharacteristics •High yielding improved type variety.High yielding improved type variety. •Prolific bearer, red coloured fruitsProlific bearer, red coloured fruits ,fruits can be harvested for a longer,fruits can be harvested for a longer period.period. •High seedling vigour and stronger vinesHigh seedling vigour and stronger vines with broad deep green leaves.with broad deep green leaves. •Profuse fruiting and good uniformity inProfuse fruiting and good uniformity in fruit size and shape.fruit size and shape. •Thicker fruit pulp and solid fruits;Thicker fruit pulp and solid fruits; hence the fruits are fleshy; yield-9-10hence the fruits are fleshy; yield-9-10 tons/acre.tons/acre. •Virus tolerant variety and can be grownVirus tolerant variety and can be grown throughout the year.throughout the year. • Anthocyanin rich red YLB tolerant toAnthocyanin rich red YLB tolerant to major diseases.major diseases. •Wet tolerant variety and relatively tolerant toWet tolerant variety and relatively tolerant to leaf miner attack.leaf miner attack. • Fruits have increased shelf life.Fruits have increased shelf life.
  26. 26. White Pumpkin Characteristic Features: • Uncommon type pumpkin with white rind colour. • Plants are normal , has good vigour & good spreading habit. • Flesh is thick but light yellow coloured and has moderate sweetness. • Good fruiting habit and yield 20-22 tons/acre.
  27. 27. Colourful Hot pepper
  28. 28. Coloured Vegetables (sources of different phytonutrients & their health benefits) Colour Nutrients Sources Health Benifits Red Lycopene, ellagic acid & anthocyanins. Beets, onions (red), potatoes (red), peppers (red), radishes, tomatoes. Maintain heart health, memory function, urinary tract health, lower the risk of some types of cancer. Blue & Purple Health promoting phytonutrients such as polyphenols & anthocyanins & powerful anti oxidants. Asparagus (purple), cabbage (purple), carrots (purple), egg plant (purple), peppers (purple), potatoes (purple- fleshed). Gives extra protection against some types of cancer & urinary tract infections, help boost brain health & vision. Yellow & Orange Varying amount of antioxidants such as Vit. C as well as other phyto- nutrients, including carotenoids and bioflavonoids. Beets (yellow), carrot, sweet corn, peppers (yellow), potatoes (yellow), pumpkin, squash, sweet potato, tomatoes (yellow). May help promote heart & vision health and a healthy immune system, they may also help to ward off cancer.
  29. 29. Contd. Green Varying amount of potent phytochemicals such as lutein & Indoles as well as other nutrients. Beans (green), broccoli, cabbage(Chinese), cabbage(green), celery, cucumber, Chayote squash, greens (leafy), leeks, lettuce, okra, onions (green), peas (green), peppers (green), spinach. Lower the risk of cancer, improve eye health, keep the bones and teeth strong. White/ Tan/ Brown Allicins Cauliflower, corn (white), garlic, ginger, kohlrabi, mushrooms, onions, potatoes(white- fleshed), turnips. Play a role in heart health by helping you maintaining healthy cholesterol levels and may lower the risk of some type of cancer. (Source: National Cancer Research Institute, U.S.A)
  30. 30. D. Improvement of Indigenous Vegetable Crops 1. Improvement of Jute mallow 2. Improvement of Lafa shak 3. Development of Red Chenopodium (Bothua Shak) 4. Improvement of Fenu greek
  31. 31. CharacteristicsCharacteristics •Very similar to young juteVery similar to young jute plants.plants. •Fast growing leafy vegetablesFast growing leafy vegetables and can be grown almostand can be grown almost throughout the year.throughout the year. •Tender plants are very soft &Tender plants are very soft & tasty.tasty. •It can withstand temporaryIt can withstand temporary water logging conditions.water logging conditions. •Hardy plants and have noHardy plants and have no major diseases & pest attacks.major diseases & pest attacks. •Yield 3-3.5 tons/acre.Yield 3-3.5 tons/acre. •Plucking can be made severalPlucking can be made several Prince shak (Jute mallow)Prince shak (Jute mallow)
  32. 32. Lafa Shak (Malva sp.) (Local shrub) Characteristics 1. It is a short duration nutritious leafy vegetable and the whole plant is used as vegetable. 2. Very easy to grow and harvest can be started within 25-30 days. 3. Yield per acre is 4-5 tons. 4. Young stem & leaves are very soft and it has got very good flavour and its preparations are tasty. 5. It is a fast growing leafy vegetable and tolerant to major diseases & pests.
  33. 33. Bothua Shak (Chenopodium sp.)(Red) • Characteristics • It is a high yielding indigenous leafy vegetable. • Plants are much vigorous and robust type than the traditional types. • Red coloured stem, branches & leaves. • Young shoots and leaves are very tasty. • Yield – 3.00-3.50 tons /ha. • Harvest can be started from 30-35 days of seed sowing. • Young twigs and leaves can be harvested regularly from the large size plants for a longer period.
  34. 34. Fig. Fenu greek (Methi). Characteristics • Hardy type plant & it can be grown easily for vegetable (leaves are used as vegetable) and spice crop. •Moderately short duration crop and it is also a profitable crop . • It is tolerant to major diseases and pests. •It has got medicinal value and found to be very much effective in controlling dandruff problem and loss of hair. •Yield per acre 700 Kg.
  35. 35. E. Generation of New Technologies Cloning in F1 hybrid Kang kong
  36. 36. Cloning of Prince Shak (Jute mallow)
  37. 37. Cloning in Pumpkin
  38. 38. Contd.
  39. 39. Contd.
  40. 40. Cloning in Brahmi shak & Gandhabhadali
  41. 41. Off –Season Vegetable Cultivation
  42. 42. Contd.
  43. 43. Water caltrop (Panifal) , Trapa natans
  44. 44. •It is an aquatic plant and its raw fruits are delicious. •Very easy to grow and requires small amount of investment and labour. •Since it is a profitable crop can be cultivated commercially in the ‘haor’ areas. •Children’s like it very much and sometimes flour is produced from its fruits. •It is harvested when the farmers have no work. •Fish and fruits can be cultivated in the same water body. Characteristics
  45. 45. EXTENSION ACTIVITIES (BRAC-AVRDC/USAID) Home gardens – Barishal & Jessore. • Upazilla covered- 2 (Uzirpur at Barishal & Chougacha at Jessore). • Total No of Gardens: 301 (251 in Uzirpur & 50 in Chougacha). Market gardens - Barishal • Location : Uzirpur only. • Area: 14.28 ha. • No. of farmers: 100
  46. 46. Design, pilot and promote locally adapted home and market gardens including year- long and adapted cropping sequences.
  47. 47. Future Strategy •New stress tolerant short duration nutritious vegetable varieties will be developed to combat hidden hunger and malnutrition. • Research priorities will also be given to develop off-season or extra early season value added vegetables. •Development of suitable varieties which can fit easily in the existing cropping pattern and diverse farming system.
  48. 48. Contd. • Sustainable technologies of fresh vegetable production as well as seed production will also be strengthened. • Due importance will also be given on the improvement of indigenous vegetable and steps will be taken for their incorporation in the healthy diet. • BRAC is also committed to disseminate the new sustainable vegetable cultivation techniques and good quality vegetable seeds.