Current Situation of the VegetableSeed in Bangladesho The present requirement of good qualityvegetable seed is around 3,500 MT.o Only 36% quality vegetable seeds are availablefrom public and private sectors.o Seed is a perishable item and vast majority offarmers use their own low quality seeds.o The present incapability is related to inadequateinfrastructure, insufficient trainedmanpower, inadequate suitable plant material, lack ofappropriate research and development opportunities etc.
Why Post Harvest Management is important in Vegetable Seeds ?
Post harvest management includes:1. Good harvesting method at proper maturity.2. Curing3. Grading and sorting of fruits/pods for seedextraction.4. Extraction of seeds from good quality fruits /pods.5. Cleaning & grading.6. Drying to maintain optimum moisture.7. Treatment.8. Packing &9. Storing.
Okra1. Malformed and deformed fruits are removed earlier and onlyhealthy fruits are selected for seeds.2. Healthy and straight type fruits are selected from plants freefrom disease and insect attack.3. Pods are harvested as soon as they become mature and beforeshattering.4. Pods are harvested by hand individually & thereafter fruits aredried in the sun.5. Threshing is also done by hand after the pods are sufficientlydry.6. Light seeds are then removed by cleaning and winnowing.7. Collected seeds are sun dried to moisture level not exceeding12% for open storage and up to 9% for sealed packets.8. During rainy day there is every possibility of damaging seeds iffruits are not harvested at proper stage.9. In rainy day if there is no sun, seeds are dried keeping themunder electric fan.
Tomato1. Larger size healthy properly ripened fruits areharvested from 1st and 2nd tier fruits and kept in roomtemperature for 2-3 days before extraction of seeds.2. Tomato seeds are extracted mainly by fermentationmethods.3. After cutting the tomato fruits seeds along with pulp arefermented for 12 hours.4. The pulp is stirred several times to maintain a uniformrate of fermentation and to avoid discoloration of the seed.5. Seeds are then cleaned with clean water and driedthereafter.
Brinjal1. Ripened fruits are handpicked and usually seeds are collectedfrom fruits formed at early and mid fruiting stage.2. Good quality fruits are harvested from plants free from diseaseand insect attack.3. Seeds are collected through wet extraction method.4. Harvested fruits are stored for 5-7 days at room temperatureuntil they become soft.5. Fruits are cut into thin slices and these are then softened bysoaking till the seeds are separated from the pulp.6. After extracting and washing, the seeds are cleaned and dried.7. Drying is done by spreading the seeds in the partial sunlight forfew hours for one or two days up to a moisture content of 8% orbelow.
Pumpkin1. Full matured fruits are harvested when thepeduncle becomes straw coloured and vines startsdrying.2. Before seed extraction fruits are stored in roomtemperature for 3 to 4 weeks spreading them inone single layer.3. Fruits are cut into half and the seeds are scoopedout by hand.4. Placenta with the seeds is usually separated byrolling.5. Seeds are then washed with water in troughs.6. Seeds are dried quickly. At first seeds are spread ontrays and placed in the shade and gradually to sunto dry and seeds are dried up to a moisture level of7%.
Cucumber1. Malformed and deformed fruits are removed earlierand only healthy fruits are selected for seeds.2. Yellow or brown coloured straight type fruits areallowed to ripen fully.3. Fruits are collected from vines when fruit stalkadjacent to the fruit withers.4. After full maturity fruits are harvested and kept 5-7days for post harvest maturity.5. For this purpose harvested fruits are kept spreading inone single layer with a space between the fruits in ashade dry place under ordinary condition.6. Fruits are cut into half and scoop out the seeds byhand.7. Bold size, fully filled and better looking seeds areextracted, cleaned and stored.
Spinach1. Spinach seeds mature in sequence even in the sameplant and first formed inflorescence seeds mature first.2. When the seed stalks and seeds turn yellow (brownishred in red spinach) and dry, harvesting is done bycutting.3. Usually 2-3 harvests are done for quality seedproduction.4. Harvested branches are dried in the sun over dryingfloor.5. Threshing is done by hand beating with a stick afterbeing seed stalks are properly dried.6. Seeds are cleaned by winnowing and dried to 8-9%moisture content.
Kang kong1. Larger and heavier seeds are selected.2. Seeds are sown on seed beds and healthy seedlings are raised.3. Robust plants having high vigor are selected for cloning.4. Pre foundation seeds (1st generation) are produced from theselected clones growing them in the main field.5. Again healthy plants are produced on seed bed from prefoundation seeds and superior clones are developed fromcuttings of these plant through the same method.6. Foundation seeds are produced from these superior clones.7. Seeds are harvested when the capsules turn brown.8. Hand picking is generally done.9. Capsules are dried and seeds are extracted by beating lightlywith sticks.10. Seeds are then cleaned and dried properly for storage.
Fig.Fenugreek(Methi).Characteristics•It can be used both as vegetable (leaves are used asvegetable) and spice crop.•Moderately short duration crop and it is also aprofitable crop as well.• It is tolerant to major diseases and pests.•It has got medicinal value and found to be verymuch effective in controlling dandruff problem andloss of hair.•Yield per acre 500 Kg.
Radish1. Seed plants are allowed to mature fullybefore harvesting.2. Plants are cut when most of the podturns brown.3. The crop is cut by sickle and brought tothreshing floor for thoroughly drying.4. Threshing is done by beating with sticks.5. Seed after sifting is dried to 6-8%moisture content before storage.
Few Techniques for Imrpoving Seed or Propagule Quality(Pre Harvesting Operations)1. Disbudding technique in okra.2. Growing pumpkin on trellis.3. Stopping through snapping of the apical portion ofcucurbits.4. Thinning in cauliflower, radish, broccoli etc.5. Cloning in kangkong, jute mallow, Brahmi shak (Bacopamonieri), Gandhabhadali (Pterida foetida).6. Selection of large size seeds for increasing bulb size inonion.7. Application of micronutrients in the production of fruits incountry bean and other crops.8. Staking.9. Pruning.10. Transplanting
•It is an aquatic plant andits raw fruits are delicious.•Very easy to grow andrequires small amount ofinvestment and labour.•Since it is a profitable cropcan be cultivatedcommercially in the ‘haor’areas.•Children’s like it verymuch and sometimes flouris produced from its fruits.•It is harvested when thefarmers have no work.•Fish and fruits can becultivated in the same waterbody.Characteristics
EXTENSION ACTIVITIES (BRAC-AVRDC/USAID)Home gardens – Barishal & Jessore.• Upazilla covered- 2 (Uzirpur atBarishal & Chougacha at Jessore).• Total No of Gardens: 301 (251 inUzirpur & 50 in Chougacha).Market gardens - Barishal• Location : Uzirpur only.• Area: 14.28 ha.• No. of farmers: 100
Design, pilot and promote locally adaptedhome and market gardens including year-long and adapted cropping sequences.