ACTING ON GIT
Head of dept VPT
Continuous tube extending from the
mouth to the anus.
Major function: convert complex
compounds into simpler compounds
that can be absorbed and used by
GI Transit Time
Time it takes for material to pass from
one end of the GI tract to the other
Subdivided into gastric emptying and
small intestine and colon transit time.
Speeding up transit time = less
Slowing transit time = more
Composed of layers of smooth muscle
lined with glands.
Food moves from the stomach to the
small intestine where most absorption
Saliva is watery & froathy substance
produced in mouth of human and animals.
Regulation of salivary secretion is via
salivary nuclei located in brain stem, which
are excited by taste and tactile stimuli from
tongue and other areas of mouth.
Saliva contains amylase which helps in
breakdown of starch to sugar, salivary
lipase helps in fat digestion.
1. Indirect acting sialics- e.g. Gentian,
Nuxvomica & Quassia.
2. Direct acting sialics- e.g. Carbacol
INDIRECT ACTING SIALICS
These are mainly vegetable drugs.
They stimulate taste buds by mild irritant
action which inturn enhances salivary
GENTIAN- Obtained from Gentiana Lutea.
Active principle present is Amarogentin
Works as stomachic for increasing appetite.
DOSE OF GENTIAN
SHEEP AND PIGS-4-8g .
ROUTE OF ADMINISTRATION PER
Obtained by strychnus nux vomica
Active principle strychnine and
It posses stomachic action
ROUTE OF ADMINISTRATION PER ORAL.
Obtained from dried stem of Picraena
It has antihelminthic and fly repellent
In small dose it act as appetite
stimulant but in large dose it induces
vomition due to irritation.
DIRECT ACTING SIALICS
Directly stimulates salivary gland.e.g
Cholinergic sialics like carbachol and
MOA Carbachol and arecoline
stimulate salivary gland directly via
muscuranic receptor and lead to
copious flow of saliva .
Ptyalism is seen in intoxication of
organophosphorous ,carbamates and
Decrease the flow of saliva .
1. Used in oral surgery and as
2. Inhibition of saliva is seen as side
effect of several drugs.
3. Theraupetically antimuscuranic drugs
like ( Atrophine,
hyoscine,glycopyronium) used as anti
ATROPINE & HYOSCINE
Occurs naturally & used as
preanaesthetic ,primarilly to reduce
salivary & bronchial secretions.
These are non selective anti
Contraindicated in Horse as it causes
HYOSCINE has greater central
Its longer acting synthetic quaternary
compound( highly water soluble
cannot cross BBB ) to atrophine
Safe in horse.
DOG – 0.01-0.02mg/kg s/c, IM,IV
It’s long term condition where
stomach contents come back upto
vomition, halitosis, chest pain etc..
Factors Contributing to GERD
Eating on the run.
Eating late at night.
Consuming various foods (high fat content,
caffeine, citrus, spices)
Therapy for GERD
Preventative dietary changes.
Avoiding medications or other
substances that promote reflux.
Using combination of medications.
Agents used as Antacids
aluminum hydroxide (ALternaGel)
carbonate (Gaviscon ES)
hydroxide-simethicone (Maalox Max)
magnesium hydroxide (Milk of
Local defect or excavation of the
surface of an organ or tissue.
3 common types:
Local excavation in the gastric
Have malignant potential.
Occur more in men than women.
Prevalent in smokers and populations
in the Western Hemisphere.
H. pylori is a common contributing
Peptic lesion in the duodenum.
Occur more in hypersecretors.
More difficult to treat than gastric
ulcers due to the difficulty in getting
the medication to the duodenum.
Rx for H. pylori
H. pylori is the cause of most peptic
H. pylori secretes enzymes that
neutralize stomach acid.
Antibiotics are the mainstay of
therapy, mixed with an antacid or
proton pump inhibitor.
Crohn’s disease: inflammatory bowel
Can affect any portion of tubular GI tract
Cannot be cured with surgery
Emesis is complex process occurs due
to stimulation of vomition centre located
in medula oblangata , & due to visual &
Apparent emetic impulse originating
from semicircular canal of vestibular
apparatus are transmitted by 8th cr
nerve to vestibular nuclei via
cerebellum and induces vomition.
--Peripheral efferent pathway include
stimulation arising from various
visceral organs and tissues.
Blood borne emetic substance include
drugs, hormones ,endotoxic
substance induce vomition via CTZ.
Drugs which are used to evoke
Clinically emesis is induced to empty
anterior portion of GIT, Prior to
induction of general anaesthesia.
Mainly employed in dogs and cats.
Vomition is induced by irritating the
epithelium of oropharynx,
oesophagus, stomach and duodenum.
IPECACUANHA contains active
ingredient emetine and cephaline
thus irritating gastric mucosa
stimulating CTZ .
Pharmacological effect it takes 15-30
mis to induce emesis in dogs and cats
SIDE EFFECTS cardiotoxicity.
NO SPECIFIC ANTIDOTE IS THERE
activated charcoal may be given.
Dogs & Cats ; 1-2ml/kg PO. Total
dose more than 15 ml for dog.
LUKE WARM WATER
Administered by stomach tube for
Used in non corrosive poisoning .
Induce vomition by irritating GI
In DOG 30-60ml PO
Centrally acting anti emetics
APOMORPHINE –It acts on vomiting
centre and CTZ , its semi synthetic
derivative of morphine ,dopamine
agonist acts on D2 receptors present on
CTZ inturn induce vomition.
CONTRAINDICATED in cats because of
DOSE in DOG ; 0.04mg/kg IV
XYLAZINE alpha 2 adrenoreceptor
agonist its reliable emetic in CATS.
DOSE IN CATS ;0.4-1mg/kg IM
Drugs which prevent vomition.
LOCALLY ACTING ANTI EMETICS
1. Demulcants and protectants e.g. kaolin,
pectin, bismuth salts
2. Gastric antacids and local anaesthetics
e.g. magnesium hydroxide, aluminium
hydroxide and benzocaine.
3. Anticholinergics e.g. glycopyronneum,
4. Prokinetics e.g. domperidone and
CENTRALLY ACTING ANTI
EMETICS – directly act on emetic
1. H1 receptor antagonist used in case of motion
sickness e.g meclozine 2-6g/kg PO in dogs
,cyclizine,cinnerazine. these are administered
30-60 min before journey .
2. D2 receptor antagonist- phenothiazine
derivative, e.g. Chlorpromazine in dogs 0.25-0.5
mg/kg .Benzamides e.g. Metachlopromide D2
blocker acts on CTZ dose in dogs 0.1-0.3 mg/kg
3. 5HT3 receptor antagonist acts centrally e.g.
Ondansetron dogs and cats 0.1-0.2mg/kg.
4. Muscuranic receptor antagonist e.g.hyoscine
1. GLUCOCORTICOIDS e.g.
2. BENZODIAZEPINES e.g. Diazepam,
lorazepam and midazolam.
3. CANNABINOIDS e.g. Dronabinone
Appetite is regulated by hunger & satiety
centre in hypothalamic nuclei & other
component of limbic system.
Neurotransmitter are alpha 2
receptor,seretonine are involved in controll of
Appetite stimulants are also called as
Inhibition of satiety centre increase in
Stimulation of satiety centre –decrease in
1. BENZODIAZEPINES – inhibit satiety
centre via nor adrenaline/D1 receptor.
eg, Diazepam – 0.05-0.15g in Dog PO,
Oxazepam 0.3-0.4 mg PO in dogs.
2. CYPROHEPTADINE- is H1 blocker it
inhibits seratogenic receptors thus
inhibition of satiety centre. 5-20mg PO
3. GLUCOCORTICOIDS-steroids induced
euphoria results in increase feed intake.
E.g.0.25-0.5mg prednisolone in dogs
PO once a day.
induced euphoria results in increase
feed intake. E.g.0.25-0.5mg
prednisolone in dogs PO once a day.
4) ANABOLIC STEROIDS-Synthetic
analogue of testosterone , they
promote appetite ,increase weight
5) PROGESTERONE –e,g Megesterol
acetate – 5mg/kg PO in dogs.
6) MISCELLANEOUS DRUGS –e,g,
Vitamin B preperations.
These are the agents which suppress
the appetite by stimulation of satiety
These are used in management of
obesity due to excessive food intake.
These are not used in veterinary
E,g, AMPHATAMINE used in case of