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Final 13 ways discourse analysis can improve tesol 2011

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13 Ways Discourse Analysis Can Improve Student Writing

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Final 13 ways discourse analysis can improve tesol 2011

  1. 1. 13 Ways Discourse Analysis Can Improve Second Language Writer Skill Susan Olmstead-Wang, PhD TESOL 2011 New Orleans March 18, 2011
  2. 2. Discourse analysis <ul><li>Speech </li></ul><ul><li>Text </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Genre Analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Positioning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“Rhetorical consciousness raising” (p. 4) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Swales, J.M. & Feak, C.B. (2004). Academic Writing for Graduate Students. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan . </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Versatile skill <ul><li>Here applied mostly to ESP </li></ul><ul><li>Higher Ed </li></ul><ul><li>Disciplinary </li></ul><ul><li>Trans-disciplinary </li></ul><ul><li>See many kinds of funnel </li></ul>
  4. 4. A way in to new territory <ul><li>Enter Community of Practice </li></ul><ul><li>Approach—make the implicit explicit* </li></ul><ul><li>Map, blueprint </li></ul><ul><li>This top down, global to local </li></ul><ul><li>* Lovitts, B.E. (2007). Making the implicit explicit . Stylus: Sterling,Virginia </li></ul>
  5. 5. #13 Moves Writers Make <ul><li>How to identify what it is writers do to achieve rhetorical purpose </li></ul><ul><li>How to operationalize skill to create intended effect </li></ul><ul><li>What and how </li></ul><ul><li>Title from Raymond, J. Moves writers make . </li></ul>
  6. 6. #12 Identify a good sample <ul><li>Identify a sample that has a similar audience, target, type </li></ul><ul><li>Discern what makes it effective </li></ul><ul><li>Learn how to use a recognizable pattern </li></ul><ul><li>Leverage the power of conventional academic writing structure in new ways </li></ul><ul><li>Carry new information load </li></ul>
  7. 7. #12 Good samples <ul><li>Research journal article </li></ul><ul><li>Dissertation </li></ul><ul><li>GRE argument and opinion essays </li></ul><ul><li>iBT TOEFL essay </li></ul><ul><li>Other: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adult ELL writing demands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Older adolescent learner needs </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. #11 External Situatedness <ul><li>Situation, nestedness of the text </li></ul><ul><li>Where is it? </li></ul><ul><li>What is it for? </li></ul><ul><li>Who is it for? </li></ul><ul><li>What does that mean to the writer and to the facilitator? </li></ul>
  9. 9. #10 Leverage text type info <ul><li>Title </li></ul><ul><li>ToC </li></ul><ul><li>Parts </li></ul><ul><li>Sections </li></ul><ul><li>Chapter Titles </li></ul>
  10. 10. #9 Fly over for birds eye view <ul><li>Inside chapter </li></ul><ul><li>Headings </li></ul><ul><li>Bolds, font levels </li></ul><ul><li>Reverse outlining </li></ul><ul><li>See funnel shape, how stated purpose inheres in the text </li></ul>
  11. 11. #8 Distinguish HOC and LOC <ul><li>Higher Order Concerns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Read, write for “large bones” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lower/Later Order Concerns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Polish only “survivor sentences” </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. #7 Headings: 5 levels <ul><li>EXPERIMENT 1: A QUALITATIVE STUDY </li></ul><ul><li>External Validation </li></ul><ul><li>Method </li></ul><ul><li>Participants </li></ul><ul><li>Sleep-deprived group. </li></ul><ul><li>Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association , (2001). 5 th Ed. p. 114 </li></ul>
  13. 13. #6 Recognize discourse markers <ul><li>Discourse markers </li></ul><ul><li>Linking words & phrases </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Furthermore </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Despite the fact </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Therefore </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>That is . . . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In contrast </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>See E. Hinkel, J Swales & C. Feak </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. #5 Linkages between sections <ul><li>Global markers </li></ul><ul><li>Cohesion/ coherence </li></ul><ul><li>Forecasting </li></ul><ul><li>Summarizing briefly </li></ul><ul><li>Focal statements </li></ul>
  15. 15. #4 Links within sections <ul><li>“Glocal” markers </li></ul><ul><li>Signal logical connection </li></ul><ul><li>Signpost “flow” </li></ul>
  16. 16. #3 Links within paragraphs <ul><li>Dependent and independent clauses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“Because of this pressure, dams must be built with careful thought.” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Clear referents—pronoun, this and that </li></ul><ul><li>Logical sequence; statement + example; vocab linking; punctuation </li></ul>
  17. 17. #2 Sentence level <ul><li>Words/work of others: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reporting and working from sources </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Findings/conclusions of your work: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hedging; strategic situating </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Degree of certainty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strength of claim </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. #1 Precise diction <ul><li>Consistency in naming </li></ul><ul><li>Synonyms, metaphors </li></ul><ul><li>Precise repeated terminology </li></ul><ul><li>Talk the talk </li></ul><ul><li>How do others in your field “talk”? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Community of Practice (CoP) </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Discourse Analysis <ul><li>“Start with the end in mind”* </li></ul><ul><li>Provides approach strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Creates skills-based confidence </li></ul><ul><li>Functions as a generalizable skill </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To other kinds of analysis, problem-solving </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>* S. Covey, 7 Habits of Highly Effective People </li></ul></ul>

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