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  1. 1. © Prentice Hall, 2005 1-1
  2. 2. Objectives 1. A complete definition of a plan 2. Insights regarding various dimensions of plans 3. An understanding of various types of plans 4. Insights into why plans fail 5. A knowledge of various planning areas within an organization 6. A definition of forecasting 7. An ability to see the advantages and disadvantages of various methods of sales forecasting 8. A definition of scheduling 9. An understanding of Gantt charts and PERT© Prentice Hall, 2005 1-2
  3. 3. Plans: A Definition Dimensions of Plans Repetitiveness Time Scope Level Types of Plans Standing Plans: Policies, Procedures, and Rules Single-Use Plans: Programs and Budgets© Prentice Hall, 2005 1-3
  4. 4. Plans: A Definition© Prentice Hall, 2005 1-4
  5. 5. Plans: A Definition© Prentice Hall, 2005 1-5
  6. 6. Plans: A Definition© Prentice Hall, 2005 1-6
  7. 7. Plans: A Definition Why Plans Fail 1. Corporate planning not integrated into total management system 2. Lack of understanding of different steps of planning process 3. Management has not properly engaged in or contributed to planning activities 4. Responsibility for planning is wrongly vested solely in the planning department 5. Management expects that plans developed will be realized with little effort 6. In starting formal planning, too much is attempted at once 7. Management fails to operate by the plan 8. Financial projections are confused with planning 9.© Prentice Hall, 2005 Inadequate inputs are used in planning 1-7
  8. 8. Plans: A Definition Planning Areas: Input Planning Plant Facilities Planning Weighting process to compare foreign site differences: 1. Deciding on a set of variables critical to obtaining an appropriate site 2. Assigning each variable a weight reflecting its relative importance 3. Ranking alternative sites according to how they reflect these variables© Prentice Hall, 2005 1-8
  9. 9. Plans: A Definition© Prentice Hall, 2005 1-9
  10. 10. Plans: A Definition© Prentice Hall, 2005 1 - 10
  11. 11. Plans: A Definition Planning Areas: Input Planning (continued) Human Resource Planning Kinds of questions personnel planners should try to answer: 1. What types of people does the organization need to reach its objectives? 2. How many of each type are needed? 3. What steps should the organization take to recruit and select such people? 4. Can present employees be further trained to fill future needed positions? 5. At what rate are employees being lost to other organizations?© Prentice Hall, 2005 1 - 11
  12. 12. Plans: A Definition© Prentice Hall, 2005 1 - 12
  13. 13. Planning Tools Forecasting How Forecasting Works Insect Control Services forecasts by attempting to: 1. Establish relationships between industry sales and national economic and social indicators 2. Determine the impact government restrictions on the use of chemical pesticides will have 3. Evaluate sales growth potential, profitability, resources required, and risks involved 4. Evaluate potential for expansion of marketing efforts in U. S. as well as foreign countries 5. Determine likelihood of technological breakthroughs making existing product lines obsolete Types of Forecasts© Prentice Hall, 2005 1 - 13
  14. 14. Planning Tools Forecasting (continued) Methods of Sales Forecasting  Jury of Executive Opinion Method Delphi method: Step 1—Experts are asked to answer, independently and in writing, a series of questions Step 2—A summary of all the answers is then prepared Step 3—Copies of the summary are given to the individual experts Step 4—Another summary is made of these modifications Step 5—Third summary made of opinions and justifications, and copies are again distributed Step 6—Forecast generated from all of the opinions and justifications that arise from step 5© Prentice Hall, 2005 1 - 14
  15. 15. Planning Tools Forecasting (continued) Methods of Sales Forecasting (continued)  Salesforce Estimation Method  Time Series Analysis Method  Product Stages Evaluating Sales Forecasting Methods© Prentice Hall, 2005 1 - 15
  16. 16. Planning Tools© Prentice Hall, 2005 1 - 16
  17. 17. Planning Tools© Prentice Hall, 2005 1 - 17
  18. 18. Planning Tools Scheduling Gantt Charts  Features 1) Summary overview 2) Coordinate organizational resources 3) Establish realistic worker output standards© Prentice Hall, 2005 1 - 18
  19. 19. Planning Tools© Prentice Hall, 2005 1 - 19
  20. 20. Planning Tools Scheduling (continued) Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT)  Defining PERT  Features  Critical Path  Steps in Designing a PERT Network Step 1—List all the activities/events that must be accomplished and the sequence Step 2—Determine how much time will be needed to complete each activity/event Step 3—Design PERT network that reflects all of the information in steps 1 and 2 Step 4—Identify the critical path© Prentice Hall, 2005 1 - 20
  21. 21. Planning Tools© Prentice Hall, 2005 1 - 21
  22. 22. Questions© Prentice Hall, 2005 1 - 22