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Genetics and Biochemistry of Behavior

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Genetics and Biochemistry of Behavior

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Genetics and Biochemistry of Behavior

  1. 1. GENETICS,GENETICS, NEUROANATOMYNEUROANATOMY ANDAND BIOCHEMISTRY OFBIOCHEMISTRY OF BEHAVIORBEHAVIOR
  2. 2.  Describe family, twin and adoptionDescribe family, twin and adoption studiesstudies  Describe brain and behaviorDescribe brain and behavior relationshiprelationship  Describe the role of central andDescribe the role of central and peripheral nervous system in behaviorperipheral nervous system in behavior  Describe the role of importantDescribe the role of important neurotransmitters in behaviorneurotransmitters in behavior
  3. 3. The study of Genetics involves:The study of Genetics involves: 11.. Family studiesFamily studies 2.2. Twin studiesTwin studies 3.3. Adoption studiesAdoption studies
  4. 4. The study of Genetics involves:The study of Genetics involves: 11.. Family studiesFamily studies 2.2. Twin studiesTwin studies 3.3. Adoption studiesAdoption studies
  5. 5. FAMILY STUDIESFAMILY STUDIES Lifetime expectancy ofLifetime expectancy of schizophrenia in the relatives ofschizophrenia in the relatives of schizophrenicschizophrenic RelationshipRelationship PercentagePercentage %% SchizophrenicSchizophrenic ParentParent 5.65.6 Sibling 10.1Sibling 10.1 Sibling (when one parent also affected) 16.7Sibling (when one parent also affected) 16.7 ChildrenChildren 12.812.8 Children (both parents affected)Children (both parents affected) 46.346.3 Uncles/aunts/nephews/niecesUncles/aunts/nephews/nieces 2.82.8
  6. 6. TWIN STUDIESTWIN STUDIES Probandwise concordance in schizophreniaProbandwise concordance in schizophrenia twin studies (after Gottesman & shieldstwin studies (after Gottesman & shields 1976)1976) MZ pairs DZ pairsMZ pairs DZ pairs n Concordance(%)n Concordance(%) nn Concordance(%)Concordance(%)    Kringlen (1967)Kringlen (1967) 5555 4545 9090 1515 Pollin et al (1969)Pollin et al (1969) 9595 4343 125125 99 Tienari (1968)Tienari (1968) 1616 3535 2121 1313
  7. 7. ADOPTION STUDIESADOPTION STUDIES These studies are aimed at separatingThese studies are aimed at separating genetic and environmental influencesgenetic and environmental influences for particular traits in children adoptedfor particular traits in children adopted away from their biological parents andaway from their biological parents and raised by unrelated adoption parents.raised by unrelated adoption parents.
  8. 8. BRAIN & BEHAVIOUR-BRAIN & BEHAVIOUR- RELATIOSHIPRELATIOSHIP Human nervous system consists of:Human nervous system consists of: 1. Central nervous system1. Central nervous system 2. Peripheral nervous system2. Peripheral nervous system
  9. 9.  Central nervous system includes BrainCentral nervous system includes Brain and Spinal cord.and Spinal cord.  The peripheral nervous systemThe peripheral nervous system consists of:consists of: 1. 1. Cranial nervesCranial nerves 2. Spinal nerves2. Spinal nerves 3. Autonomic ganglia and plexes3. Autonomic ganglia and plexes
  10. 10. Central Sulcus
  11. 11. The brain is divided into:The brain is divided into:    i.i.  Two cerebral hemispheresTwo cerebral hemispheres ii.ii. AnatomicallyAnatomically into four lobes i.e.,into four lobes i.e., frontal, temporal, parietal andfrontal, temporal, parietal and occipital lobeoccipital lobe iii.iii. HistologicallyHistologically in various neuronalin various neuronal layerslayers FunctionallyFunctionally into motor, sensory, otherinto motor, sensory, other specific and association areasspecific and association areas
  12. 12. CEREBRAL HEMISPHERESCEREBRAL HEMISPHERES a)a) The hemispheres are connected byThe hemispheres are connected by the corpus callosum, anteriorthe corpus callosum, anterior commissure, hippocampal commissurecommissure, hippocampal commissure and hebenular commissure.and hebenular commissure.
  13. 13. Q.Q. Which of the following twoWhich of the following two structural entities connect thestructural entities connect the cerebral hemispheres?cerebral hemispheres? a.a. Basal ganglia and anteriorBasal ganglia and anterior commissurecommissure b.b. Anterior commissure and reticularAnterior commissure and reticular systemsystem c.c. Reticular system and corpus callosumReticular system and corpus callosum d.d. Amygdala and habenular commissureAmygdala and habenular commissure
  14. 14. b) The functions of the hemisphereb) The functions of the hemisphere are lateralized.are lateralized. i.i. The right or non dominantThe right or non dominant hemisphere is associated primarilyhemisphere is associated primarily with:with: PERCEPTIONPERCEPTION SPATIAL RELATIONSSPATIAL RELATIONS BODY IMAGEBODY IMAGE ARTISTIC ABILLITYARTISTIC ABILLITY
  15. 15. Q.Q. A 65 years old female patient hasA 65 years old female patient has had a stroke affecting the lefthad a stroke affecting the left hemisphere of her brain. Which ofhemisphere of her brain. Which of the following functions is mostthe following functions is most likely to be affected by the stroke?likely to be affected by the stroke? a.a. PerceptionPerception b.b. Musical abilityMusical ability c.c. Spatial relationsSpatial relations d.d. LanguageLanguage e.e. Artistic abilityArtistic ability
  16. 16. ii.ii.  The Left or dominant hemisphere isThe Left or dominant hemisphere is associated with language functions inassociated with language functions in about 96 % of right handed peopleabout 96 % of right handed people and 70 % of left handed people.and 70 % of left handed people.
  17. 17. Neuropsychiatric Effects ofNeuropsychiatric Effects of Brain LesionsBrain Lesions • Location ofLocation of LesionLesion Frontal LobeFrontal Lobe Temporal LobeTemporal Lobe Parietal LobeParietal Lobe Occipital LobeOccipital Lobe Limbic SystemLimbic System • Effects of LesionEffects of Lesion
  18. 18. HYPOTHALAMUS ANDHYPOTHALAMUS AND PITUITARYPITUITARY Hypothalamus and pituitary are involvedHypothalamus and pituitary are involved in the regulation of:in the regulation of: i.i. SleepSleep ii.ii. AppetiteAppetite iii.iii. Sexual activitySexual activity
  19. 19. iv.iv. Major endocrine regulation of theMajor endocrine regulation of the bodybody v.v. Body immune systemBody immune system vi.vi. Autonomic nervous system of theAutonomic nervous system of the body.body.
  20. 20. BIOCHEMISTRY OFBIOCHEMISTRY OF BEHAVIORBEHAVIOR Neurotransmission across synapsesNeurotransmission across synapses (contact between neurons) is carried(contact between neurons) is carried out through the release of chemicalout through the release of chemical substances called neurotransmitters.substances called neurotransmitters. Neurotransmitters can be:Neurotransmitters can be: a.a. Biogenic aminesBiogenic amines b. Amino acidsb. Amino acids c. Peptidesc. Peptides
  21. 21. MOVIEMOVIE
  22. 22.  Biogenic amines include dopamine,Biogenic amines include dopamine, nor epinephrine, serotonin, histaminenor epinephrine, serotonin, histamine and acetylcholine.and acetylcholine.  Dopamine is involved inDopamine is involved in  Norepinephrine has a role inNorepinephrine has a role in  Serotonin plays a role inSerotonin plays a role in  Histamine is affected byHistamine is affected by  Acetylcholine is mainly released atAcetylcholine is mainly released at
  23. 23. M T
  24. 24. Amino Acid NeurotransmittersAmino Acid Neurotransmitters are:are:  Gamma amino butyric acid (GABA),Gamma amino butyric acid (GABA), glyine and glutamateglyine and glutamate
  25. 25. NEUROPEPTIDESNEUROPEPTIDES  Encephalins and endorphins areEncephalins and endorphins are endogenously produced by brain andendogenously produced by brain and are involved in relief of pain andare involved in relief of pain and anxiety.anxiety.  Other Neuropeptides are implicated inOther Neuropeptides are implicated in schizophrenia, mood disorders,schizophrenia, mood disorders, Huntington’s chorea, dementia,Huntington’s chorea, dementia, anxiety disorders, pain conditions andanxiety disorders, pain conditions and aggression.aggression.
  26. 26. Q.Q. The major neurotransmitterThe major neurotransmitter implicated in both Alzheimerimplicated in both Alzheimer disease and schizophrenia isdisease and schizophrenia is a. Serotonina. Serotonin b. Norepinephrineb. Norepinephrine c. Dopaminec. Dopamine d. Acetylcholined. Acetylcholine e. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)e. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) f. Glutamatef. Glutamate

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