A New Trends in Integration Technologies
Dr. Ravi Shankar Mishra
Prof. & HOD
•The growth of electronics industry has increased
rapidly mainly due to advances in integration
technologies, large-scale systems design - due to the
advent of VLSI.
•The number of applications of integrated circuits are
in high-performance computing, telecommunications,
and consumer electronics.
VLSI TECHNOLOGY AND DESIGN DRIVERS
• Less Area, More Compactness At All System Levels
• Less Power Consumption
•Fewer Chips/components Per Board And System
• Higher Reliability, Due To Improved On-chip
• Higher Speed Due To Reduced Interconnect Length
Manufacturing Cost Reductions
CLASSIFICATION OF ICS
Audion (Triode), 1906
Lee De Forest
First point contact transistor
John Bardeen and Walter Brattain
First integrated circuit (germanium), 1958
Jack S. Kilby, Texas Instruments
Contained five components, three types:
transistors resistors and capacitors
Intel Pentium II, 1997
Number of transistors: 7.5 M
Gate Length: 0.35
SSI – Small Scale Integration (early 1970s)
contained 1 – 10 logic gates
MSI – Medium Scale Integration
logic functions, counters
LSI – Large Scale Integration
first microprocessors on the chip
VLSI – Very Large Scale Integration
now offers 64-bit microprocessors,complete with cache
memory,floating-point arithmetic unit(s), etc.
TTL (transistor-transistor logic)
ECL (emitter-coupled logic)
NMOS (n-channel MOS) technology developed in 1970s
required fewer masking steps, was denser, and
consumed less power than equivalent bipolar ICs
an MOS IC was cheaper than a bipolar IC and led to
investment and growth of the MOS IC market.
Aluminum gates for replaced by polysilicon by early 1980
CMOS (Complementary MOS): n-channel and p-channel
MOS transistors =>
lower power consumption, simplified fabrication process
Bi-CMOS - hybrid Bipolar, CMOS (for high speed)
GaAs - Gallium Arsenide (for high speed)
Si-Ge - Silicon Germanium (for RF)
The number of transistors that can be
integrated on a single IC grows exponentially
“Integration complexity doubles every three
Fairchild Corporation - 1965
Design Abstraction Level
A complex digital system can be subdivided in a
hierarchical manner using abstraction.
Blocks, sub-blocks Logic
• Behavioral design
It deal with function of the system & register input and output.
• Data path design
In this flow of data through buses between registers and logic
unit are controlled.
• Logic design
Data path units are replaced with primitive gates & flip flop.
• Physical design
It replaces the gates and flip flop using transistors.
The function or operations for transforming design or one stage
into other stage and verification of the out put done by the software
known as design automation the tool use for this.
• Simulation tools or simulators.
It is the process of verifying the conduction of model for the given
circuit without implementing practically.For this purpose Modelsim
simulator used output of simulator is wave form or timing diagram.
The process of transforming design description from one form two
another form is called synthesis.
Standard Cells Gate Arrays Programmable Logic
•Customers decide the design methodology
• Full Custom
Each And Every Component design as per designer interest.
• Semi Custom
Designer can design part of the project and part of thing can be
taken from others.
• Standards cells
Predefined logic cells are called standards cells. Pre design
modules e.g. AND gate,OR gate,Multiplexers, Flip Flop.
• Gate Array
In this standard logic elements or present for the designer to the
interconnect to achieve the desire function.
• Field Programmable Devices
It is prefabricated, the logic is implemented by electrically
Application-Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC)
A kind of semi custom integrated circuit, often referred to as
"gate-array" or "standard-cell" products, developed & designed
to satisfy a specific application requirement as opposed to a
general purpose circuit, such as a microprocessor.
•ASICs are customized or tailored to perform specific functions to a
particular system or application
• ASICs are typically employed as bus interfaces, glue
logic,functional accelerators, and/or a System-On-Chip (SoC).
ASIC – Benefits
• Reduce power consumption
• Reduce production costs
• Mix Analog and Digital Designs
• Design optimization through IC manufacturing process
• Development Tools support HDL and Schematic design approach
Idea: combine several large blocks
Pre design custom cores
(e.g.,microcontroller) - “intellectual property”
ASIC logic for special-purpose hardware
Programmable Logic (PLD, FPGA)
VLSI Design Tools
Front End Design tools:
With the help of these tools simulation &
synthesis of circuit can be performed on PC.E.g.
XILINX, Altera etc.
Back End Design Tools:
These tools are used to fabrication purpose.The
layout of circuit is design and simulate with the
help of these tools. E.g. TANNER,MICROWIND
Application of VLSI
Ultra Low power Image & Video Compression.
Encryption Chip/Smart Card
CMOS Image Sensor
Medical electronic systems.
Real time Tele communication and Data
Process control industry etc……