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1.FGD.pptx

This presentation aims to provide insights into conducting effective focus group discussions, highlighting the process, methodology, best practices, and ethical considerations necessary for generating comprehensive qualitative data and valuable insights.

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 
Dr. Pradip Kumar Jana
Group of 6-12 people with
similar characteristics
Gather to discuss a
focused topic of interest
A trained moderator
guides the discussion
11/23/2023 2
1. Defining research concept and Developing
hypothesis
2. Generating Vocabularies and Framing
appropriate questions for large scale surveys
3. To obtain a range of perceptions, opinions or
beliefs about an issue
4. Develop appropriate messages for health
education programs
5. Explore controversial topics
3
11/23/2023
 ‘Group" can refer to any
collection of individuals, a
"focus group" is a
specialized research
method involving a small,
targeted group engaged in
structured discussions to
explore specific topics in-
depth for qualitative
research purposes.
11/23/2023 4
1. People to conduct the discussion
-One facilitator, one recorder,
better if an observer
2. Selection of participants
3. Fix up date, time and place for FGD
4. Prepare a FGD guide
11/23/2023 5
 6-12 willing individuals in a group
 Participants are selected in advance by purposive sampling
 The members are homogenous
 Anonymity of the participants is preferred
 Members of the research team:
a moderator (facilitator), a note-taker & recorder
11/23/2023 6

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1.FGD.pptx

  • 1.   Dr. Pradip Kumar Jana
  • 2. Group of 6-12 people with similar characteristics Gather to discuss a focused topic of interest A trained moderator guides the discussion 11/23/2023 2
  • 3. 1. Defining research concept and Developing hypothesis 2. Generating Vocabularies and Framing appropriate questions for large scale surveys 3. To obtain a range of perceptions, opinions or beliefs about an issue 4. Develop appropriate messages for health education programs 5. Explore controversial topics 3 11/23/2023
  • 4.  ‘Group" can refer to any collection of individuals, a "focus group" is a specialized research method involving a small, targeted group engaged in structured discussions to explore specific topics in- depth for qualitative research purposes. 11/23/2023 4
  • 5. 1. People to conduct the discussion -One facilitator, one recorder, better if an observer 2. Selection of participants 3. Fix up date, time and place for FGD 4. Prepare a FGD guide 11/23/2023 5
  • 6.  6-12 willing individuals in a group  Participants are selected in advance by purposive sampling  The members are homogenous  Anonymity of the participants is preferred  Members of the research team: a moderator (facilitator), a note-taker & recorder 11/23/2023 6
  • 8. 1. Hold the FGD in a neutral setting 2. Sitting arrangement should be circular 3. Moderator at the center 4. Observer / Note taker next to moderator 5. Make sure that there are no disturbances 6. Ensure adequate lighting and ventilation 8 11/23/2023
  • 9. Subject A Subject B Subject C Subject G Subject F Subject E Subject D Moderato r Observer Note taker Tape Recorder
  • 10. Subject A Subject B Subject C Subject G Subject F Subject E Subject D Moderato r Observer Note taker Tape Recorder
  • 12. Step 1: Formulating the Research Question and Drafting a FGD guide Step 2: Operational Planning Step 3: Sampling and Recruitment Step 4: Conduct Step 5: Analysis Step 6: Publication and Dissemination of Results 11/23/2023 12
  • 13.  a good, general and well-framed research question is essential to the success of a qualitative study. Example from our Study: i) What is the socio-demographic profile and attitude of study participants working for household data collection in Kalahandi district of Odisha? ii) What are the factors that are affecting household data collection at primary-level healthcare facilities its effective use and the challenges? 13 11/23/2023
  • 14. o Must provide the moderator with the topic and issues that are to be covered o It is loosely structured and does not suggest potential responses o The questions should be unstructured, unbiased o Progression of the topics in the guidelines should be logical and should move from general to specific topic o The guide should not have too many questions 11/23/2023 14
  • 15.  Preparing and developing protocols and informed consent forms.  Obtaining official approval of an ethical committee  Training and instructing assisting staff (e.g. moderator, minute taker, and observer).  Planning time and place of an interview and arranging a venue.  Arranging and testing technical recording equipment  Planning recruitment and reimbursement of participants 11/23/2023 15
  • 16.  ‘Purposive’ Sampling Technique , ‘random’ sampling is also possible (though not often applied in FGDs)  The typical size of a focus group discussion is 6 to 12 participants  A group of only 3 to 4 participants is called a ‘mini group  A general rule of the thumb is that the more experience and knowledge the participants have on the given subject, the smaller the group could be. 11/23/2023 16
  • 17. A typical FGD proceeds as follows (Dawson, Manderson, and Tallo 1993):  Start the discussion with an ‘ice-breaker’, e.g. a round of introduction of participants.  Introduce the main topic and the overall research question (e.g. orally, on a poster or as a projected presentation).  Ask specific questions listed in the FGD guide (not necessarily in the pre-specified order); a skilled moderator will be able to ensure that all important questions (which may be photocopied and distributed to the participants) are covered, without interrupting the natural flow of the discussion.  Thank participants and say good-bye. 11/23/2023 17
  • 19.  Transcribing recorded statements  Coding the transcription  Reviewing memos  Analyzing and interpreting qualitative data  Establishing validity and reliability  Software that facilitate qualitative analyses a) Programs that facilitate transcription, such as Transcriber (http://transag.sourceforge.net/, audio only, freeware) and Transana(http://www.transana.o rg/, video and audio. b) Programs that facilitate coding and interpretation, such as MaxQDA, AtlasTI, QDA Miner 11/23/2023 19
  • 20. Reporting a qualitative study must comply with fixed quality standards that enhance rigor and comparability. Two widely used checklists are A) COREQ (Consolidated Criteria for Reporting Qualitative Studies) (Tong, Sainsbury, and Craig 2007). B) RATS (Qualitative Research Review Guidelines) used by Springer and Biomed Central https://old.biomedcentral.com/authors/rats. 11/23/2023 20
  • 21.  Plan and Prepare: o Clearly define the objectives and topics to be discussed. o Prepare a structured discussion guide with open-ended questions. o Select a diverse group of participants with relevant experiences or perspectives.  Create a Welcoming Environment: o Choose a comfortable and neutral venue conducive to open discussion. o Start with introductions and create a relaxed atmosphere to build rapport.  Moderate Effectively: o Be an active listener and encourage all participants to contribute. o Maintain neutrality and avoid expressing personal opinions. o Keep discussions focused and steer back on topic if needed. 11/23/2023 21
  • 22.  Encourage Participation: o Use probing questions to elicit detailed responses. o Encourage quieter participants to share their thoughts. o Ensure everyone has an opportunity to speak.  Record and Analyze: o Record the session (with consent) for accurate data capture. o Take notes or use a note-taker to document key points. o Analyze the data collected for insights and patterns.  Respect and Confidentiality: o Respect participants' opinions and diverse viewpoints. o Assure confidentiality and anonymity for sensitive information shared. 11/23/2023 22
  • 23.  Dominate the Discussion: o Avoid dominating the conversation or imposing personal views. o Refrain from interrupting or dismissing participants' contributions.  Lead with Biases: o Don't steer discussions to validate preconceived ideas. o Avoid leading questions that might influence responses.  Allowing One Dominant Voice: o Prevent one or a few participants from monopolizing the conversation. o Ensure an equal opportunity for all to contribute. 11/23/2023 23
  • 24.  Rushing Through Topics: o Don't rush through topics or cut discussions short. o Allow sufficient time for each topic to be explored thoroughly.  Violating Privacy or Trust: o Avoid revealing participants' identities or confidential information shared during the session. o Respect privacy and don't breach trust by disclosing sensitive information.  Ignoring Non-Verbal Cues: o Pay attention to non-verbal cues (gestures, expressions) to gauge participant reactions or discomfort. 11/23/2023 24