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Scenario of Fruit production in Jammu

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Scenario of Fruit production in Jammu: PRESENT STATUS AND FUTURE STRATEGIES OF SKUAST-J

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Scenario of Fruit production in Jammu

  1. 1. Scenario of Fruit production in Jammu PRESENT STATUS AND FUTURE STRATEGIES OF SKUAST-J Division of Fruit Science Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Jammu NAME: Dr. Parshant Bakshi Associate Professor
  2. 2. Total Geographical area : 101387 sq km. Extended over : 320 -17` and 370 –5`N 730 -26` and 800 -30` E Altitude variations : 300-5400 meters asl
  3. 3. GENERAL PROFILE OF JAMMU DIVISIONGENERAL PROFILE OF JAMMU DIVISION 1. Total area of Jammu Division 17.95 Lac Ha. 2. Area under forests 6.52 Lac Ha. 3. Area not available for cultivation (land put to Non- Agricultural use and barren and un-cultivated land) 4.96 Lac Ha 4 Other un-cultivated land excluding fallow 2.36 Lac Ha. 5. Fallow Land 0.47 Lac Ha. 6. Net sown area 4.02 Lac Ha. 7. Net irrigated area 1.09 Lac Ha. 8. Area irrigated 26% 9 No. of Districts 10 10. No. of Blocks 65 11 No. of Horticulture Zones 70 12. No. of Panchayats 1969 13. No. of villages 3517 14. Area under Orchards in Jammu Division 1.08 Lac Ha 15. Production of Fruits in Jammu Division 1.40 Lac Mt.
  4. 4. AGRO CLIMATIC STATUSAGRO CLIMATIC STATUS OF JAMMU DIVISIONOF JAMMU DIVISION The Jammu Division has three Agro Climatic ZonesThe Jammu Division has three Agro Climatic Zones comprising of:-comprising of:- SUB-TROPICAL Irrigated Areas, Kandi and un-irrigated area. INTERMEDIATE This zone falls in between temperate and Sub- tropical Zone and comprises mainly rainfed areas where source of irrigation is very scanty. TEMPERATE Comprises of hilly and mountainous areas
  5. 5. AREAS FALLING UNDER AGRO-CLIMATICAREAS FALLING UNDER AGRO-CLIMATIC ZONESZONES ZONES LOCALITIES SUITABLE FRUIT KINDS Sub-Tropical (Irrigated Areas) Kathua, Barnoti, Hiranagar, Ghagwal, Samba, Vijaypur, Bishnah, R. S. Pora, Marh, Bhalwal, Akhnoor, Khour, Nowshera, Satwari and Sunderbani Block Mango,Citrus, Guava, Ber, Litchi, Loquat, Grapes and Strawberry etc. Sub-Tropical (Un-Irrigated Areas) Parts of Kathua, Barnoti, Hiranagar, Bhagwal, Samba, Purmandal, Udhampur, Reasi, Katra, Ramnagar, Bhalwal, Khour, Nowshera, Kalakot, Ramban and Sunderbani Block. Mango, Citrus, Guava, Ber, Aonla Intermediate zone Parts of Basholi (Bani), Billawar (Machedi), Lohi-Malhar in Kathua district, Parts of Poonch district (Surankote, Balakote, Mendhar etc.), Parts of Rajouri viz. Doongi, Dalhori, Chowdhary Nar, Kote Dhara, Mehari, Kallar, Budhal-Thandi kassi. Tarala, Palma, Panhad, Triyath- Treru (Lower) in Rajouri District, Parts of Udhampur district (Bombagh area of Dudu- Basantgarh, Chenani, Parts of Reasi, Totesari, Thakrakote and Mahore), and some portion of Doda district (Assar, Baggar, Khilani, Marmat, Ramban and Kishtwar) Stone fruits (Like Peach, Plum, Apricot), Pears, Pecan Nut, Olive and Kiwi etc. Temperate Zone Parts of Poonch, Rajouri, Doda, Kishtwar, Bhalesa, Assar, Paddar, Marwah,k Ramban, Mahore, Mendhar, Poonch, Budhal, Basohli Billawar, Lohai Malhar, Ramnagar, Chenani, Thathri, Banihal, Panchari, Basantgarh, Gool, Surankote, Inderwal, Mandi, Wsarwan, Badnota, Darhal, Manjhakot and entire areas of Bhaderwah block, Apple, Pears, Walnut, Almond, Pecan Nut, and Stone Fruits etc.
  6. 6. ZONALIZATION PLAN FOR GROWINGZONALIZATION PLAN FOR GROWING FRUIT CROPS IN JAMMU DIVISIONFRUIT CROPS IN JAMMU DIVISION Name of District Kind of fruit plants (Percent area to be covered) Pome/Soft fruits Nut fruits Drupes Evergreen fruits Doda 34 Apple, Pear, Quince, Pomegranate 40 Walnut Pecan nut 9 Peach, Plum, Apricot, Kiwi 17 Olive, Citrus Kishtwar 30 Apple, Pear, Quince, Pomegranate 55 Walnut 10 Peach, Plum, Apricot, Kiwi 5 Olive, Citrus Ramban 25 Apple, Pear, Quince, Pomegranate 56 Walnut Pecan nut 9 Peach, Plum, Apricot, Kiwi 10 Olive, Citrus, Strawberry Poonch 30 Apple, Pear, Persimmon 45 Walnut, Pecan nut 20 Peach, Plum, Apricot, Kiwi 5 Citrus, Olive ……Contd.……
  7. 7. Kathua 15 Apple, Pear, Pomegranate 30 Walnut 15 Plum, Peach, Apricot 40 Citrus, Mango, Loquat, Guava, Litchi, Olive, Ber, Aonla, Strawberry Udhampur 15 Apple, Pear, Pomegranate 35 Walnut 15 Peach, Plum, Apricot, Kiwi 35 Mango, Citrus, Loquat, Guava, Litchi, Olive, Ber, Aonla, Strawberry Reasi 20 Apple, Pear, Pomegranate 30 Walnut 15 Peach, Plum, Apricot 35 Mango, Citrus, Loquat, Guava, Litchi, Olive, Ber, Aonla Rajouri 25 Apple, Pear 30 Walnut, Pecan Nut 20 Peach, Plum, Apricot, Kiwi 25 Citrus, Guava, Mango, Olive Loquat, Litchi, Ber, Aonla Jammu — — 10 Peach 90 Mango, Guava, Litchi, Citrus, Loquat, Ber, Aonla, Strawberry Samba — — 10 Peach 90 Mango, Guava, Litchi, Citrus, Loquat, Ber, Aonla, Strawberry
  8. 8. THRUST AREASTHRUST AREAS  Promotion of dry land horticulture in Kandi areasPromotion of dry land horticulture in Kandi areas  Area Expansion keeping in view consumer orientedArea Expansion keeping in view consumer oriented diversification and uplifting of scoi-economic status ofdiversification and uplifting of scoi-economic status of farming communityfarming community  Creation and strengthening of irrigation resources likeCreation and strengthening of irrigation resources like water harvesting/ storage tanks, deep bore wells, shallowwater harvesting/ storage tanks, deep bore wells, shallow wells, table wells in rain-fed areaswells, table wells in rain-fed areas  Introduction of new cultivarsIntroduction of new cultivars  Enhance/ Boost the production and productivity of fruitEnhance/ Boost the production and productivity of fruit cropscrops  Encourage the introduction and cultivation of minor andEncourage the introduction and cultivation of minor and rare fruit crops (diversification) and promotion of arearare fruit crops (diversification) and promotion of area specific fruit crops (zonalization).specific fruit crops (zonalization).  Capacity building and human resource development inCapacity building and human resource development in private and public sector.private and public sector.
  9. 9. APPROACHESAPPROACHES  Increase the area under fruit crops by plantation of improvedIncrease the area under fruit crops by plantation of improved cultivars of known performancecultivars of known performance  Boost the productivity by intensive cultivationBoost the productivity by intensive cultivation  Re-plantation and top working of old/ senile fruit trees withRe-plantation and top working of old/ senile fruit trees with commercially acceptable cultivarscommercially acceptable cultivars  Development of fruit zones/ villages (fruit specific areas) as perDevelopment of fruit zones/ villages (fruit specific areas) as per zonalization and diversification strategieszonalization and diversification strategies  Improvement in water harvesting and distribution system, moistureImprovement in water harvesting and distribution system, moisture management and soil conservation measuresmanagement and soil conservation measures  Top working of wild, inferior fruit trees of Mango, Ber, Kainth, Olive,Top working of wild, inferior fruit trees of Mango, Ber, Kainth, Olive, etc. into superior and commercial cultivarsetc. into superior and commercial cultivars  Rejuvenation of old and senile fruit treesRejuvenation of old and senile fruit trees  Capacity building by training programmes, seminars, workshop, etc.Capacity building by training programmes, seminars, workshop, etc.  Organization of awareness camps, fruit shows at Divisional level,Organization of awareness camps, fruit shows at Divisional level, District level, Block level, etc.District level, Block level, etc.
  10. 10. CONSTRAINTS /CONSTRAINTS / BOTTLENECKSBOTTLENECKS  Fragmented, small and marginal holdings with little or noFragmented, small and marginal holdings with little or no irrigation facilities.irrigation facilities.  Non-existence of organized and planned irrigationNon-existence of organized and planned irrigation infrastructure for the orchards.infrastructure for the orchards.  The Horticulture depends mainly on rains, the hilly terrainThe Horticulture depends mainly on rains, the hilly terrain and the poor soil status becomes main constraint in Jammuand the poor soil status becomes main constraint in Jammu DivisionDivision  Lack of mobility facilities for supervision of field activities.Lack of mobility facilities for supervision of field activities.  Lack of manpower to supervise the field activities in far flungLack of manpower to supervise the field activities in far flung and remote areas;and remote areas;  Less market accessibility due to poor communication/roadLess market accessibility due to poor communication/road linkslinks
  11. 11. GOALSGOALS  Increase in productivity.Increase in productivity.  Increase in the returns to orchardists from theirIncrease in the returns to orchardists from their produce.produce.  Economic upliftment of rural masses by creationEconomic upliftment of rural masses by creation of opportunities for employment generation.of opportunities for employment generation.
  12. 12. Significant achievements/ technologies evolved by SKUAST-J Fruit crops a) Control of fruit drops and black tip in mango b) Protocol for in vitro propagation in Kagzi lime c) Stress management in Kinnow under rainfed conditions. d) Control of fruit cracking in lemon e) Improvement in shelf-life of Guava. f) Improvement in yield, quality and shelf-life of grapes g) Propagation techniques in aonla h) Colour development in apple i) Re-generation of strawberry under shed nuts. j) Dehulling in walnuts and control of fruit drops
  13. 13. CONTROL OF BLACK TIP IN MANGO
  14. 14. MICRO-PROPAGATION OF KAGZI LIME
  15. 15. STANDARDIZATION OF PROTOCOL FOR IN VITRO PROPAGATION OF SWEET ORANGE
  16. 16. Aonla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.)
  17. 17. AONLA BLOCK AT RRSS RAYA
  18. 18. FULL BEARING AONLA PLANT CV. NA-7 AT RRSS RAYA
  19. 19. PHALSA BLOCK AT RRSS RAYA PHALSA FRUIT BUSHES AT RRSS RAYA
  20. 20. Inter-cropping Phalsa in Aonla
  21. 21. Inter-cropping Phalsa in Aonla
  22. 22. Ber (Zyzyphus mauritiana Lamk.)
  23. 23. TOP WORKED BER AT RRSS RAYA
  24. 24. PRUNING IN TOP WORKED BER AT RRSS RAYA
  25. 25. AIR LAYERING IN GUAVA AT RRSS RAYA
  26. 26. Kinnow mandarin
  27. 27. FULL BEARING KINNOW PLANT AT RRSS RAYA
  28. 28. LEMON BLOCK AT RRSS RAYA
  29. 29. GALGAL BLOCK AT RRSS RAYA
  30. 30. KARONDA BLOCK AT RRSS RAYA
  31. 31. Karonda (Carissa carandas L)
  32. 32. Custard apple block
  33. 33. POMEGRANATE BLOCK
  34. 34. Jack Fruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus)
  35. 35. BAEL PLANTS GROWING AT RRSS RAYA
  36. 36. Fig (Ficus carica L.)
  37. 37. TAMARIND PLANTS GROWING AT RRSS RAYA
  38. 38. Lasoorha (Cordia myxa Roxb)
  39. 39. LASOORHA PLANTS GROWING AT RRSS RAYA
  40. 40. Papaya (Carica papaya )
  41. 41. PAPAYA (local selection) AT RRSS RAYA
  42. 42. MANGO BLOCK AT RRSS RAYA
  43. 43. Inter-cropping of Papaya in Mango
  44. 44. Mahua
  45. 45. HARAD PLANT GROWING AT RRSS RAYA
  46. 46. KHIRNI PLANT GROWING AT RRSS RAYA
  47. 47. Nursery Block-Raya
  48. 48. Nursery Block-Raya
  49. 49. BUDDED SAPLINGS OF AONLA IN NURSERY AT RRSS RAYA
  50. 50. Layered plants of lemon
  51. 51. Phalsa Plants
  52. 52. REGENARATION OF STRAWBERRY UNDER SHED NET
  53. 53. Olive orchard before adoption Contour terracing of the adopted orchard
  54. 54. Basin preparation around the experimental plants Winter pruning of the experimental plants
  55. 55. OLIVE CULTURE IN JAMMU DIVISION
  56. 56. DEHULLING IN WALNUT
  57. 57. NURSERIESNURSERIES SUPPLY OF QUALTIYSUPPLY OF QUALTIY PLANTING MATERIALPLANTING MATERIAL REJUVENATINGREJUVENATING OLD ORCHARDSOLD ORCHARDS AREA EXPANSIONAREA EXPANSION SURVEILLANCESURVEILLANCE TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER FORTECHNOLOGY TRANSFER FOR PRODUCTIONPRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER FORTECHNOLOGY TRANSFER FOR PROTECTIONPROTECTION MARKETTINGMARKETTING TECHNOLOGICAL IMPACT POINTS FOR FRUIT PRODUCTION
  58. 58. Production Strategies- to Improve productivity and acreage • Commercial production for selected crops on cluster basis – project- based approach • Micro irrigation • Strengthening delivery mechanism for appropriate seeds / nurseries / nutrients/pesticides • Establishment of plant health clinics (Tissue / Leaf analysis labs) • Hi-tech farming/precision farming • Research & extension on inputs/ farming systems/ technologies
  59. 59. Acreage Improvement Strategy: • New gardens through development of wasteland / utilization of bunds / diversification from other crops • Special thrust on Hill areas • Appropriate inter-cropping • Household gardening for vegetables and a few fruit trees for self- consumption • Organic farming/contract farming • Farmers’ HRD through institutional training/farm visits/ • Appropriate media support/experts’ visit to farmers’ site • Subsidy and credit at affordable rate of interest Strategies- to Improve PHM The supply chain: growing-sorting/grading-packaging-storage transportation-processing-marketing It is indeed a web, not a chain
  60. 60. Strategies- to Improve Marketing • Substantial gap between farmers’ share in consumers' price • A number of marketing practices • Farmer – Consolidator – Trader – Commission Agent – Wholesaler – Retailer – Consumer • 7307 markets regulated by APMCs • Different markets in one location may continue to provide competition Strategies- to Improve Processing • About 0.8% of production processed • Processing capacity and distribution • Processing facilities to be set up in production clusters • Technology up gradation/ research required
  61. 61. Strategies- to Improve Export promotion • APEDA approach to continue and be strengthened • Marketing Intelligence through Ministry of Commerce • Marketing research needed • Standard development, testing facilities and enforcement mechanism required • Training of farmers/ entrepreneurs
  62. 62. POLICY FRAMEWORK • Credit policy--untimely, insufficient, high-cost credit • Insurance policy--only covered under insurance; that too ineffective • Taxation policy-- need for regular review of excise, sales tax, trade tariff • Trade policy-WTO issues • Legal and regulatory framework--APMC Act, MOUs for contract farming, Seeds Act, Food safety Act, Quality standardization • Agriculture/ Horticulture policy • Nutrition policy • Health Policy • Planning for key infrastructure such as link roads, power and water availability
  63. 63. Rejuvenation of old/senile orchards
  64. 64. Improving productivityImproving productivity of senile orchardsof senile orchards
  65. 65. Rejuvenation is the processRejuvenation is the process of pruning and after pruningof pruning and after pruning management of the plants tomanagement of the plants to make them productive bymake them productive by utilizing the existing rootutilizing the existing root system for support andsystem for support and absorption and existing limb /absorption and existing limb / branch system to rebuilt thebranch system to rebuilt the productive canopyproductive canopy What is rejuvenation ?What is rejuvenation ?
  66. 66.  India is a leading fruit producingIndia is a leading fruit producing country.country.  Fruit production in the country isFruit production in the country is an age old enterprise.an age old enterprise.  A large acreage is underA large acreage is under systematic fruit plantation.systematic fruit plantation.  The low average productivity ofThe low average productivity of orchards in India is attributed toorchards in India is attributed to prevalence of senile orchardsprevalence of senile orchards  Hence, rejuvenation is required toHence, rejuvenation is required to improve the productivity of senileimprove the productivity of senile orchardsorchards Why rejuvenation of senileWhy rejuvenation of senile plants?plants?
  67. 67. Considerations for rejuvenationConsiderations for rejuvenation 1.1. Age of the plantAge of the plant 2.2. Ability of the species to coppiceAbility of the species to coppice 3.3. Frame of the treeFrame of the tree 4.4. Time and severity of rejuvenationTime and severity of rejuvenation 5.5. Post rejuvenation carePost rejuvenation care 6.6. Transformation of rejuvenatedTransformation of rejuvenated juvenile shoots into productive onejuvenile shoots into productive one 7.7. Top working to change the varietyTop working to change the variety
  68. 68. 1.1. Utilization of existing root systemUtilization of existing root system 2.2. Lowering the fruiting area whichLowering the fruiting area which can be conveniently managedcan be conveniently managed 3.3. Creation of extra space forCreation of extra space for intercropping in the orchardintercropping in the orchard 4.4. Availability of large amount ofAvailability of large amount of pruned wood which can providepruned wood which can provide additional incomeadditional income 5.5. Enhancing the productivity of plantEnhancing the productivity of plant Advantages of rejuvenationAdvantages of rejuvenation
  69. 69. Methodology andMethodology and operations in mangooperations in mango
  70. 70. Convincing the farmers
  71. 71. Marking and cutting of the treesMarking and cutting of the trees
  72. 72. A pruned tree of mango for rejuvenation
  73. 73. Pasting on cut endsPasting on cut ends
  74. 74. Painting of trunk with lime + copperPainting of trunk with lime + copper oxychlorideoxychloride
  75. 75. PruningPruning - December-- December- JanuaryJanuary Preparation of ringPreparation of ring -- FebruaryFebruary Application of UreaApplication of Urea - March- March IrrigationIrrigation - March to May- March to May Application of fertilizersApplication of fertilizers - July and- July and OctoberOctober Calendar of operation
  76. 76. Control of trunkControl of trunk borerborer
  77. 77. New shoot initiation on rejuvenated treesNew shoot initiation on rejuvenated trees
  78. 78. Profuse shootingProfuse shooting
  79. 79. Thinning of shootsThinning of shoots Keeping 8-10 wellKeeping 8-10 well spaced shoots perspaced shoots per branchbranch
  80. 80. Healthy shoot Developing canopy
  81. 81. Thinning ofThinning of shoots as andshoots as and when required atwhen required at later stagelater stage
  82. 82. First flushFirst flush Second flushSecond flush Fully developed canopyFully developed canopy
  83. 83. Application of Paclobutrazol to restore the Canopy productivity Year of application : Third year after pruning Time of application : September-October Method of application: Trunk pour method Canopy drip area method Uniformly distributed localized pit method Doses : 4-6 gram a.i. per tree (16-25 ml P333)
  84. 84. What is Paclobutrazol? Paclobutrazol is a growth retardant which intercepts the Gibberellins Synthesis path way and therefore known as Anti-gibberellins. With the application of Paclobutrazol, gibberellins and auxin balance in the terminal shoots changed more towards auxin which is responsible for florigin formation and ultimately the flowering in the terminal shoots
  85. 85. Method of application
  86. 86. Rejuvenated plants started flowering in third year
  87. 87. Plants applied with 800:300:1000g NPK + 50 kg FYM along with 4g a.i. cultar yielded 10 kg fruits in the first year which increased upto 60kg fruits per plant in the fifth year
  88. 88. The orchard intercropped with Carrot and bottle gourd
  89. 89. Yield of intercrops in rejuvenated orchardYield of intercrops in rejuvenated orchard CropCrop AreaArea (acre)(acre) Yield (q)Yield (q) PotatoPotato 0.500.50 16.016.0 GingerGinger 0.250.25 9.09.0 BottleBottle guardguard 0.250.25 16.016.0 PigeonPigeon peapea 0.250.25 2.52.5 MustardMustard 0.250.25 3.53.5
  90. 90. Future areas of research in Fruit production  Germplasm Identification, Conservation and Exchange in fruit crops  Varietal development/ improvement in fruit crops  Hi-Tech Propagation of fruit Crops  Greenhouse Technology for Plant Propagation  Developing High Density Planting (HDP) in fruit crops  Developing Nutritional Need Diagnosis and Leaf Nutrient Norms  Micro-irrigation and Fertigation in fruit crops  Organic Farming in fruit production  Integrated pest management  Marketing Opportunities and Infrastructural Support  Mechanizing and Post-harvest Handling  Processing and Value Addition

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