7.1 7. INFORMATION SYSTEMS SOFTWARE
LEARNING OBJECTIVES <ul><li>DESCRIBE MAJOR TYPES OF SOFTWARE </li></ul><ul><li>EXAMINE OPERATING SYSTEMS </li></ul><ul><li...
<ul><li>DETAILED INSTRUCTIONS TO CONTROL COMPUTER OPERATION </li></ul><ul><li>PROGRAM:   SET OF INSTRUCTIONS TO THE COMPUT...
SOFTWARE HARDWARE 7.4 SYSTEM SOFTWARE APPLICATION SOFTWARE OPERATING SYSTEM: SCHEDULED COMPUTER EVENTS ;  ALLOCATES COMPUT...
FUNCTIONS OF THE OPERATING SYSTEM <ul><li>MANAGES & CONTROLS ACTIVITIES </li></ul><ul><li>ALLOCATION & ASSIGNMENT OF HARDW...
MULTIPROGRAMMING PROGRAM 1 TRADITIONAL SINGLE-PROGRAM SYSTEM 7.6 OPERATING SYSTEM UNUSED MEMORY OPERATING SYSTEM UNUSED ME...
MULTITASKING <ul><li>MULTIPROGRAMMING </li></ul><ul><li>ON A </li></ul><ul><li>SINGLE-USER SYSTEM </li></ul><ul><li>SUCH A...
VIRTUAL STORAGE <ul><li>METHOD OF HANDLING SEVERAL PROGRAMS IN PRIMARY STORAGE: </li></ul><ul><li>PROGRAM DIVIDED INTO </l...
TIME SHARING <ul><li>MANY USERS SHARE LARGE CPU: </li></ul><ul><li>TIME IN CPU DIVIDED INTO  FIXED  SLICES (e.g.: 2 MILLIS...
MULTIPROCESSING <ul><li>TWO OR MORE PARALLEL PROCESSORS IN SYSTEM </li></ul><ul><li>PROGRAM CAN BE DIVIDED TO BE PROCESSED...
<ul><li>SOURCE CODE:   HIGH-LEVEL LANGUAGE INSTRUCTIONS </li></ul><ul><li>COMPILER:   TRANSLATES HIGH-LEVEL CODE INTO MACH...
TRANSLATION PROCESS 7.12 SOURCE CODE PROGRAM COMPILER OBJECT  CODE LINKAGE EDITOR LOAD MODULE OTHER OBJECT  CODE MODULES
GRAPHICAL USER INTERFACE (GUI) <ul><li>OPERATING SYSTEM USES: </li></ul><ul><li>GRAPHIC ICONS (Icons, Buttons, Bars, Boxes...
MICROCOMPUTER OPERATING SYSTEMS OPERATING SYSTEM FEATURES Windows 98 & 95 Windows NT  & 2000 7.14 Windows CE 32-bit operat...
MICROCOMPUTER OPERATING SYSTEMS OPERATING SYSTEM FEATURES UNIX For powerful Microcomputers, Workstations,  Minicomputers. ...
GENERATIONS OF PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES <ul><li>1st. Since 1940s.  MACHINE LANGUAGE:   binary code </li></ul><ul><li>2nd. Sin...
HIGH-LEVEL LANGUAGES <ul><li>FORTRAN  (FORmula TRANslator). Scientific, Engineering applications </li></ul><ul><li>COBOL  ...
HIGH-LEVEL LANGUAGES <ul><li>PASCAL.   Used to Teach Structured Programming Practices. Weak in File Handling, Input / Outp...
FOURTH GENERATION LANGUAGES (4GL) <ul><li>NONPROCEDURAL </li></ul><ul><li>CAN DEVELOP APPLICATIONS QUICKLY </li></ul><ul><...
FOURTH GENERATION LANGUAGES (4GL) <ul><li>1. QUERY LANGUAGES: </li></ul><ul><li>rapidly retrieve data </li></ul><ul><li>in...
FOURTH GENERATION LANGUAGES (4GL) <ul><li>2. REPORT GENERATORS: </li></ul><ul><li>create customized reports </li></ul><ul>...
FOURTH GENERATION LANGUAGES (4GL) <ul><li>4. APPLICATION GENERATORS: </li></ul><ul><li>computer needs are specified </li><...
FOURTH GENERATION LANGUAGES (4GL) <ul><li>5. VERY HIGH-LEVEL PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES: </li></ul><ul><li>professional program...
EVOLUTION <ul><li>APPLICATION SOFTWARE PACKAGES: </li></ul><ul><li>Complete ERPs or applications for specific business fun...
PC SOFTWARE TOOLS <ul><li>WORD PROCESSING </li></ul><ul><li>SPREADSHEETS </li></ul><ul><li>DATA MANAGEMENT </li></ul><ul><...
<ul><li>GROUP WRITING & COMMENTING </li></ul><ul><li>ELECTRONIC MAIL DISTRIBUTION </li></ul><ul><li>SCHEDULING MEETINGS, A...
HTML <ul><li>HTML es un lenguaje de descripción de página para crear documentos de hipertexto o hipermedia como páginas We...
Capítulo 7 del libro 7.1  SI 7.2  SI 7.3  SI 7.4  SI 7.5  NO VA
7.33 7. INFORMATION SYSTEMS SOFTWARE
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Information systems ‫ system‬

  1. 1. 7.1 7. INFORMATION SYSTEMS SOFTWARE
  2. 2. LEARNING OBJECTIVES <ul><li>DESCRIBE MAJOR TYPES OF SOFTWARE </li></ul><ul><li>EXAMINE OPERATING SYSTEMS </li></ul><ul><li>EXPLAIN SOFTWARE EVOLUTION </li></ul><ul><li>ANALYZE MAJOR APPLICATION LANGUAGES / DEVELOPMENT TOOLS </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>7.2
  3. 3. <ul><li>DETAILED INSTRUCTIONS TO CONTROL COMPUTER OPERATION </li></ul><ul><li>PROGRAM: SET OF INSTRUCTIONS TO THE COMPUTER </li></ul><ul><li>STORED: PROGRAM MUST BE IN PRIMARY STORAGE </li></ul><ul><li>SYSTEM SOFTWARE: MANAGES COMPUTER RESOURCES (System Programmers) </li></ul><ul><li>APPLICATION SOFTWARE: SPECIFIC BUSINESS APPLICATION (Application Programmers) </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>SOFTWARE 7.3
  4. 4. SOFTWARE HARDWARE 7.4 SYSTEM SOFTWARE APPLICATION SOFTWARE OPERATING SYSTEM: SCHEDULED COMPUTER EVENTS ; ALLOCATES COMPUTER RESOURCES ; MONITORS EVENTS UTILITY PROGRAMS: ROUTINE OPERATIONS MANAGE DATA PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES / DEVELOPMENT TOOLS : ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE; FORTRAN; COBOL; PL / 1; V BASIC; PASCAL; C; C++; “FOURTH GENERATION” LANGUAGES
  5. 5. FUNCTIONS OF THE OPERATING SYSTEM <ul><li>MANAGES & CONTROLS ACTIVITIES </li></ul><ul><li>ALLOCATION & ASSIGNMENT OF HARDWARE RESOURCES </li></ul><ul><li>SCHEDULING </li></ul><ul><li>MONITORING & SECURITY </li></ul><ul><li>SYSTEM RESIDENCE DEVICE: SECONDARY STORAGE DEVICE STORING OPERATING SYSTEM </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>7.5
  6. 6. MULTIPROGRAMMING PROGRAM 1 TRADITIONAL SINGLE-PROGRAM SYSTEM 7.6 OPERATING SYSTEM UNUSED MEMORY OPERATING SYSTEM UNUSED MEMORY PROGRAM 1 PROGRAM 2 PROGRAM 3 MULTIPROGRAMMING ENVIRONMENT
  7. 7. MULTITASKING <ul><li>MULTIPROGRAMMING </li></ul><ul><li>ON A </li></ul><ul><li>SINGLE-USER SYSTEM </li></ul><ul><li>SUCH AS A </li></ul><ul><li>MICROCOMPUTER </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>7.7
  8. 8. VIRTUAL STORAGE <ul><li>METHOD OF HANDLING SEVERAL PROGRAMS IN PRIMARY STORAGE: </li></ul><ul><li>PROGRAM DIVIDED INTO </li></ul><ul><ul><li>FIXED LENGTH PORTIONS (PAGES) OR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>VARIABLE LENGTH (SEGMENTS) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CURRENT PORTIONS RESIDE IN PRIMARY STORAGE </li></ul><ul><li>PORTIONS SWAPPED OUT WHEN DONE </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>7.8
  9. 9. TIME SHARING <ul><li>MANY USERS SHARE LARGE CPU: </li></ul><ul><li>TIME IN CPU DIVIDED INTO FIXED SLICES (e.g.: 2 MILLISECONDS) </li></ul><ul><li>EACH USER HAS ACCESS TO CPU DURING SLICE </li></ul><ul><li>SINCE CPU IS FAST, CAN DO MUCH DURING TIME SLICE </li></ul><ul><li>USER’S JOB SWAPPED OUT AT END OF SLICE </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>7.9
  10. 10. MULTIPROCESSING <ul><li>TWO OR MORE PARALLEL PROCESSORS IN SYSTEM </li></ul><ul><li>PROGRAM CAN BE DIVIDED TO BE PROCESSED BY MULTIPLE CPUs </li></ul><ul><li>CAN PROCESS LARGE PROGRAMS MORE RAPIDLY </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>7.10
  11. 11. <ul><li>SOURCE CODE: HIGH-LEVEL LANGUAGE INSTRUCTIONS </li></ul><ul><li>COMPILER: TRANSLATES HIGH-LEVEL CODE INTO MACHINE LANGUAGE </li></ul><ul><li>OBJECT CODE: TRANSLATED INSTRUCTIONS READY FOR COMPUTER </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>LANGUAGE TRANSLATION 7.11
  12. 12. TRANSLATION PROCESS 7.12 SOURCE CODE PROGRAM COMPILER OBJECT CODE LINKAGE EDITOR LOAD MODULE OTHER OBJECT CODE MODULES
  13. 13. GRAPHICAL USER INTERFACE (GUI) <ul><li>OPERATING SYSTEM USES: </li></ul><ul><li>GRAPHIC ICONS (Icons, Buttons, Bars, Boxes) </li></ul><ul><li>MOUSE </li></ul><ul><li>TO ISSUE COMMANDS </li></ul><ul><li>MAKE SELECTIONS </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>7.13
  14. 14. MICROCOMPUTER OPERATING SYSTEMS OPERATING SYSTEM FEATURES Windows 98 & 95 Windows NT & 2000 7.14 Windows CE 32-bit operating system; GUI; Multitasking. Networking; Windows 98 integrated with Web 32-bit operating system not limited to Intel chips. For high-performance workstations and servers. Multitasking; Multiprocessing; Networking 32-bit. Developed for IBM PS/2. Multitasking; Networking Paired-down for handheld computers or wireless communication devices (pagers, cellular phones) OS/2
  15. 15. MICROCOMPUTER OPERATING SYSTEMS OPERATING SYSTEM FEATURES UNIX For powerful Microcomputers, Workstations, Minicomputers. Multitasking; Multi-user Processing; Networking; Multiprocessing. Portable to various Computer Platforms Mac OS For Macintosh computers. Multitasking. Powerful Graphics; Multimedia 7.15 DOS Linux For IBM (PC-DOS) and PC (MS-DOS). Program Memory: 640K
  16. 16. GENERATIONS OF PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES <ul><li>1st. Since 1940s. MACHINE LANGUAGE: binary code </li></ul><ul><li>2nd. Since early ’50s. ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE </li></ul><ul><li>3rd. Since mid ‘50s. HIGH-LEVEL LANGUAGES (each statement generates multiple state ments at machine level) </li></ul><ul><li>4th. Since late ‘70s. MODERN DEVELOPMENT TOOLS </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>7.16
  17. 17. HIGH-LEVEL LANGUAGES <ul><li>FORTRAN (FORmula TRANslator). Scientific, Engineering applications </li></ul><ul><li>COBOL (COmmon Business Oriented Language). Predominant for Transaction Processing </li></ul><ul><li>BASIC (Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code). General Purpose PC Language </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>7.17
  18. 18. HIGH-LEVEL LANGUAGES <ul><li>PASCAL. Used to Teach Structured Programming Practices. Weak in File Handling, Input / Output </li></ul><ul><li>C and C++. Powerful PC Language for Developing Applications. Efficient Execution; Cross Platform; C++ is Object-Oriented </li></ul><ul><li>PL/1 (Programming Language 1). Powerful IBM Language for Business & Science </li></ul><ul><li>ADA. Designed for Weapon Systems. Can be used on many Platforms. Structured. Can be used for Business </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>7.18
  19. 19. FOURTH GENERATION LANGUAGES (4GL) <ul><li>NONPROCEDURAL </li></ul><ul><li>CAN DEVELOP APPLICATIONS QUICKLY </li></ul><ul><li>NATURAL LANGUAGES </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>7.20
  20. 20. FOURTH GENERATION LANGUAGES (4GL) <ul><li>1. QUERY LANGUAGES: </li></ul><ul><li>rapidly retrieve data </li></ul><ul><li>interactive/ on-line </li></ul><ul><li>may use NATURAL LANGUAGE </li></ul><ul><li>support special requests for data from relational databases </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>7.21
  21. 21. FOURTH GENERATION LANGUAGES (4GL) <ul><li>2. REPORT GENERATORS: </li></ul><ul><li>create customized reports </li></ul><ul><li>wide range of formats </li></ul><ul><li>3. GRAPHICS LANGUAGES: </li></ul><ul><li>can manipulate drawings, graphs, photos, videos </li></ul><ul><li>presentation managers </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>7.22
  22. 22. FOURTH GENERATION LANGUAGES (4GL) <ul><li>4. APPLICATION GENERATORS: </li></ul><ul><li>computer needs are specified </li></ul><ul><li>generator creates logic and code for application </li></ul><ul><li>greatly reduces development time </li></ul><ul><li>most consist of a set of development tools: DBMS, query language, screen painter, menu generator, report generator, security facilities and high-level prog. language. </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>7.23
  23. 23. FOURTH GENERATION LANGUAGES (4GL) <ul><li>5. VERY HIGH-LEVEL PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES: </li></ul><ul><li>professional programmer productivity tool </li></ul><ul><li>uses fewer instructions </li></ul><ul><li>reduces development time </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>7.24
  24. 24. EVOLUTION <ul><li>APPLICATION SOFTWARE PACKAGES: </li></ul><ul><li>Complete ERPs or applications for specific business functions </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: People Soft HRMS, SAP R/3, etc. </li></ul><ul><li> * </li></ul>7.25
  25. 25. PC SOFTWARE TOOLS <ul><li>WORD PROCESSING </li></ul><ul><li>SPREADSHEETS </li></ul><ul><li>DATA MANAGEMENT </li></ul><ul><li>PRESENTATION GRAPHICS </li></ul><ul><li>INTEGRATED SOFTWARE PACKAGES AND SOFTWARE SUITES </li></ul><ul><li>E-MAIL </li></ul><ul><li>WEB BROWSERS (Internet multimedia, hypertext) </li></ul><ul><li>GROUPWARE </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>7.26
  26. 26. <ul><li>GROUP WRITING & COMMENTING </li></ul><ul><li>ELECTRONIC MAIL DISTRIBUTION </li></ul><ul><li>SCHEDULING MEETINGS, APPOINTMENTS </li></ul><ul><li>SHARED FILES & DATABASES </li></ul><ul><li>SHARED TIMELINES, PLANS </li></ul><ul><li>ELECTRONIC MEETINGS & CONFERENCES </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>GROUPWARE CAPABILITIES 7.27
  27. 27. HTML <ul><li>HTML es un lenguaje de descripción de página para crear documentos de hipertexto o hipermedia como páginas Web </li></ul><ul><li>Concepto de hiperlink </li></ul><ul><li>Los programas HTML pueden ser escritos directamente o bien utilizando herramientas como Frontpage o Dreamweaver </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>7.31
  28. 28. Capítulo 7 del libro 7.1 SI 7.2 SI 7.3 SI 7.4 SI 7.5 NO VA
  29. 29. 7.33 7. INFORMATION SYSTEMS SOFTWARE

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