SITUATIONANALYSIS OFADLOSCENT GIRLB R SiwalDeputy DirectorWD Division NIPCCDbrsiwal@gmail.com
Adolescence A period between childhood and adulthood. There is lot of upheaval and restructuring during adolescence both on physical and psychological level There is identity crisis Adolescent feels grown up but the parents and seniors refuse to accept it.
Puberty - Physical Changes Primary Sexual Characteristics reproductive organs Secondary Sexual Characteristics non-reproductive characteristics, breasts, hair etc.
Sexual Maturation Female Male breast bud and testes enlarge ~ 11.5 yrs growth spurt ~ 10 yrs growth spurt ~ 12.5 yrs menarche ~ 12.5 yrs spermarche ~ 13 yrs full height ~ 13 yrs facial hair & voice change ~ 14 yrs full height ~ 15.5 yrs
No longer Children, Not Yet Adults Young peopleAdolescence 10-24 Years10-19 years Youth 15-24 Years 08/17/12 6
Population Profile: Ages 10-24Years in IndiaPopulation age-10-24 (Millions) 284.210-24 years as % of total population 30% Male enrolled in secondary school 59% Female enrolled in secondary school 38Average age at first marriage 20Total fertility rate 3.4% TFR contributed by 15-19 years 9% using contraceptives 7
Why Focus on Adolescents?• Large number >22% of the population (Approximately 207 Million of our population);• Adolescence is a period of rapid physical growth, sexual and psycho-social changes;• Habits and behavior picked up during adolescence (Risk taking behavior, substance abuse, eating habits, conflict resolution) have life long impact.
Why Focus on Adolescents?• Adolescence is the last chance to correct growth lag and malnutrition;• Many adolescent boys and girls are sexually active but lack information and skills for self protection (Low level of information on FP, low contraception use);• Have simple, but wide pervading and crucial RH needs – menstrual hygiene, contraception; (including Emergency Contraception), safety from STI/HIV;• Communication gap exists with parents and other adults (Lack of family “Connectedness”);
Characteristics A – Aggressive Anaemic Abortion D – Dynamic,Developing,Depressed O – Overconfident,Overindulging,Obese L – Loud but lonely,& Lack information E – Enthusiastic,Explorative,& Experimenting S – Social,Sexual, & Spiritual C – Courageous,cheerful, &concern E – Emotional,Eager,& Emulating N - Nervous,Never say no to peers T – Temperamental,Teenage pregnancy
Before Birth to 1year • Foeticide and Infanticide • Infant mortality • Discrimination in breast feeding and infant food • Neglect of health (immunization)
1 to 11 years • Discrimination in access to food and health care • Malnutrition and anemia • Health problems like Polio and diarrhea • Iodine and Vitamin A and Micro nutrient deficiency • Low school enrolment and School drop outs • Vulnerable to trafficking, child labour, child marriage • Abuse, exploitation and violence • Domestic chores • Looking after siblings • Restriction on mobility and play
Discrimination in overall treatment andparental care 11 to 18 years (Adolescents) • Poor health • Low literacy level • Restriction on mobility and play • Frequent illness due to Malnutrition, Aneamia and micro-nutrient deficiency • Child Marriage • Early Child bearing morbidity and mortality • Poor access to information and services • Early and frequent pregnancy coupled with abortions
• Marital and domestic violence Dowry Harassment, desertion • Child labour, trafficking. • STDs and HIV/AIDs • Heavy domestic work including commuting long distances to collect fire wood/ drinking water • Unpaid and unrecognized work, and drudgery • No voice either in Home or society
SITUATION OF GIRL CHILD- There are practices of sex selection, foeticide and infanticide hence there is denial of female birth and life- There is a deep-rooted gender discrimination against girl child
- Cultural beliefs and practices permeate into every aspect of the growing girl’s social and cultural environment- Girl child has biological advantage and social disadvantage
- Girls are made to accept the norms of male dominated society and considered inferior to boy- Denial or discrimination of opportunities
- Deprived of her childhood and compelled into early marriage and child bearing- Girls nutritional intake is inferior in quality and quantity
- There is less enrolment and high drop-outs among girls- Girls are more susceptible to violence and crimes – sexual abuse, child prostitution and trafficking, rape- Discrimination life conditions place them at greater risk of health and over all development
- Girls are socialise for subjugation and subordination- Girls assume domestic responsibility at early age- Girl child in difficult situation is disadvantaged on account of poverty, gender and circumstances
GIRLS IN DIFFICULT CIRCUMSTANCES Girl child with disabilities Street & working girl child Destitutes & orphans Child abuse and neglect Child prostitutes – trafficking Girl child victim of violence
Juvenile delinquents Slum and migrant children Parents in extreme poverty Children of prostitutes Children of women prisoners Children with hiv & aids Girl children in trauma – man made and natural dissaster Child mother/early marriage/forced pregnancy
VIOLENCE AGAINST GIRLS “Any act of gender-based violence that results in, or is likely to results in , physical, sexual or psychological harm or suffering to women, including threats of such acts, coercion or arbitrary deprivations of liberty, whether occurring in public or private life.”
FACTORS THAT PERPETUATE VIOLENCE SOCIO-CULTURAL Gender – specific socialization Cultural definitions of appropriate sex roles Expectations of roles within relationships Belief on the inherent superiority of males
Values that give men proprietary rights over women and girls Notion of the family as the private sphere and under male control Customs of marriage (bride price / dowry) Acceptability of violence as a means to resolve conflict Portrayal of negative image in media
LEGAL Laws regarding divorce, child custody, maintence and inheritance Low levels of legal literacy among women Lesser legal status of women either by written law and / or by practice Insensitive treatment of women and girls by police and judiciary
PSYCHOLOGICAL MALTREATMENTDefinition Psychological Neglect - the consistent failure of a parent or caretaker to provide a child with appropriate support, attention, and affection.Psychological Abuse - a chronic pattern of behaviors such as belittling, humiliating, and ridiculing a child.
PHYSICAL ABUSEPhysical abuse is any non-accidental injury to a childunder the age of 18 by a parent or caretaker. Theseinjuries may include beatings, shaking, burns, humanbites, strangulation, or immersion in scalding water,with resulting bruises and welts, broken bones, scars,burns, retinal hemorrhage, or internal injuries.
CHILD SEXUAL ABUSE DefinitionChild sexual abuse is the exploitation of a child oradolescent for the sexual gratification of anotherperson.
SEXUAL VIOLENCE AND ABUSE Rape Molestation Pornography Incest Exposure to Sexual Acts of others Sexual Assault with object Forcible Fondling Trafficking Juvenile Prostitution Sexual Harassment / Eve teasing Sex with minor (child marriage)
CONSEQUENCES OF SEXUAL VIOLENCE: Sexually transmitted diseases. Vaginal or rectal injuries. Miscarriages, stillborn babies, premature birth. Low self esteem Depression Fear Anxiety
PSYCHOLOGICALSymptoms of depression: low self-esteem; self-containment; neglected appearance; consider suicidal options or attempts to take her own life;
anorexia of bulimia (i.e. pathological refusal to have a meal of pathological overeating); taking alcohol or drugs; insomnia; psychosomatic diseases fits of uneasiness; feeling of helplessness; weeps frequently;
indecisive behavior; avoids meeting eyes. loss of contacts with family members and friends (sense of being isolated). poverty (sometimes as a result of financial tricks of her partner). obsessive fear. alienation from her children or even hostility towards them.
TRAFFICKING Recruitment transportation are receipt of women and girl through deception or coercion for the purpose of prostitution other sexual exploitation or forced labour.
VULNERABILITIES TO TRAFFICKING Feminization of Poverty Poverty of parent Lack of employment opportunities Lack of unequal access to education Traditional community attitude Debt and bondage of parents False promises and deception Commercialization and agriculture Love of livelihood Gender based socialization
Caste and tribal social system Domestic – violence Low level of confidence and self worth Death of parents Lack awareness and laws Street children with no guardians Single women – migrant worker Sudden disaster victim – cyclone, earth quakes and floods Stigmatization – girls raped, adorned
TRENDS IN TRAFFICKING Growing scope and magnitude New source and destination Diverse and sophisticated mechanisms Highly organised crime syndicates Changes in the portico of trafficked persons. Extended linkage between trafficking network and political networks Increasing profits with little risk gross human rights violation for capital accumulation.
ADDRESSING THE PROBLEM Victims of domestic violence requiring assistance often face their problems alone without any support from their relatives or neighbors Institutional and legal systems should be more efficient response to cases of domestic violence.
There are few organizations providing social, housing, legal, and psychological assistance to victims of violence; lack of programs for self-assistance and self- defense for victims of domestic violence. combating domestic violence and of providing assistance to victims.
Lack of modern empirical diagnostics and practical knowledge essential for better understanding and combating the phenomenon of domestic violence. The level of public stereotypes concerning domestic violence complicates preventing this violence and solving related problems.
STRATEGIES FOR PROMOTION OF ADOLESCENT HEALTHA =ADOPTION OF HEALTHY LIFE STYLED=DEVELOP APPROPRIATE I.E.C. STRATEGY DISCOURAGE EARLY MARRIAGE AND TEENAGE PREGNANCYO=ORGANIZE ADOLECENT/ YOUTH FRIENDLY CLINICL=LIFE SKILL EDUCATION , LEGAL SUPPORT, LIASIAN WITH PEERS , PARENTSE=EDUCATE ABOUT SEXUALITY,SAFE SEX,SPIRITUALITY,RESPONSIBLE PARENTHOODS=SAFE, SECURE AND SUPPORTIVE ENVIRONMENT TO BE PROVIDEDC=COUNSELLING / CURRICULM IN SCHOOL INCUSIVE OF FAMILY LIFE EDUCATIONE=ENABLE &EMPOWER FOR RESPONSIBLE CITIZENSHIPN=NETWORKING FOR EXPERIENCE SHARINGT=TRAINING FOR INCOME GENERATION,TEEN CLUBS 08/17/12 42
Risk Factors Theres pressure to fit in socially, to perform academically, and to act responsibly.Theres the awakening of sexual feelings, a growing self- identity, and a need for autonomy that often conflicts with the rules and expectations set by the society
Providing help • Make sure your child has someone he can confide in. If your teen feels you dont understand, suggest a more neutral person - a grandparent, a spiritual person, a coach, a school counselor, or your childs doctor. • Dont minimize or discount what your child is going through. This will only reinforce his sense of hopelessness. • Take your childs behavior seriously. Three quarters of all people who attempt suicide have given some type of warning to loved ones.• Always express your love, concern, and support.
• Dont postpone seeing a doctor. Your child should be evaluated for depression so that treatment can begin immediately.• Express to your child that with help he will begin to feel better and that his problems can be overcome.• If you think your child is suicidal, get help immediately.• Your childs doctor can refer you to a psychologist or psychiatrist.
Tips for Parenting During AdolescenceEducate YourselfRead books about adolescence.Think back on your own.Remember your struggles with acne or your embarrassmentat developing early - or late.Expect some mood changes in your typically sunny child,and be prepared for more conflict as s/he finds her way as an individual.Parents who know whats coming can cope with it better.And the more you know, the better you can prepare your child.
Talk to Your Child Early EnoughTalking about menstruation or wet dreams after theyve alreadystarted means you are too late.Answer the early questions your child has about bodies,such as the differences between boys and girls and where babiescome from.Dont overload your child with information - just answer theirquestions.
Put Yourself in Your Childs PlacePractice empathy with your growing child.Help your child understand that its normal to be a bit concerned orself-conscious.Tell your child its OK to feel grown up 1 minute and like a little childthe next. "Use helpful phrases likeYes, this is a difficult time and ‘I know you might feel confused andIts all right, and well all get through it, "
Inform Your Adolescent - and Stay InformedAdolescence is often a time of experimentation, and sometimesthat experimentation includes risky behaviors.Dont avoid the subjects of sex and drug, alcohol, and tobacco use;discussing these things openly with your child before she is exposed tothemThe discussion increases the chance that your child will actresponsibly when the time comes.
Know the Warning Signs A certain amount of changes may be normal in adolescence,but too drastic a switch in a childs personality or behavior may signal real trouble.Watch out for one or more of these warning signs: Extreme weight gain or loss Sleep problems Rapid, drastic changes in personality Sudden change in friends Skipping school continually Falling grades Talk or even jokes about suicide Symptoms of tobacco, alcohol, or drug use
Conclusion Adolescence as we see is a phase of intense change and through up in its wake a gamut of peculiar problems. Problems are multifarious of mind boggling proportion, we can not sit idle and chose to ignore this ever increasing crisis, we the parents needs to know how to deal with this challenge. Even if children do not listen to parents, most of time they inadvertently imitate parental behavior. Parents should be able to offer a loving relationship A balance of excess and deprivation. Love grows best when given and received Hugging will give your child immense feeling of security.
Conclusion Communication-human race has exquisite ability of being able to communicate with each other by language and gesture Adolescents get a feeling of loved when communicated in words and actions by their parents The magic of touch: a soft pat on back will quite a disturbed adolescent Appropriate discipline: appropriate ways of human behavior should be demanded by the parents A vast number of complex interacting factors ,which include genetic factors, parental attitude, family atmosphere, the peers & friends effect of social change all decide “Personality of the adolescence”
THE CHALLENGES ARE THERE BUT POTENTIAL IS FAR GREATER Thank You!