Cloning-Human Cloning


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Definition of cloning its types development applications risks and human cloning options.

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Cloning-Human Cloning

  1. 1. Imagine Having A Copy Of Yourself Identical TwinAN EXACT
  2. 2. What Is Cloning ?
  3. 3. Replication of certain type of cellsor certain part of the cell/ DNA froma "parent" cellTo PROPAGATEa certain DESIRABLE
  4. 4. To Understand CLONING we have toDifferentiate between its different types DNA cloning Therapeutic cloning Reproductive
  5. 5. DNA CLONINGTransferring a fragment of DNA from one organism to aself-replicating genetic element (bacterial plasmid )DNA of interest can then be PROPAGATED in foreignhost
  6. 6. THERAPEUTIC CLONING (Embryo Cloning ) -Production of human embryos for use in research, forexample, extracting stem cells from these embryos for study& for producing tissues to treat
  7. 7. Reproductive cloningA technology used to generate an animal that has the samenuclear DNA as another animal, so that every single gene isexactly the same between the two in a process called"Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer", or (SCNT), and this type ofcloning is our subject to
  8. 8. HISTORICAL VIEW1952 – Trial On a tadpole.1997 - Dolly The Sheep by a Scottish scientist atRosaline Institute ( first cloning of a live mammal)Dolly The
  9. 9. How does one go aboutmaking an exact geneticcopy of an organism? It canbe done by different ways:somatic cell nuclear transferand artificial embryotwinning. What is thedifference between theseprocesses?How Is Cloning Done?
  10. 10. Artificial embryo twinning (natural process ofcreating identical twins) Occurs in a Petri dish Manual separation of a early embryo into separatecells Allowing each cell to divide on its own Placement of Embryo into a surrogate mother Term Completion and delivery of
  11. 11. Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) - an exact clone of anindividual Dolly the sheep was created by this method.Isolation of a somatic cell from anadultNucleus( somatic cell) implantationto an egg cell after removing the eggnucleusFertilization & zygote formation bychemical reactions and interventionsEmbryo implantation into asurrogate mother to complete
  12. 12. The lamb, Dolly, was an exact genetic replica ofthe adult female sheep who donated thesomatic cell nucleus to the enucleatedegg, resulting in the first mammal to be clonedfrom an adult somatic
  13. 13. Difference between Natural Fertilization and SCNTOrigin Of 2 Set ChromosomeIn EmbryoSperm 1 SetEgg 1 setBoth Set FromSomatic CellNatural Way
  14. 14. Reproductive cloning is expensivenot highly efficient90% failure rate (one viable clone needs more than100 nuclear transfer).Compromised immune functionHigher rates of infection, tumor growth,Death at Young ageClones have been known to die withoutidentifiable cause.What are the risks of cloning?
  15. 15. Potentially Dangerous And Ethically
  16. 16. Gamete nucleus and a haploidized somatic cell nucleusReplace either the male or the female gameteTreatment of both male and female infertilityAlleviate some of the ethical concerns againstconventional cloning in human assisted-reproductionReproductive Semi-Cloning Respecting Biparental Embryo
  17. 17. Learn MoreTo GetWorld ClassInfertility IVF Gynecology and ObstetricsFacilitieswww.layyous.comDr Najeeb LayyousAmman,