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Assignment
Nutritional Management of Grazing Livestock
Submitted to sir Dr. Zahid Kamran
Submitted by Muhammad Ashiq
DVM 5...
NUTRITIONAL
MANAGEMENT OF
GRAZING
LIVESTOCK
Grazing
Generally describes a type of feeding in which
a herbivore feeds on plants (such as grasses).
Grazing management of livestock:
Grazing management is the manipulation of animal
grazing to achieve optimum and sustained...
Purposes:
To maintain a healthy and productive animals
by grazing.
In grazing operations, forage quality and availability ...
Balancing animal numbers and forage supply
Matching diet quantity and quality needs.
Matching grazing management and paddo...
Pasture Management
• Grazed forage is a good,
cheap feed.
• Pastures are inexpensive
to develop and maintain.
• Healthy pl...
Animal Grazing Habits
• Cattle and horses cannot
eat forage less than one-
half inch tall.
• Sheep and goats can
graze lev...
Animal Grazing Patterns
• Most animals prefer not
to graze when it is hot:
• Heaviest grazing occurs 2
to 3 hours before s...
Essential Nutrient Requirements &
How to manage them.
Of primary importance in
nutrition are
• Water
• Energy
• Protein
• ...
Energy
• Sufficient energy limits
are important more than
other nutrients.
• The major sources of
energy for livestock are...
Protein
• In ruminants the amount
of protein is much more
important
• Common sources of
natural protein
supplements includ...
Water
• Water is essential for all
live form.
• Producers must plan for
an adequate supply of
clean water during
grazing. ...
It is good to remember that all other nutrient
metabolism in the body is predicated on the availability
of water, and if a...
Minerals
• Approximately 13 different
minerals are essential for
animals.
• Most of these requirements
are met under norma...
Vitamins
• During the grazing
season, goats can obtain
sufficient fat-soluble
vitamins from green
pastures and plenty of
s...
FEED STUFF
• Animals are raised
primarily on unimproved
pastures and rangelands.
• Meat animals do not
need extra feed if ...
Management of the grazing
resource:
• Forage intake
• Forage diversity
• Forage quantity, availability, and density
• Appr...
1.Intake
• Intake is the ingestion of
feedstuffs by the animal,
and is regulated by the
following factors, which are
all i...
Options for Increasing Intake on High
Quality Pasture
• Ensure high forage intake by keeping forage in the
vegetative stag...
2.Forage Resources and Grazing
Nutrition
• Nutrient content of
forages varies with
plant maturity.
3.Plant Type, Species, and
Nutritional Quality on Native
Range
• There are three basic
plant types commonly
found in pastu...
• Grasses tend to be
high in nutrients in the
spring, and begin to
decline as the
growing season
progresses.
• Forbs are h...
The End
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Nutritional management of grazing livestock

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Nutritional management of grazing livestock

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Nutritional management of grazing livestock

  1. 1. Assignment Nutritional Management of Grazing Livestock Submitted to sir Dr. Zahid Kamran Submitted by Muhammad Ashiq DVM 5th semester (evening) IUB BWP
  2. 2. NUTRITIONAL MANAGEMENT OF GRAZING LIVESTOCK
  3. 3. Grazing Generally describes a type of feeding in which a herbivore feeds on plants (such as grasses).
  4. 4. Grazing management of livestock: Grazing management is the manipulation of animal grazing to achieve optimum and sustained animal & economic results while ensuring a continuous supply of forages to grazing animals.
  5. 5. Purposes: To maintain a healthy and productive animals by grazing. In grazing operations, forage quality and availability are sometimes limited, and cattle are unable to consume enough nutrients from pasture forage to fulfill requirements. During such situations, supplemental or replacement feeding is necessary to meet production goals. Which feed or supplement type best fits the goals of a specific livestock production system.
  6. 6. Balancing animal numbers and forage supply Matching diet quantity and quality needs. Matching grazing management and paddock numbers.
  7. 7. Pasture Management • Grazed forage is a good, cheap feed. • Pastures are inexpensive to develop and maintain. • Healthy plants will have a higher nutritional value for grazing animals. • Healthy, productive plants will provide a quality product. • Over-mature plants become less vigorous and more fibrous.
  8. 8. Animal Grazing Habits • Cattle and horses cannot eat forage less than one- half inch tall. • Sheep and goats can graze level with the soil surface.& also browsing.
  9. 9. Animal Grazing Patterns • Most animals prefer not to graze when it is hot: • Heaviest grazing occurs 2 to 3 hours before sunset. • Some preferred grazing period occurs around midnight.
  10. 10. Essential Nutrient Requirements & How to manage them. Of primary importance in nutrition are • Water • Energy • Protein • Minerals • Vitamins (vitamin A of primary concern). • Forages: These include Napier grass, hay, grass, maize. • Feed additives: These include minerals and vitamins, livestock salts, buffers, enzymes, Probiotics yeast and urea.
  11. 11. Energy • Sufficient energy limits are important more than other nutrients. • The major sources of energy for livestock are hay, pasture, silage, and grains. Barley, corn, oats, and wheat also can be used to raise the energy level of the diet when necessary. • For grazing livestock energy supplementation is sometimes useful to enhance production.
  12. 12. Protein • In ruminants the amount of protein is much more important • Common sources of natural protein supplements include cottonseed, soybean, sunflower, linseed, and peanut meals. These oilseed meals contain from 40 to 50 percent protein and are excellent sources of supplemental protein. quality of protein • High-quality pastures can meet almost all the needs of high-producing livestock. • Protein supplementation to enhance growth, reproduction, milk production, disease resistance, and general maintenance when need.
  13. 13. Water • Water is essential for all live form. • Producers must plan for an adequate supply of clean water during grazing. The quality of the water is also important. • Water is the most important nutrient for lactating cows and especially heat stressed cows. As milk production and DMI increase, water intake increases. • Grazing animals can get 70-90% of their water from lush forage; however a good supply of clean water is essential. Animal water needs vary with temperature, humidity, milk production, and diet. Average daily requirements: Beef 8-10 gal/day Milk cow 30 gal/day Sheep 1 gal/day Horses 8 gal/day
  14. 14. It is good to remember that all other nutrient metabolism in the body is predicated on the availability of water, and if an animal stops drinking, nutrient metabolism (which results in growth and lactation) will decrease.
  15. 15. Minerals • Approximately 13 different minerals are essential for animals. • Most of these requirements are met under normal grazing. Such as calcium & phosphorus etc. • Calcium to phosphorus ratio of 2:1. If ruminants are on Green forage (including green hay). • Suplimentation done on requirment.
  16. 16. Vitamins • During the grazing season, goats can obtain sufficient fat-soluble vitamins from green pastures and plenty of sunlight. Goats can also store an adequate supply of these vitamins to maintain production for 3 to 4 months. • B vitamins are synthesized by rumen microorganisms so supplementation is not necessary. Vitamin D is synthesized in the skin from exposure to sunlight other vitamin of concern that sometimes requires supplementation. • Some time vitominerals complex use as suplementation.
  17. 17. FEED STUFF • Animals are raised primarily on unimproved pastures and rangelands. • Meat animals do not need extra feed if they are grazing on land areas with a variety of brush, weeds, and grass. • Additional feed, however, may be needed in periods of drought or in winter.
  18. 18. Management of the grazing resource: • Forage intake • Forage diversity • Forage quantity, availability, and density • Appropriate supplementation (energy or protein), when necessary • Appropriate minerals—offered free choice • And clean, fresh water offered at all times.
  19. 19. 1.Intake • Intake is the ingestion of feedstuffs by the animal, and is regulated by the following factors, which are all interrelated • palatability foraging behavior • chemical characteristics of the feedstuff • forage quantity, • density, and availability dietary energy and fiber content • physiological stage of the animal and temperature.
  20. 20. Options for Increasing Intake on High Quality Pasture • Ensure high forage intake by keeping forage in the vegetative stage through grazing management, diversifying pasture composition to include several grass species, with around 30 percent of the pasture in legumes, and maintaining a dense pasture so animals will take larger bites.
  21. 21. 2.Forage Resources and Grazing Nutrition • Nutrient content of forages varies with plant maturity.
  22. 22. 3.Plant Type, Species, and Nutritional Quality on Native Range • There are three basic plant types commonly found in pastures, and each has its place in animal nutrition. These plant types are: Grasses Shrubs Forbs
  23. 23. • Grasses tend to be high in nutrients in the spring, and begin to decline as the growing season progresses. • Forbs are high in protein as well. • Shrubs are high in protein for a greater part of the year
  24. 24. The End

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