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13 01-02 management by objectives

Management by objectives for product managers in fast growth high technology companies. Product management is different for radical innovation (launching a new product where there is no market-dominant product architecture e.g. PC and peripherals) than incremental innovation (new releases of an existing product).

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13 01-02 management by objectives

  1. 1. Management By Objectives coaching 2nd January 2013
  2. 2. How to coach Clarify performance shortfall and expectations Gain commitment to 2. Challenging accepting more difficult tasks Provide strategies and performance techniques for improving Accurately describe problems performance and identify root causes Help the person develop ways Encourage the person to to monitor performance and express his or her feelings self-correct in the future Facilitate the development of personal insights 3. Counselling Explore behavioural alternatives that could solve behaviour the problem 1. Tutoring technique 4. MentoringHelp the person develop Help understand theirtechnical understanding and political savvy/ organisation and gaincompetence political savvy gut feel Sensitise to the likes andDesign effective learning dislikes of senior executivesstrategies and increase the Model the goals and valuespace of learning of the organisation Teach the person how toShare technical insights manage her/his own career
  3. 3. Management by Objectives Task MotivationINDIVIDUAL assignment Assertiveness Professional Effective Influencing development communication tactics Types of people Workload Feedback Milestones/ Forward metrics pipeline Critical Group Path/Gannt Diagnostics stages Balanced scorecard Financial levers/ Handling GROUP Cash flow Experiments conflict OBJECTIVE SUBJECTIVE
  4. 4. GROUP/OBJECTIVE Why plan and review progress? • Depersonalises issues: – Data is “out there” and the whole team can look at it and critique it • Provides focus: – “What gets measured gets managed” – especially if it is on the team wall – BUT you need to make metrics hard to “game”! • Simplifies communication – Explain stuff once – then come back to the same points and see how you are dealing with them
  5. 5. GROUP/OBJECTIVE Different team objectives/situations .XXX Technical Communications You Targets Power modular Language of product undefined α β 1.0 3.0 architecture Process experiential compression Source: ARM PhD
  6. 6. 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200Jun-07Sep-07 GROUP/OBJECTIVEDec-07Mar-08Jun-08Sep-08Dec-08Mar-09Jun-09Sep-09Dec-09 .XXX Revenue targetsMar-10Jun-10 ILLUSTRATIVE
  7. 7. GROUP/OBJECTIVE .XXX financial levers ILLUSTRATIVE -12% Downloads Actionable? +8% No point showing # Sales = junior people stuff +23% they cannot do Conversion rate anything about – it just frustrates them+7% Revenue = X Timely? How often does the data change – and how efficiently can you update it? -1% Revenue/ sale=
  8. 8. GROUP/OBJECTIVE .XX organisation chart management team Can you create sub- teams that scale up more easily? .XXX How will your time be freed up to manage external perceptions – Customer Product management and key clients?Market Support Develop Test/QC1 FTE 3 FTE 2 FTE
  9. 9. GROUP/OBJECTIVE .XXX product road map ILLUSTRATIVE Old .XXX customers Old AAAcustomers Business/market New customers Product/service Old tool Acquired tool New build tool Technology ??? ??? ??? Training:
  10. 10. GROUP/OBJECTIVE .XXX Gannt/critical path Q3’07 Q4’07 Q1’08 Q2’08 Q3’08 … Q3’10 ILLUSTRATIVE Develop What is the company year end for overall budgets? Test Release What is the release schedule? (e.g.first, new version, patch) Support Who are the critical Develop resources? (e.g. testers Test get pulled into live Release support) What external deadlines Support cannot be slipped? (e.g. major shows, key clients)C
  11. 11. GROUP/OBJECTIVE Tech Comms Balanced Scorecard Financial - to succeed financially, how must we appear to our shareholders? e.g. reducing internal investment, increasing return by selling documentation, reducing after-sales support calls Customer - to achieve our vision, how must we appear to our customers? e.g. customer survey on technical communications project management Business process - to satisfy our customers and shareholders, what business processes must we excel at? e.g. quarterly customer satisfaction/support surveys Learning and growth - to achieve our vision, how do we sustain our ability to change and improve? e.g. training and related cost savingsSource: Mead (1998) Measuring the value added by Technical Documentation, Areview of research and practice (; Carliner (Physical,Cognitive, Affective): saulcarliner.home.att. net/id/newmodel.htm
  12. 12. GROUP/OBJECTIVE Tech Comms service levels What dimensions do Cost α β 1.0 end-users value in Technical Tested Communications: Live support -media (file, embedded, Community online, live, Diagnostics community…) -richness (entry level, power user) Experimental First iteration Embedded error Text/online help What breakpoints do handling Quick start guide users perceive on Power user features these dimensions? What service levels do Technical Communications need Worst point – Delivered to deliver to get to each high cost but service level? not differentSource: Kodak photo booths (time to develop – customer workshop), Xerox vs Canonphotocopiers (time between failures – miniaturisation capabilities)
  13. 13. GROUP/OBJECTIVE Tech Comms: filling out design 1. Research scope ILLUSTRATIVE (2-4 weeks) error text What interim 2. Design deliverables are (2-6 weeks) topics needed at each stage to scope the Green light work and support clean handovers 3. Development within the Technical (3-12 weeks) Communications team? 4. Writing full text (2-10 weeks) diagnostics What effort is associated with each 5. Testing interim deliverable (4 weeks) for each service Release level? 6. Support QC
  14. 14. GROUP/OBJECTIVE Tech Comms: forward pipeline ILLUSTRATIVE Project Version Stage Start Days ETC Author 1 α 1 25/6 0.5 0.25 Heather 2 2.4 2 29/6 1 0.5 Kirsty 3 β 3 20/6 15 5 Kirsty 4 1.2 4 22/6 40 15 Brian 5 3.1 4 45 45 40 Kirsty 6 2.4 2 30 30 5 Heather 7 α 2 15/7 0.5 0.25 Brian …
  15. 15. GROUP/OBJECTIVE Workload ILLUSTRATIVE When will you need to start hiring new people – and what will their learning curve be to take up the workload? Are there short term blips that might require sub-contracting staff or borrowing from general pool? Q3’07 Q4’07 Q1’08 Q2’08 Q3’08 … Q3’10
  16. 16. INDIVIDUAL/OBJECTIVE Good task assignment • Clean task – No “long loop” – Representative user • Assertive introduction – Not aggressive – Right degree • Shared responsibility
  17. 17. INDIVIDUAL/OBJECTIVE Personal development Interpersonal & Results Focus Problem-Solving Knowing our Leadership Communication business INFLUENCING Persuading others ACHIEVING RESULTS ANALYTICAL THINKING RESOURCE USE PEOPLE MANAGEMENT internally/ and or Achieving goals for Breaking down problems Responsible use of the Facilitating the effectiveness externally to support and organisation. These goals and issues in order to organization’s resources of others through providing buy into desired courses may include meeting resolve them and awareness of costs direction and a motivating of action quality standards, and financial controls work climate. This achieving targets or competency is generally COMMUNITY SPIRIT/ working within budget needed by those in a TEAMWORK CUSTOMER FOCUS CONCEPTUAL position of formal leadership Showing respect and Delighting customers by support for others and THINKING pre-empting and genuinely valuing their Seeing how ideas and responding to their needs OWNERSHIP OF contribution issues fit together. It in a timely and RESPONSIBILITY includes recognising appropriate way Taking personal patterns and trends and TRAINING AND INTERCULTURAL responsibility for ones the big picture KNOWING THE DEVELOPMENT AWARENESS actions and EXTERNAL Coaching and developing Is appreciating and demonstrating pride in ENVIRONMENT others to help them achieve valuing others from working for organisation Understanding the their full potential different backgrounds, INNOVATION competitive environment cultures and expectations Daring to be different by and external forces (internally and externally) PLANNING suggesting new and impacting upon organization Establishing the route to radical ideas and finding achieving defined goals alternative solutions to INTERPERSONAL AWARENESS those that are CROSS-COMPANY Is an accurate awareness established, tried and INFORMATION FLOW of other people, needs, tested. Actively sharing ideas and ADAPTABILITY/ motives and feelings, information across the FLEXIBILITY adapting behaviour organisation This involves The willingness to change accordingly both seeking out and priorities and act alerting others to pertinent differently as the situation information demands, responding RELATIONSHIP positively to change BUILDING SPECIALIST TECHNICAL Building and OR PROFESSIONAL maintaining SKILL AND KNOWLEDGE relationships with contacts internal and / or external to organisation
  18. 18. INDIVIDUAL/OBJECTIVE Clean task assignment No “long loops” e.g. separating engine design and car chassis design is ineffective because the size of the engine impacts the hood and the weight of the car overall impacts the size of the engine needed. Expensive changes late in design like adopting an aluminium engine result. Representative user e.g. pick a lead user who will give feedback iteratively and whose needs are close to a lot of the final target audience
  19. 19. INDIVIDUAL/OBJECTIVE Being assertive “acting appropriately on one’s own behalf while not violating the rights or stifling the viewpoints of others” 1. Act as if you have the right to assert yourself 2. Volunteer – give them “something to shoot at” 3. Take the initiative. If nobody seems to understand, get up and draw a picture. Offer to follow-up on something where you have a stake. 4. Make frequent, short contributions. Elaborate on the comments of others. 5. Use strong verbals. Speak firmly and concisely, without overqualifying. 6. Use assertive body language – eye contact, lean slightly towards the other person, gesture broadly, be animated 7. Know the limits of your personal and psychological space, and know when those limits are being violated. 8. React when aggressors try to silence you. 9. Practice saying “No”. 10. Extinguish verbal aggression through selective inattention. Point out offensive words and only respond when those words are not used. 11. Give assertive feedback on aggressive or offensive behaviour.
  20. 20. INDIVIDUAL/OBJECTIVE Right degree of assertiveness Do it or else Do it now Do it Please do it I need you to do it I would like you to do it I would appreciate it if you did it If I’m not imposing, I’d like you to do it Would you do it? Would please do it? Would you mind doing it? Do you have time to do it? Could I ask you to do it? Shall I do it myself? Okay, I’ll do it! When do you want it done?
  21. 21. INDIVIDUAL/OBJECTIVE Effective communication - BEST Bottom-line Make it simple, clear, concise Evidence and Prove it. Show how it examples applies. Make it specific and concrete. Summary Restate key points, themes. Reinforce. Time awareness Keep it short.
  22. 22. INDIVIDUAL/OBJECTIVE Ask questions!NOT … BUTRapid-fire, staccato questions that sound Directional questions e.g. Have youlike an interrogation considered selling the technology?“Prisoner’s Dilemma” questions that trap Clarifying and probing e.g. what do youthe respondent e.g. “when did you stop mean by “incendiary”?wasting the company’s cash on that?” Encouraging participation e.g. Carl, if thisMultiple questions were your call, what would you do?Questions that respondent cannot know Facilitating a meeting e.g. Are there anye.g. “what motivated John?” comments on the agenda?Questions that are statements Building relationships e.g. how long have you been collecting stamps?Why questions (imply disapproval) Stimulate creativity e.g. what if you reversed those steps?
  23. 23. INDIVIDUAL/OBJECTIVE Handling responses/questions 1. Listen carefully 2. Summarise the response/question if it is long or complex 3. Reinforce correct answers or positive contributions 4. Give partial credit where the answer has some positive elements 5. Acknowledge their effort and redirect the question when the response is off track 6. Defer or deflect questions where you don’t know the answer
  24. 24. INDIVIDUAL/SUBJECTIVE Motivation“The inner force that drives individuals to accomplish personal and organisational goals” caused by: #1 Interesting work #1 Interesting work #2 Full appreciation of work done #2 Good wages #3 Feeling of being in on things #3 Job security Source: Kovach (87) “What motivates Source: Harpaz (90) “The importance employees? Workers and supervisors of work goals: an international give different answers”. Business perspective. Journal of International Horizons 30 58-65 Business Studies 21, 75-93 but!!!! … factors are not additive and vary with age and income
  25. 25. INDIVIDUAL/SUBJECTIVE Motivation also varies by role Individual Team Bob Sales Karen Marketing Jules Development Zac Technical Services Jill
  26. 26. INDIVIDUAL/SUBJECTIVE Maslow’s hierarchy of needs Self-actualising “lower level needs -interesting work have to be satisfied before next higher Esteem level need will -full appreciation of work done -promotions and growth motivate” Social -feeling of being “in on things” -tactful discipline Safety -job security Physiological -good wages -good working conditionsSource: Maslow (43) “A theory of human motivation” Psychological Review, 370-396
  27. 27. INDIVIDUAL/SUBJECTIVEHerzberg motivator and hygiene factors “If motivators are present, satisfaction will occur – but absence will not lead to dissatisfaction. If hygienes are absent, dissatisfaction will occur – but presence will not lead to satisfaction”Source: Hertzberg, Mausner, Snydermann(59) “The motivation to work” John Wiley
  28. 28. INDIVIDUAL/SUBJECTIVE Making jobs motivating Job enlargement More activities and more variety of activities Job enrichment Add higher level responsibilities and give compensation if accepted Promotion Change job to one with higher level responsibilities with compensation
  29. 29. INDIVIDUAL/SUBJECTIVE Influencing tactics Positive Negative Explaining Avoiding Legitimising - authority Passive aggressive Ignoring Logical persuading - data Delaying Asking Threatening Appealing to friendship - favours Describing punishment Socialising - disclose yourself Inflicting punishment Consulting - appeal to expertise Carrying, brandishing or refering to Stating - Assert a weapon Inspiring Intimidating Appeal to values – tell stories Using size or power to get your way Interrupting Modeling – give the example Manipulating Exchanging – create win-win Witholding information Alliance Building – build consensus Lying or disguising your intent
  30. 30. INDIVIDUAL/SUBJECTIVE Different types of people Extraversion E I Introversion Sensing S N Intuiting Thinking T F Feeling Judging J P Perceiving Source: Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)
  31. 31. INDIVIDUAL/SUBJECTIVE Recognising and adapting to types Recognise How to work with them Recognise How to work with them Extravert •Team meetings Intravert •Don’t embarrass them •Think out loud •Assign presentations •Like working alone •Listen •Discuss before writing •Don’t assign solo work •Write out ideas first •Allow them to prepare Sensors •Give facts INtuitors •Ask them to challenge •Factual – proven? •Outline step-by-step •Future/big picture •Don’t give detail •Fine tune not invent •Show how risk reduced •Restless/energy bursts •Allow them to daydream Thinkers •State the principles Feelers •Be responsive •Analytical/objective •Give analysis/graphs •Concerned for people •Ask them to evaluate •May seem insensitive •Ask them for review •Empathic/good listener impact on people Judgers •Start and end on time Perceivers •Be flexible/adaptable •Want closure •Be structured/neat •Dislike tight deadlines •Avoid tight deadlines •Impatient •Use them to manage •Process not results •Ask them to handle last •Make to do lists time and monitor tasks •Spontaneous minute changes (but ensure Judgers have time to get product out!) Source: Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)
  32. 32. INDIVIDUAL/SUBJECTIVE Influencing different types ST Practical and matter of fact NT Logical and ingenious Logical persuading – STs are factual Appeal to values – they like and logical. Show your plan/proposal pioneering, and subordinate human is well thought out and evidence values to abstract patterns and based. possibilities Legitimising Logical persuading – their logical Exchanging (if it seems logical!) side Consulting – they want involvement SF Sympathetic and friendly NF Enthusiastic and insighful Socialising – SFs are also pracitcal, Consulting – NFs are interested in but approach decisions with the complexities of human subjectivity and human warmth. communication Appealing to friendship – SFs trust Alliance building – they are very their feelings and are more interested concerned about the impact on in facts about people people and want to involve others in Consulting planning Appeal to friendship Appeal to values
  33. 33. INDIVIDUAL/SUBJECTIVE Why give feedback? What I know about me What I don’t know about me Arena Blind spot What others know about me Interpersonal communication Seeing yourself as others see depends on open and free you is key to self- exchange of information. With understanding. Soliciting greater disclosure, feedback is the primary communication increases and tool for anticipating blind spots serious conflict decreases Facade Unknown What others don’t know about me Selective disclosure of Without feedback, the hidden feelings, ideas, unknown stays unknown. attitudes, goals and values Feedback generally gives can build the relationship with illumination for both others. With a big façade, parties people doubt your intentions.Source: Johari window, Joseph Luft and Harry Ingham
  34. 34. INDIVIDUAL/SUBJECTIVE Giving feedback1. Why Before giving feedback, think about your motives and perceptions. Are you being genuinely helpful and positive? Are you perceiving the situation correctly?2. When Avoid feedback: • you are angry • you want to put someone down • you have not observed the behaviour yourself • the other person cannot change or control the thing you want to discuss3. Be SPECIFIC • Avoid labels, judgements or stereotypes e.g. “unprofessional” • Avoid exaggerating for emphasis e.g. you are ALWAYS this careless • Avoid judgement words like “good”, “better”, “should”4. Speak for yourself Restrict your comments to what you have seen yourself and how that makes you feel. Offer your perceptions as perceptions, not facts
  35. 35. INDIVIDUAL/SUBJECTIVE Receiving feedback1. Be receptive to feedback You don’t need to believe everything – but you have to be willing to listen! If you are too busy to be responsive, say so and set another time.2. Listen carefully Attend to the person, avoid interrupting, and stay focused on the message, despite your emotional reactions to it. Confirm your understanding by paraphrasing and summarising.3. Control your physiological responses Breathe deeply, relax the muscles in your face, neck and shoulders. If you find your body reacting (e.g. crossing arms, legs), control it.4. Avoid the impulse to argue or defend yourself Swallow the impulse to argue. Defending yourself closes your mind and makes you competitive. You can argue with the facts, but not with the perceptions – and that is all feedback is!
  36. 36. GROUP/SUBJECTIVE Intervening in groups Forming the group, setting ground Forming rules, finding similarities Storming Dealing with issues of power and control, surfacing differences Managing conflict, finding group Norming norms, resurfacing similarities Functioning as an effective group Performing Finding closure Adjourning Source: Tuckman model of group development
  37. 37. GROUP/SUBJECTIVE Handling conflict • Deflect aggression – Focus on the issues – Do not defend yourself – ignore insults • Defuse emotional issues – Step away from the situation and cool off – May need to address the relationship problems first • Choose to remain centred and objective • Know what’s important • Use the energy of conflict to probe and problem solve • Conflict is not a contest
  38. 38. GROUP/SUBJECTIVE Overt and covert conflict Covert conflict Overt conflict hi Passive Assertive Other’s degree of cooperation low Passive-aggressive Aggressive low hi Other’s acknowledgement of conflict
  39. 39. GROUP/SUBJECTIVE Handling passive-aggressives • Recognise their need for control Avoid • Avoid power struggles initially Inform – Give on some issues Engage Disclose Explore Wait • Appeal to self-interest Assert Surface • Reveal your own frustration Declare Specify Persist • Use confrontation as a last resort Confront Surface Declare Specify • Enforce agreements by making them public Enforce
  40. 40. GROUP/SUBJECTIVE Passive • Easier than passive-aggressives • Will usually co-operate because they dislike confrontation • However they may later change their mind when they no longer feel a threat!
  41. 41. GROUP/SUBJECTIVE Aggressive* • Deflect aggression – Ignore insults – Focus on the issues • Know and act on your limits – When you reach your limit, calmly and firmly tell the aggressor to stop – State that you refuse to be treated that way and suggest a later meeting when they are calmer *”Excessively controlling or threatening, being overly competitive, being insulting or intimidating, needing to prove others wrong, winning at others expense, acting spitefully or vengefully”. Or physically forcing people to do things!
  42. 42. GROUP/OBJECTIVE Reporting vs. milestones/metrics Weekly: Operating Committee -Review short-term deadlines and load-balance -Share external feedback and priorities Need:One pager summaries from sub-team leaders etc Monthly: Management team -Review progress against milestones -Identify causes of slippage and budget variance Need:Time reports, quality metrics etc Quarterly: Budgeting -Account for time
  43. 43. GROUP/OBJECTIVE Why diagnose? • Expose your thinking and explore the real alternatives thoroughly • Build an “open” logic to the decisions that draws your team into participating • Identify what you have to manage closely and allow experimentation on how to get there
  44. 44. GROUP/OBJECTIVE When experiment? • Where value at risk is high and the winning approach is changing • Where costs or risks can be reduced by staging commitment through early trials (non-scaleable) or pilots (scaleable) • Where outcomes from those trials or pilots can be observed quickly and resources committed accordingly