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Vocationalization of General Education in Pakistan


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Youth age group (15-24) is a great asset to a nation, because youth being a working age population if properly trained and prepared for world of work could bring revolution in the economy of a country. Therefore, developed countries give greater emphasis to youth’s training and education to prepare youth for world of work. In develop countries, to prepare youth, especially school leaver’s vocational training schemes were introduced at secondary and high school level. However, in developed countries the ratio of edging population is increasing as compared to the youth working age population, whereas in developing countries including Pakistan the youth population is rapidly increasing. There is a need that we take advantage of this demographic dividend and prepare our youth for world of work. This paper highlights the importance of vocationalization in youth employment. In the paper youth’s employment trend and its relation with education and training were discussed. In the country, causes for failure of past efforts made for vocationalization of general education were examined. Worldwide available different modes for vocational training and effective models were analyzed and suitable model for vocationalization of general education in the country is proposed in this paper.

Published in: Education

Vocationalization of General Education in Pakistan

  1. 1. Employment Through Skill Sindh Technical Education and Vocational Training Authority Presented by: Dr. Masroor Ahmed Sheikh Director Academic & Training STEVTA National TEVT Round Table Conference Organized by NAVTTC in Collaboration with UNESCO at, Islamabad 27th – 28th June, 2012 Revitalize: Vocationalization of General Education, Necessary for Youth Employment
  2. 2. Presentation Design  Need for Vocationalization of General Education.  Youth Unemployment Trend and literacy rate.  Efforts made for Vocationalization in Pakistan.  Models for Vocationalization.  Recommendations
  3. 3. Need for Vocationalization  Youth (15-24) working age population is a demographic dividend for the country.  86% youth droop out school at Secondary level.  Rising Youth Unemployment Rate, estimated 1.5 million Unemployed Youth are adding to street every year.  Employment prospects for school leavers could be enhanced by providing Vocational training at School.  Limited intake capacity at TEVT institutes.  Youth and parents give preference to GE over TEVT.  Jobs are now becoming more sophisticated and required especialized skill.
  4. 4. Major Causes of Unemployment in Youth  Shrinking Jobs both in Public and Private sector  Decreasing investment in private sector and shifting of capital abroad because of the unrest, violence, high taxes, government’s business unfriendly policies and nationalization of industrial units in the country.  Lack of education and Skill: majority of unemployed youth are illiterate or less educated and facing difficulties in entering into World of work.  Structural mismatch, divergence between the demographics of urban and rural areas, lack of experience, province or region wise discrimination in provision of jobs.  Youth population is not prepared for self employment.
  5. 5. Difference in Enrolment (School Droop out in Pakistan) Data extracted from PES 2007-08
  6. 6. Youth Unemployment Trend-Pakistan Source: LFS (2005-06), Ahmad & Azim (2010)
  7. 7. Youth Unemployment and Literacy Rate Source: LFS (2005-2006) and Ahmad & Azim (2010)
  8. 8. Effect of Education on Unemployment - World Changes in unemployment rate by educational level in developed economies
  9. 9. Integrated VT at Schools (UNESCO, N-13, April-June 2005)
  10. 10. Vocationalization in Pakistan Program Year Trade Course Class Level Trained Teacher W/S & R/M Credit Transfer Certification Comprehensive High Schools 1968 Electrical, Metal , Wood, Plumbing, Dress Making, Embroidery and Cooking 9th & 10th WI BS-16 AWI BS-14 Yes, R/M from PTA Funds Optional Subject have no credit Internal Assessment Agro-Technical 1977 Industrial Arts, Agriculture, Home Economics, 6th & 8th WI BS-16 AWI BS-14 Yes, R/M from PTA Funds Optional Subject have no credit Internal Assessment Matric Technical Stream 2002 17 trade Courses, Elective among Trade Course / Biology / Computer Science 9th & 10th WI BS-16 AWI BS-14 ? Integrat- ed trade subject with credit Board of Education
  11. 11. Modes and Model Modes for delivery  School-Based  Centre Based  Workplace Based Models for Vocationalization  Separate-Parallel Model  Dual Training Model  Apprenticeship Model
  12. 12. Separate-Parallel System, Malaysia Source: Ahmed, Z.(2011)
  13. 13. Separate-Parallel System, Malaysia
  14. 14. Dual Training Model Trainee attend Workplace for 3 or 4 days per week and attend a part- time Vocational School 1 or 2 days per week. German Dual Training System
  15. 15. Apprenticeship Model In apprenticeship model, vocational training is delivered by employer at workplace. It is similar to the informal training, where a young person works with an employer to learn a craft for exchange of food in person agreement with the employer. For apprenticeship training at industry, the training is regulated through Apprenticeship Act-1962, where each industrial unit is bound to provide apprenticeship trainee and to pay stipend to apprentice.
  16. 16. Limitation  Separate-Parallel system required capital investment and sustainable funding.  Dual training system required strong Industry- Institute linkages.  The concept of Apprenticeship is now reversed and worldwide now industry is charging for the training.  For success, all the model required pathway for mobility of certified trainees.
  17. 17. Study for Vocationalization by NISTE (2002)
  18. 18. Separate-Parallel and Hybrid Source UNESCO, Model: Separate-Parallel Model
  19. 19. Recommendations  We may develop Hybrid Model. For Vocationalization School may be partnered with VTI in the vicinity to share training facility and technical staff.  Where VTI is not available in the vicinity of school or vise- versa, Separate-Parallel model may be applied.  Instead of Skill Training at Middle level (class 6 to 8) courses containing knowledge, aptitude and values about Vocational Training shall be introduced.  Trade Courses containing Practical Skill shall be introduced at Secondary level (class 9 and 10).
  20. 20. Recommendations  Trade courses shall be assess and certified by BTEs or TTBs. The student taking TC shall be allowed Credit transfer for admission in TEVT institute.  NAVTTC shall also launch a project for VT at school, where student electing trade course may be given stipend and tool kit.
  21. 21. Advantages of Hybrid-Combine Model  Optimum utilization facilities both in Schools and at VTI.  Vocationalization with minimum available resources.  Open doors for flexible education and training. School leavers with learning skill for employment would be able to rejoin the school again. School would not be required to establish and maintain workshops and technical staff.  Recognition of learned skill.  Student will be able to learn skill properly and under the supervision of technical teachers.  Student will be able to get credit transfer in admission for further higher education. School will have no fear of closing the training in middle of the session, due to transfer of staff or unforeseen extra ordinary leave of teaching staff at school.  Students will have more options in selection of trade.
  22. 22. Dis-Advantages  Synchronization between school and VTI will be required dedicated heads.  School/VTI will be required dual affiliation.  Increased cost for students due to double registration and examination fee.  Students will have to attend two institutions; VTI for skill training and school for academic courses.  School and Institute hours might be increased.  Transportation of student might put extra financial burden.