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Gilgamesh1

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Gilgamesh1

  1. 1. Gilgamesh Dr. Mary Ann Clark
  2. 2. Iraq: Home of Gilgamesh <ul><li>Geography </li></ul><ul><li>People </li></ul><ul><li>Religion </li></ul><ul><li>Languages </li></ul>
  3. 3. Iraq: Home of Gilgamesh <ul><li>Geography </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Location : Middle East, bordering the Persian Gulf, between Iran and Kuwait </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Area : slightly more than twice the size of Idaho </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Iraq: Home of Gilgamesh <ul><li>Geography </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Climate : mostly desert; mild to cool winters with dry, hot, cloudless summers; northern mountainous regions along Iranian and Turkish borders experience cold winters with occasionally heavy snows that melt in early spring, sometimes causing extensive flooding in central and southern Iraq </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Terrain : mostly broad plains; reedy marshes along Iranian border in south with large flooded areas; mountains along borders with Iran and Turkey </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Iraq: Home of Gilgamesh <ul><li>Geography </li></ul><ul><li>People </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Population : 26,074,906 (July 2005 est.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethnic groups : Arab 75%-80%, Kurdish 15%-20%, Turkoman, Assyrian or other 5% </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Iraq: Home of Gilgamesh <ul><li>Geography </li></ul><ul><li>People </li></ul><ul><li>Religion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Religions : Muslim 97% (Shi'a 60%-65%, Sunni 32%-37%), Christian or other 3% </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Iraq: Home of Gilgamesh <ul><li>Geography </li></ul><ul><li>People </li></ul><ul><li>Religion </li></ul><ul><li>Languages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Languages : Arabic, Kurdish (official in Kurdish regions), Assyrian, Armenian </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Ancient Mesopotamia
  9. 9. Uruk <ul><li>Oldest & most important ancient cities </li></ul><ul><li>About 140 miles SSE of contemporary Baghdad </li></ul><ul><li>Modern name of Iraq derived from Uruk </li></ul>
  10. 10. Culture <ul><li>Religion </li></ul><ul><li>Clothing </li></ul><ul><li>Trade & Commerce </li></ul><ul><li>Writing (Cuneiform) </li></ul>
  11. 11. Religion <ul><li>Pantheon of deities (God and Goddesses) </li></ul><ul><li>Every city had its own patron deity </li></ul><ul><li>People sang hymns, said prayers, made offerings at the temples (ziggurats) </li></ul><ul><li>Gods looked and acted like very powerful people </li></ul>
  12. 12. Religion <ul><li>Temple to local deity </li></ul><ul><li>Large pyramid-shaped structures </li></ul><ul><li>Connected heaven and earth </li></ul>Ziggurat at Ur
  13. 13. Clothing <ul><li>Made from natural fibers: wool or flax </li></ul><ul><li>Men generally bare-chested with skirt-like garments </li></ul><ul><li>Women wore long gown, left right arm & shoulder bare </li></ul><ul><li>Both men & women wore jewelry </li></ul>
  14. 14. Trade & Commerce <ul><li>Ancient Mesopotamia was a center of trade and commerce </li></ul><ul><li>People traded among themselves and with their neighbors </li></ul><ul><li>Irrigation by producing an excess of crops made trade possible </li></ul><ul><li>Temples were centers of trade & commerce </li></ul>
  15. 15. Cuneiform <ul><li>Earliest system of writing </li></ul><ul><li>Formed by stylus on clay tablets </li></ul><ul><li>Important tablets baked to preserve them </li></ul>
  16. 16. Achievements <ul><li>Ishtar’s Gate </li></ul><ul><li>Legend of Gilgamesh, the God-King </li></ul>
  17. 17. Ishtar Gate <ul><li>Main gate to Nebuchadnezzar II’s Babylon </li></ul><ul><li>Built around 575 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>Decorated with glazed brick reliefs </li></ul>
  18. 18. Ishtar’s Gate <ul><li>Reconstructed from original materials </li></ul><ul><li>Staatliche Museen (State Museum), Berlin, Dept. of the Near East </li></ul>
  19. 19. Ishtar Gate: Dragon
  20. 20. Ishtar Gate: Lion
  21. 21. Gilgamesh <ul><li>Historical king of Uruk </li></ul><ul><li>Lived ~2700 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>Son of Lugalbanda and Nunsun, a goddess </li></ul><ul><li>Legends important to the self-identity of Mesopotamian peoples </li></ul>
  22. 22. Special Note <ul><li>“ Harlot” is probably a misrepresentation of Shamhat’s profession </li></ul><ul><li>She was a temple priestess, who offers her sexual services in the hieros gamos (sacred marriage ritual) </li></ul>

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