Teaching pptTeaching slides of Dr. Manishankar Chakraborty on Management of Diversity and Principles of Marketing


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Teaching pptTeaching slides of Dr. Manishankar Chakraborty on Management of Diversity and Principles of Marketing

  1. 1. Management of DiversityAdvanced Diploma-HRMDr. Manishankar ChakrabortyBusiness Studies DepartmentIbra College of Technology
  2. 2. Introducing Diversity Observe and Understand Diversity http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CYVHttiXyiA http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=endscreen&v=nBRgU_tDMuc&NR=1 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hNeR4bBUj68Management of Diversity, ICT,Dr. Manishankar Chakraborty
  3. 3. Course overview Need for the course How it can assist you in your career How this course is related to other courses How this course is different from other courses Approach required to understand this course Mark oriented approach to knowledge centric approach How the practical activities in this course is different from others How the practical activities contribute towards learning Importance of continuous learning Handling wrong perceptions/myths about the subject Career OpportunitiesManagement ofDiversity, ICT, Dr. ManishankarChakraborty
  4. 4. Outcome- 1Define the meaning of Management ofDiversity Background Information Liberalization, Globalization, Privatization Mobility of workforce Women workforce Old employees Differences in employee profile MNC’s like Pepsiso, Microsoft, Coke, Toyota, Nissan, Walmart, Tata, Carrefour cases inpoint Workplace discriminationManagement ofDiversity, ICT, Dr. ManishankarChakraborty
  5. 5. Assessments Objective type surprise quiz-I=5 Marks Library based handwritten activity within deadline(questions/situations/case-lets/secondary literature review on assigned topics)= 5 Marks Midterm exam= 20 Marks Objective type surprise quiz-II=5 Marks Presentation on a topic within the deadline= 5 Marks Report submission on the topic of presentation within the deadline= 5 Marks Attendance= 3 Marks (Deduction of 1 Mark for 1st warning, 2 Marks for 2nd warning and 3Marks for 3rd warning) Class participation= 2 Marks (To be done on the basis of the complete semesterobservation) Final Exam= 50 Marks TOTAL = 100 Marks Thumb rules to succeed Punctuality, Interaction with teacher and peers , Daily scheduling, DailyRevision, Additional reading and writing.Management ofDiversity, ICT, Dr. ManishankarChakraborty
  6. 6. Outcome 1 Definition The shared set of values and beliefs leading to common behaviour. An integrated system of learned behaviour pattern that are characteristics of themembers among given societies. E.g. Staff of different nationalities in Ibra College have shared set of values andbeliefs and have some common behavior as well. Diversity : Dimensions Descriptive model of 4 Layers of diversity by Gardenswartz and Rowe by attributingdiversity factors like- Internal Dimensions, Personality, Organizational Dimensions, External Dimensions Personality is part of the inner circle, a dimension which constitutes the core ofthis model and covers all aspects of a person.Management of Diversity, ICT,Dr. Manishankar Chakraborty
  7. 7. Outcome-1 4 LayersManagement ofDiversity, ICT, Dr. ManishankarChakraborty
  8. 8. Outcome 1 Internal Dimension (2nd Circle) They are also known as core dimensions, which cannot be easily changed by individualsand therefore considered by relevant equal treatment acts. It consists of the following- Gender Nationality and Ethnicity Social Class Background Age Mental and Physical Capacity Religion/WorldviewManagement of Diversity,Dr. Manishankar Chakraborty
  9. 9. Outcome-1 External Dimension (3rd Circle) They are known for their variableness (can change sometimes). Religion/worldview are exceptions in that list. Religion/worldview are part of internal dimensions because of two reasons- (1) They cannot be chosen freely (2) Discrimination due to these are not allowed (forbidden) Factors of external dimensions are as follows- Geographic Location Income Personal Habits Recreational Habits Religion/Worldview Education Work Experience Appearance Parental Status Marital StatusManagement of Diversity, ICT,Dr. Manishankar Chakraborty
  10. 10. Outcome 1 Organizational Background (Outer Circle) They are defined by corporate or institutional attachment (affiliation). The dimension are follows- Functional Level Classification Work Content and Field of Work Research Interests/Field of Study Faculty Center Department/Branch of Study/Services and Facilities Work Location/Study Location Type of Employment Duration of Employment/Duration of StudyManagement of Diversity, ICT,Dr. Manishankar Chakraborty
  11. 11. Outcome 1 Characteristics of Diversity The characteristics of diversity are as follows- (1) It is learned and transmitted (passed)from one generation to another (2)It can be passed from parent to children, by social organizations, special interestgroups, governments, mosques, temples, churches etc. (3)It is multidimensional, consisting of a number of common elements that areinterdependent. Importance of Diversity R. Roosevelt Thomas in his book Beyond Race and Gender defined Managing Diversity as acomprehensive managerial process for developing an environment that works for allemployees. Diversity management therefore can be described on the following basis- (1) Mindset of an organization (2) Climate of an organization (3) Differences in workplace due to different race, workplace styles, disabilities and otherdifferences.Management ofDiversity, ICT, Dr. ManishankarChakraborty
  12. 12. Outcome-1 Short Note on Diversity Management Different words like diversity, productive diversity, workplace diversity are used to explaindiversity management, however they have some grounds like- (1) They accept the reality that people differ in many ways. (2) They identify consequences at the workplace, society that may arise due to diversity (3) They suggest strategies to ensure that these issues are addressed in the interest ofthe society or workplace. Diversity management is a tool to capture diversity dividend. Diversity focusses on- (1) Managing the difference within a company’s workforce (2) The difference is managed by capitalizing the benefits and reducing workplace relatedchallenges caused due to diversity.Management of Diversity, ICT,Dr. Manishankar Chakraborty
  13. 13. Outcome-1 Short Note on Diversity Management Diversity management contributes bottom-line and development of the organization in thefollowing ways- (1) Improves the efficiency of HRM functions (2) Fostering superior decision making, problem solving, creativity & innovation, keyfactors in the creation of knowledge based companies (3) Develops cross-cultural capabilities that helps in operations in culturally complexenvironments at home and abroad. (4)Implement new product/service developments and new sales/marketing strategies fordifferent customer bases.Management ofDiversity, ICT, Dr. ManishankarChakraborty
  14. 14. Outcome-1 What is diversity management? It refers to differences between individuals. Differences are visible and invisible. Differences are gender, age, skills, tenure, learning styles etc. The differences can have positive impact on the workplace by making optimal use of thecapacities and abilities both qualitatively and quantitatively. It is a total managerial process for making a suitable environment for all. It encourages managers to enable, empower and influence employees to reach their truepotential. It helps in the organizational systems, policies and practices benefit all and not a few. It helps in serving customers and clients better. It targets people interested in integrating diverse work groups. It helps in developing proactive approaches. It promotes creativity, innovation, competitive advantage by reducing discrimination.Management ofDiversity, ICT, Dr. ManishankarChakraborty
  15. 15. Outcome 1 Diversity Management PrinciplesDiversity due to immigration, mobility between region and states, marginalized groups in workplace,like women, disabled and old workers is a challenge.Heterogeneity in the workplace is on the rise.Policies for diverse workforce should be supported by tools that helps to gain benefits and reducepitfalls due to diversity.The principles are as follows-(1) Proactive approach- It enables to identify and realize the potential of diverse knowledge, skills andbackground of the workforce helping to achieve obligations of social justice.(2) Common and Integrated Approach- Policies relating to gender, people with disabilities, equality,CSR should be relevant to managing workplace diversity. It can be done by adopting a common andintegrated approach to deal with a diverse workforce.(3) Inclusion and Equity- It recognizes that employees from diverse backgrounds are entitled to equalrights and that organization as part of the society have the responsibility to support social justice forall.(4) Business Case- It ensures effectiveness of the diversity management policies by meetingcommitments of social justice and CSR.Management ofDiversity, ICT, Dr. ManishankarChakraborty
  16. 16. Outcome-1 Workplace diversity It encourages managers to enable, empower, influence employees to reach their potential. Two distinct but connected channels leading to superior company performance are- (1) Tapping into the benefits that flow from effective diversity management (2) Focusing on corrective strategies to solve ineffective diversity management thatimposes cost. It helps in improved individual and organizational performance Powerful impact on problem solving, decision making, innovation and creativity It would assist in producing diversity dividend by using diverse unique skills, perspectivesand knowledge of the workforce. Diversity best practices Organizations having diversity best practices value people, cultivate environment wherecultural awareness, sensitivity, fairness and integrity prosper. The practices include- (1) Integrated process that is ongoing and has measurable strategy (2) Efforts are primarily decentralized with a central governing body outlining requirementsof plans with individual agencies.Management of Diversity, ICT,Dr. Manishankar Chakraborty
  17. 17. Knowledge Reinforcement Case- Study Situation for Analysis Review Questions (1) What is diversity? (2) Do you think diversity is an advantage or it is a disadvantage for an organization?Explain with reasons. (3)What is diversity quotient? How does it help in the management of diversity. (3) Microsoft is a global company having diverse stakeholders globally. Identify thechallenges they might be facing internally and externally due to diversity and suggestsolutions to manage the same. (4)Why is it important to understand differences in a positive manner so as to managediversity? Links for additional reading http://www.univie.ac.at/diversity/management.html http://ucsfhr.ucsf.edu/index.php/pubs/hrguidearticle/chapter-12-managing-diversity-in-the-workplace/ http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-diversity-management.htmManagement ofDiversity, ICT, Dr. ManishankarChakraborty
  18. 18. Outcome-2Recognize the cross-cultural communications and how to use this type ofcommunication What is culture? It is concerned with beliefs and values on the basis of which people interpret experiencesand behave individually and in groups. OR It refers to a group or community with which he/she shares common experiences thatshape the way a person understands the world. One person can belong to several different cultures depending on his or herbirthplace, nationality, ethnicity, family status, gender, age, language, education, physicalcondition, religion, profession, place of work and corporate culture. It is the lens through which one views the world and therefore important to what onesee, how one make sense of what he sees, and how he expresses.Management ofDiversity, ICT, Dr. ManishankarChakraborty
  19. 19. Outcome-2 Four Cultural Dimensions Culture, both national and organizational differ along many dimensions. Four most important parameters are- Directness (getting to the point Vs. implying the message) Hierarchy (Follow orders Vs. Engaging in Debate) Consensus (Dissent is accepted Vs. unanimity is needed) Individualism (Individual winners Vs. Team effectiveness) These are life-line for the organization as effective communication helps in effectivehuman resource utilization to achieve organizational goals and objectives.Management of Diversity, ICT,Dr. Manishankar Chakraborty
  20. 20. Outcome-2Cultural dimensions depends on certain factors which play a very important role in shapingthe culture of the organization.The factors are dynamic as their variables changes from time to time.The factors are listed below-(1) Sharing of ideas and facts- Higher-ups to share the right ideas and facts so that they aredisseminated properly all around the organization.It helps in the development of right work culture, motivating employees to achieve goals.(2) Motivating people- Motivation is important as people have differentculture, language, habit and making the organization a diverse one.Continuous motivation of employees should form the culture.(3) Transmission of decisions- Decisions should be passed from level to another acrossfunctions that helps employees clear demarcation of their roles and responsibilities.This assists in mixing individual goal with the organizational goal.(4) Persuasive action- Employees are convinced (persuaded) to contribute in line with thediversity and cross-cultural issues of the organization.Management of Diversity, ICT,Dr. Manishankar Chakraborty
  21. 21. Outcome-2 (5) Counseling action- It is important to help employees to understand the details(nuances) at the workplace. It helps in guiding junior employees by seniors thereby resolve all problems. (6) Meaningful interaction- It is an important tool as it allows employees participate indiscussion which allows everyone to contribute towards the organizational culture. Definition of cross cultural communication- It implies interaction with persons of variedcultural, ethnic, racial, gender, religious, age and class backgrounds. It is the process of exchanging, negotiating and mediating in one’s cultural differencesthrough language, non-verbal gestures and space relationships. It is a process by which people express their openness to intercultural experiences. Advantages of effective communication- (1) Ties people together and also help in making an effective organizational structure. (2) Helps in bridging people across organization. (3) Facilitates in understanding and acceptance of ideas and actions. (4) Builds rapport amongst staff across levels and functions. (5) Creates better leadership, allowing people to motivate and perform towardsorganizational objective. Develops harmony within the length and breadth of the organization.Management ofDiversity, ICT, Dr. ManishankarChakraborty
  22. 22. Outcome-2 Background to cross-cultural communication Cross cultural interaction increased with the growth of globalization and international tourism. This led to increased desire and need for knowledge regarding cross-cultural communicationacross levels. Cross-cultural communication and cultural training is therefore important. Communication barriers- Barriers are man-made or natural ones. Some of them are listed below- (1) Language barrier- Knowledge of the home country’s language is important for personnel inforeign assignments. Absence creates hurdles while interacting with peers, superiors and subordinates. Affects personal and professional life. (2) Poor writing- Writing if misunderstood results in conflict, breaking personal and professionalrelationships. (3) Cultural barriers- It happens due difference in culture. Something good in one culture may be bad in other and vice-versa. Important to break cultural barriers by studying existing culture and their good/bad.Management ofDiversity, ICT, Dr. ManishankarChakraborty
  23. 23. Outcome-2 (4) Perceptual barrier- Developed due to change in perception. E.g. Working late may be perceived positively by some and negatively by others. Increasing communication effectiveness- Communication effectiveness should be developed in diverse organization to avoid a chaoticenvironment leading to loss of productivity of the organization. It is important to know the rules involved while communicating with native and non-nativespeakers. Rules while communicating with Non-Native speakers- Use of common words which is easy to understand. Following basic rules of grammar. Avoiding slangs. Paraphrasing for easy understanding. Non-verbal communications too play and important role. So, the following should be understood- Kinesics- Communication through body movements and facial expression Proxemics- Using physical space to convey message Chronemics- The way in which time is used in culture (monochromatic or polychromatic) Chromatics- Using color to communicate messages.Management of Diversity, ICT,Dr. Manishankar Chakraborty
  24. 24. Outcome-2 Communication effectiveness can be improved by developing a feedbackmechanism, imparting language training, cultural training, flexibility and cooperationamongst people working within and outside the organization. Other general measures are as follows- (1) Improved feedback system- Feedback to know whether message has been deliveredand understood in the right context. (2) Language Training- Language training to expatriate workers in the local language. (3) Cultural Training- Cultural training to explain Do’s and Donts of different culture. (4) Flexibility and Cooperation- A culture should be developed where processes andapproaches are flexible with changing times. Cooperation between employees and management should be presentManagement of Diversity, ICT,Dr. Manishankar Chakraborty
  25. 25. Knowledge reinforcement Case- Study Situation for Analysis Review Questions (1) What is cross-cultural communication? (2) Explain the importance of cross-cultural communication in Ibra College of Technology. (3)What are the possible perceptual barrier an expatriate employee may face in Oman? (3) Microsoft is a global company having diverse stakeholders globally. How can culturetraining help the organization? (4)How can you reduce communication barrier in a diversified organization? Links for additional reading http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cross-cultural_communication http://www.colorado.edu/conflict/peace/treatment/xcolcomm.htm http://www.mindtools.com/CommSkll/Cross-Cultural-communication.htmManagement ofDiversity, ICT, Dr. ManishankarChakraborty