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Introduction to IoT - Unit I

Syllabus related II M.Sc (CS) in MTNC

1 of 51
Hands on Approach
3/15/2022 1
MTNC/Computer Science
INTRODUCTION TO INTERNET
OF THINGS
3/15/2022 2
MTNC/Computer Science
TOPICS
 Definition & Characteristics of IoT
 Physical Design IoT
 Logical Design of IoT
 IoT Enabling Technologies
 IoT Levels & Deployment Templates
3/15/2022 3
MTNC/Computer Science
INTRODUCTON
 Internet of Things(IoT) comprises things that have
unique identities and are connected to the Internet.
 These include devices or “things” that are traditionally
not associated with the Internet .
 The scope of IoT not limited to just connecting
things(devices,appliances,machines) to the Internet.
3/15/2022 4
MTNC/Computer Science
DEFINITION &CHARACTERISTICS IF IoT
 Definition: A dynamic global network infrastructure
with self-configuring capabilities based on standard
and interoperable communication protocols where
physical and virtual “things” have identities, physical
attributes ,and virtual personalities and use intelligent
interfaces, and are seamlessly integrated into the
information network , often communicate data
associated with users and their environments.
3/15/2022 5
MTNC/Computer Science
 Dynamic & Self-Adapting: IoT devices and systems may have the
capability to dynamically adapt with the changing context an
take actions based on their operating conditions , user’s context ,
or sensed environment .Ex: A surveillance system comprising of
a number of surveillance cameras.
 Self-Configuring: IoT devices may have self-configuring
capability, allowing a large number of devices to work together to
provide certain functionality (such as weather monitoring).
 Interoperable communication protocols :IoT devices may
support a number of interoperable communication protocols
and can communicate with other devices and also with he
infrastructure. We describe some of the commonly used
communication protocols and moels in later sections.
3/15/2022 6
MTNC/Computer Science

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Introduction to IoT - Unit I

  • 1. Hands on Approach 3/15/2022 1 MTNC/Computer Science
  • 2. INTRODUCTION TO INTERNET OF THINGS 3/15/2022 2 MTNC/Computer Science
  • 3. TOPICS  Definition & Characteristics of IoT  Physical Design IoT  Logical Design of IoT  IoT Enabling Technologies  IoT Levels & Deployment Templates 3/15/2022 3 MTNC/Computer Science
  • 4. INTRODUCTON  Internet of Things(IoT) comprises things that have unique identities and are connected to the Internet.  These include devices or “things” that are traditionally not associated with the Internet .  The scope of IoT not limited to just connecting things(devices,appliances,machines) to the Internet. 3/15/2022 4 MTNC/Computer Science
  • 5. DEFINITION &CHARACTERISTICS IF IoT  Definition: A dynamic global network infrastructure with self-configuring capabilities based on standard and interoperable communication protocols where physical and virtual “things” have identities, physical attributes ,and virtual personalities and use intelligent interfaces, and are seamlessly integrated into the information network , often communicate data associated with users and their environments. 3/15/2022 5 MTNC/Computer Science
  • 6.  Dynamic & Self-Adapting: IoT devices and systems may have the capability to dynamically adapt with the changing context an take actions based on their operating conditions , user’s context , or sensed environment .Ex: A surveillance system comprising of a number of surveillance cameras.  Self-Configuring: IoT devices may have self-configuring capability, allowing a large number of devices to work together to provide certain functionality (such as weather monitoring).  Interoperable communication protocols :IoT devices may support a number of interoperable communication protocols and can communicate with other devices and also with he infrastructure. We describe some of the commonly used communication protocols and moels in later sections. 3/15/2022 6 MTNC/Computer Science
  • 7.  Unique Identity: Each IoT device has a unique identity and a unique identifier(such as an IP address or a URI).IoT system may have intelligent interface which adapt based on the context , allow communicating with users an the environmental contexts.  Integrated into Information Network: IoT devices are usually integrated into the information network that allows them to communicate and exchange data with other devices and systems. 3/15/2022 7 MTNC/Computer Science
  • 8. Physical Design of IoT  Things in IoT: The “Things” in IoT usually refers to IoT devices which have unique identities and can perform remote sensing, Actuating and monitoring capabilities. IoT devices can exchange data with other connected devices and applications (directly or indirectly), or collect data from other devices and process the data locally or send the data to Centralized servers or cloud based applications back ends for processing the data or from some task locally and other task within the IoT infrastructure, based on temporal and space constraints (ie : Memory, processing calibrators, communication latencies and speed and deadlines). 3/15/2022 8 MTNC/Computer Science
  • 10. IoT PROTOCOLS  Link Layer: Link layer determines how the packets are coded and signaled by the hardware device over the medium to which the host is attached.  802.3 Ethernet  802.1- WI-FI  802.16 –WiMAX  802.15.4 -LR-WPAN  2G / 3G / 4G -Mobile Communications 3/15/2022 10 MTNC/Computer Science
  • 11.  802.3-Ethernet: 802.3 is a collections of wired Ethernet standards for the link layer.  Ex: 802.3 10BASE5 Ethernet that uses coaxial cable as a shared medium, 802.3.i is standard for 10 BASET Ethernet over copper twisted pair connection, Standards provide data rates from 10 Mb/s to 40 gigabits per second and the higher.  802.1- WI-FI: IEEE 802.3 is a collections of wireless Local area network.(WLAN) communication standards, including extensive descriptions of the link layer. For example 802.11a operate in the 5 GHz band, 802.11b and 802.11g operate in the 2.4 GHz band. 802.11ac operates in the 5G hertz band.  802.16 wiMAX: IEEE 802.16 is a collection of wirless broadband and Standards, including extensive descriptions for the link layer also called WiMAX wimax standard provides a data rates from from 1.5 Mb/s to 1Gb/s the recent update provides data rates of hundred megabits per second for mobile station.  802.15.4 LR-WPAN: IEEE 802.1 5.4 is a collections of standard for low rate wireless personal area network(LRWPAN).These standard form the basis of specifications for high level communication Zigbee. LR-WPAN standards provide data rates from 40 k b/ s. These standards provide low cost and low speed Communications for power constrained devices.  2G / 3G / 4G mobile communications: These are the different generations of mobile communication standards including second generation (2G including GSM and CDMA). 3rd Generation (3G including UMTS and CDMA2000) and 4th generation 4G including LTE 3/15/2022 11 MTNC/Computer Science
  • 13. Network/Internet Layer  The network layer are responsible for sending of IP datagrams from the source network to the destination network. This layer Performs the host addressing and packet routing.  Host Identification is done using the hierarchy IP addressing schemes such as ipv4 or IPv6. IPv4 IPv6 6LoWPAN 3/15/2022 13 MTNC/Computer Science
  • 14. cont……..  IPV4: Internet protocol versions for open parents close (IPV4) is there most deployed internet protocol that is used to identify the device is on a network using a hierarchy latest schemes. It uses 32 bit addresses scheme that allows total of 2 32 address. As more and more devices got connected to the internet. The Ipv4 has succeeded by IPv6.  IPv6: It is the newest versions of internet protocol and successor to IPv4. IPv6 uses 128 bit address schemes that are lost total of 2 128 are 3.4* 10 38 address.  6LoWPAN: IPv6 over low power wireless personal area networks brings IP protocol to the low power device which have limited processing capability it operate in the 2.4 GHz frequency range and provide the data transfer rate off to 50 kb/s. 3/15/2022 14 MTNC/Computer Science
  • 15. Transport Layer  Provides end-to-end message transfer capability independent of the underlying n/w. Set up on connection with ACK as in TCP and without ACK as in UDP. Provides functions such as error control, segmentation, flow control and congestion control. Protocols:  ∙TCP: Transmission Control Protocol used by web browsers(along with HTTP and HTTPS), email(along with SMTP, FTP). Connection oriented and stateless protocol. IP Protocol deals with sending packets, TCP ensures reliable transmission of protocols in order. Avoids n/w congestion and congestion collapse.  ∙UDP: User Datagram Protocol is connectionless protocol. Useful in time sensitive applications, very small data units to exchange. Transaction oriented and stateless protocol. Does not provide guaranteed delivery. 3/15/2022 15 MTNC/Computer Science
  • 16. Application Layer  The applications interface with lower layer protocols to send data over the n/w. Enables process-to-process communication using ports.  ∙HTTP: Hyper Text Transfer Protocol that forms foundation of WWW. Follow request response model Stateless protocol.  ∙CoAP: Constrained Application Protocol for machine-to-machine(M2M) applications with constrained devices, constrained environment and constrained n/w. Uses client server architecture.  ∙WebSocket: allows full duplex communication over a single socket connection. ∙MQTT: Message Queue Telemetry Transport is light weight messaging protocol based on publish-subscribe model. Uses client server architecture. Well suited for constrained environment.  ∙XMPP: Extensible Message and Presence Protocol for real time communication and streaming XML data between network entities. Support client-server and server- server communication.  ∙DDS: Data Distribution Service is data centric middleware standards for device-to- device or machine-to-machine communication. Uses publish-subscribe model.  ∙AMQP: Advanced Message Queuing Protocol is open application layer protocol for business messaging. Supports both point-to-point and publish-subscribe model 1.3Logical 3/15/2022 16 MTNC/Computer Science
  • 17. Logical designof IoT  The logical design of IoT refers to an abstract represent of entities and processes without going into the low level specifies of implementation. i) IoT Functional Blocks ii) IoT Communication Models iii) IoT Communication APIs 3/15/2022 17 MTNC/Computer Science
  • 18. IoT Functional Blocks Provide the system the capabilities for identification,sensing,actuation,communication and management. 3/15/2022 18 MTNC/Computer Science
  • 19. IoT FUNCTIONAL BLOCKS  Device: An IoT system comprises of devices that provide sensing, actuation, monitoring and control functions.  Communication: handles the communication for IoT system.  Services: for device monitoring, device control services, data publishing services and services for device discovery. 3/15/2022 19 MTNC/Computer Science
  • 20. IoT COMMUNICATION MODELS  i) Request-Response Model: 3/15/2022 20 MTNC/Computer Science
  • 22. Cont….. iii) Push-Pull Model: 3/15/2022 22 MTNC/Computer Science
  • 24. Logical Design Of IoT  The logical design of IoT refers to an abstract represent of entities and processes without going into the low level specifies of implementation. i) IoT Functional Blocks ii) IoT Communication Models iii) IoT Communication APIs 3/15/2022 24 MTNC/Computer Science
  • 25. IoT communication of APIs i) REST based communication APIs (Request-Response Based Model) Representational State Transfer(REST) is a set of architectural principles by which we can design web services and web APIs that focus on a system‘s resources and have resource states are addressed and transferred. 3/15/2022 25 MTNC/Computer Science
  • 27. ii) WebSocket based Communication APIs (Exclusive Pair Based Model) WebSocket APIs allow bi-directional, full duplex communication between clients and servers. 3/15/2022 27 MTNC/Computer Science
  • 28. i) Wireless Sensor Networks A wireless sensor network comprises of distributed devices with sensors which are used to monitor the environmental and physical conditions. A WSN consist of a number of end nodes and routers and a co-ordinator. The coordinator collects the data from all the nodes. Coordinator also acts as a gateway that connects the WSN to the internet IoT EnablingTechnologies 3/15/2022 28 MTNC/Computer Science
  • 29. ii) Cloud Computing Cloud computing is a transformative computing paradigm that involves delivering applications and services over the internet. Cloud computing involves provisioning of computing, networking and storage resources on demand and providing these resources as metered services to the users, in a “pay as you go”. 3/15/2022 29 MTNC/Computer Science
  • 31. iii) Big data Analysis Big data is defined as collections of data sets whose volume , velocity or variety is so large that it is difficult to store, manage, process and analyze the data using traditional databases and data processing tools. 3/15/2022 31 MTNC/Computer Science
  • 32. Example: Some examples of big data generated by IoT are  Sensor data generated by IoT systems.  Machine sensor data collected from sensors established in industrial and energy systems.  Health and fitness data generated IoT devices.  Data generated by IoT systems for location and tracking vehicles.  Data generated by retail inventory monitoring systems. 3/15/2022 32 MTNC/Computer Science
  • 33. iv) Communication Protocols: Communication Protocols form the back-bone of IoT systems and enable network connectivity and coupling to applications.  Allow devices to exchange data over network.  Define the exchange formats, data encoding addressing schemes for device and routing of packets from source to destination.  It includes sequence control, flow control and retransmission of lost packets. 3/15/2022 33 MTNC/Computer Science
  • 34. v) Embedded Systems: Embedded Systems is a computer system that has computer hardware and software embedded to perform specific tasks. Embedded System range from low cost miniaturized devices such as digital watches to devices such as digital cameras, POS terminals, vending machines, appliances etc., 3/15/2022 34 MTNC/Computer Science
  • 35. IoT Levels& Deployment Templates  Device  Resource  Controller Service  Database  Web Service  Stateless/ Stateful  Uni-Directional/Bi-Directional  Request- Response/ Full Duplex  TCP Connection  Header Overhead  Scalability 3/15/2022 35 MTNC/Computer Science
  • 36. IoT Levels& Deployment Templates  Analysis Component: The Analysis Component is responsible for analyzing the IoT data and generate results in a form which are easy for the user to understand.  Application: IoT applications provide an interface that the users can use to control and monitor various aspects of the IoT System. 3/15/2022 36 MTNC/Computer Science
  • 37. IoT Level-1  IoT Level-1: System has a single node that performs sensing and/or actuation, stores data, performs analysis and host the application as shown in fig. Suitable for modeling low cost and low complexity solutions where the data involved is not big and analysis requirement are not computationally intensive. An e.g., of IoT Level1 is Home automation. 3/15/2022 37 MTNC/Computer Science
  • 39. IoT Level-2  IoT Level2: has a single node that performs sensing and/or actuating and local analysis as shown in fig. Data is stored in cloud and application is usually cloud based. Level2 IoT systems are suitable for solutions where data are involved is big, however, the primary analysis requirement is not computationally intensive and can be done locally itself. An e,g., of Level2 IoT system for SmartIrrigation. 3/15/2022 39 MTNC/Computer Science
  • 41. IoT Level-3  This System has a single node.  Data is stored and analyzed in the cloud application is cloud based as shown in fig.  Level3 IoT systems are suitable for solutions where the data involved is big and analysis requirements are computationally intensive.  Example : IoTSystem for tracking package handling. 3/15/2022 41 MTNC/Computer Science
  • 43. IoT Level-4  This System has multiple nodes that perform local analysis.  Data is stored in the cloud and application is cloud based as shown in fig.  Level4 contains local and cloud based observer nodes which can subscribe to and receive information collected in the cloud from IoT devices.  E xample : IoT System for Noise Monitoring. 3/15/2022 43 MTNC/Computer Science
  • 45. IoT Level-5  System has multiple end nodes and one coordinator node as shown in fig.  The end nodes that perform sensing and/or actuation. Coordinator node collects data from the end nodes and sends to the cloud.  Data is stored and analyzed in the cloud and application is cloud based.  Level5 IoT systems are suitable for solution based on wireless sensor network, in which data are high intensive.  Example :IoT system for Forest Fire Detection. 3/15/2022 45 MTNC/Computer Science
  • 47. IoT Level-6  System has multiple independent end nodes that perform sensing and/or actuation and sensed data to the cloud.  Data is stored in the cloud and application is cloud based as shown in fig.  The analytics component analyses the data and stores the result in the cloud data base. . 3/15/2022 47 MTNC/Computer Science
  • 48. Cont……….  The results are visualized with cloud based application. The centralized controller is aware of the status of all the end nodes and sends control commands to nodes.  Example of a Level6 IoT system for Weather Monitoring System. 3/15/2022 48 MTNC/Computer Science
  • 50. Book : Internet of Things A Hands on Approach Arshdeep Bahga, Vijay Madisetti University Press. Thanks to : Mr.K.Selvam , 20SPCS014 /II M.Sc(CS) /MTNC 3/15/2022 50 MTNC/Computer Science