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University of Kalamoon Nutrition Department  Dr. Louay Labban
Puberty        Early         Middle        Late                        adolescence   adolescence   adolescenceFemale   8-1...
 Nutrition needs should be determined by the  degree of sexual maturation and biological  maturity instead of chronologic...
 Concrete thinking and abstract reasoning abilities do not develop fully until late adolescence or early adulthood
 Adjustment to a new body image, adaptation  to emerging sexuality Concrete thinking, early moral concepts Strong peer ...
 Establishment of emotional separation from  parents Expansion of verbal abilities, adjustment to  increased school dema...
 Personal identity, further separation from  parents Complex thinking Increased impulse control, emerging social  auton...
 50% of ideal body weight is gained during  adolescence Growth spurt in 3-6 months Girls will gain approximately 18 lbs...
 Lean body mass falls from 80% to 74% Body fat increases form 16% to 27% During puberty, females experience 44% increas...
 Males gain 20 lbs ( 9 kg ) per year during  puberty Fat decreases in males during adolescence to  reach 12% By age 18,...
 Eating patterns and behaviors of adolescents  are affected by many factors: Peer influence Parental modeling Food ava...
 Cost Convenience Personal and cultural beliefs Mass media Body image
 Eating habits of adolescents are not static They fluctuate throughout adolescence in  relation to psychological and cog...
 Almost all adolescents consume one snack  per day ( range 1- 7 ) One study showed that adolescents ate 18.2  meals and ...
 The occurrence of meal skipping increases as  adolescents mature Breakfast is the most commonly skipped  meal 29% of f...
 As adolescents mature, they spend less time  with the family and more time with peer Eating away from home Females eat...
 Eating at fast food restaurant has a direct  bearing on the nutritional status of the  adolescents Fast foods are high ...
 Vegetarian diets   are consumed in 1% of  adolescents Vegetarian diets are consumed for many  reasons Vegetarian adole...
 Vegetarian adolescents are taller or as tall as  the omnivores but generally leaner When well-planned, vegetarian diets...
 Vegetarian diets should include adequate fats and essential fatty acids ( DHA, EPA )
Type of vegetarian diet       Food excludedSemi- or partial vegetarian   Red meatLacto-ovo-vegetarian          Meat, poult...
Food groups                 Lcato-ovo-vegetarians   Vegans                            11 years               11 years   ...
Food source             Alph-lenolenic acid, gFlaxseed, 2 tb                   4.3Walnuts, 1 oz``                  1.9Waln...
 Most diets do not match the dietary  guidelines 1% of teens consume diets that meet the  recommendations for all food g...
Male %   Female %Dairy products     49        22Fruits             17        19Vegetables         50        46Grains      ...
 Increases in lean body mass, skeletal mass  and body fat during puberty result in energy  and nutrient needs that exceed...
 Influenced by: Activity level BMR Increased requirements to support pubertal  growth
 Influenced by many factors RDA for protein intake is: 9-13 years old 0.95/g/kg/day 14-18 years old 0.85/g/kg/day Whe...
 Primary source of energy From fruits, vegetables, whole grains and  legumes 55-60% of total energy < 10% form sweeten...
Ounces per day      Adolescents %> 26 oz per day          2213-25 oz per day         280.1 12 oz per day        320 oz per...
Life-stage                Calorie kcal                Proteingroup                                                 grams A...
 AAP Recommends 0.5 g/kg/day of fiber Or 15.5-34.5 g/ day for 10-18 years old males    16-28.5 g/day for 10-18 years ol...
 Essential for growth and development National cholesterol education program  NCEP recommends no more than 30% of  total...
 Teens consume around 33% of total energy  from fats Over 12% from saturated fats
 adequate intake is important for growth and  development Important for bone mass Females have the greatest capability ...
 DRIs for 9-18 years is 1300 mg/day Adolescents females consume 536-815  mg/day Adolescents males consume 681-1146  mg/...
 Growth at this stage increases blood volume Menarche increases the need for iron
Group     Ca     P      Mg     Vit D   Iron   B1     B2     B3          mg/d   mg/d   mg/d   mcg/d   mg/d   mg/d   mg/d   ...
Group     B6     B9     B12    B5     B7      Vit A   Vit C   Vit E   Se          mg/d   mg/d   mg/d   mg/d   mcg/d   mcg/...
Nutrition in adolescence
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Nutrition in adolescence

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Nutrition in adolescence is very important since this period of human's life

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Nutrition in adolescence

  1. 1. University of Kalamoon Nutrition Department Dr. Louay Labban
  2. 2. Puberty Early Middle Late adolescence adolescence adolescenceFemale 8-11 years 12-14 14-17 18-21Male 9-11.5 years 12-14 14-17 18-21
  3. 3.  Nutrition needs should be determined by the degree of sexual maturation and biological maturity instead of chronological age . Unhealthy eating behaviors common among adolescence including frequent dieting, meal skipping, high consumption of foods high in fats
  4. 4.  Concrete thinking and abstract reasoning abilities do not develop fully until late adolescence or early adulthood
  5. 5.  Adjustment to a new body image, adaptation to emerging sexuality Concrete thinking, early moral concepts Strong peer effect
  6. 6.  Establishment of emotional separation from parents Expansion of verbal abilities, adjustment to increased school demands Increased health risk behavior, sexual interests, early vocational plans
  7. 7.  Personal identity, further separation from parents Complex thinking Increased impulse control, emerging social autonomy, vocational capability
  8. 8.  50% of ideal body weight is gained during adolescence Growth spurt in 3-6 months Girls will gain approximately 18 lbs ( 8.3 kg ) year Weight gain slows during late adolescence, will gain around 14 lbs ( 6.3 kg )
  9. 9.  Lean body mass falls from 80% to 74% Body fat increases form 16% to 27% During puberty, females experience 44% increase in lean body mass and 120% of body fat mass each year.
  10. 10.  Males gain 20 lbs ( 9 kg ) per year during puberty Fat decreases in males during adolescence to reach 12% By age 18, more than 90% of skeletal mass has been formed A variety of factors contribute to the accretion of bone mass including genetics, hormonal changes, smoking and nutrition
  11. 11.  Eating patterns and behaviors of adolescents are affected by many factors: Peer influence Parental modeling Food availability Food preference
  12. 12.  Cost Convenience Personal and cultural beliefs Mass media Body image
  13. 13.  Eating habits of adolescents are not static They fluctuate throughout adolescence in relation to psychological and cognitive development Adolescents lead busy lives Many involved in extracurricular sport or academic activities This leave little time to sit and eat meal Snacking or meal skipping are common
  14. 14.  Almost all adolescents consume one snack per day ( range 1- 7 ) One study showed that adolescents ate 18.2 meals and 10.9 snacks in a week Snacks account foe 25% to 33% of daily energy intake Snacks consumption has risen during the past decade
  15. 15.  The occurrence of meal skipping increases as adolescents mature Breakfast is the most commonly skipped meal 29% of female adolescents tend to eat breakfast Skipping breakfast can dramatically decreases intakes of energy, protein, fiber, Ca, and folate 25% of adolescents skip lunch
  16. 16.  As adolescents mature, they spend less time with the family and more time with peer Eating away from home Females eat 1/3 of meals away from home Fast food accounts for 33% of food eaten
  17. 17.  Eating at fast food restaurant has a direct bearing on the nutritional status of the adolescents Fast foods are high in fats Low in fiber and nutrients
  18. 18.  Vegetarian diets are consumed in 1% of adolescents Vegetarian diets are consumed for many reasons Vegetarian adolescents found to be shorter and leaner than omnivores during childhood and early puberty age Menarche occurs 6 months later in vegetarian females
  19. 19.  Vegetarian adolescents are taller or as tall as the omnivores but generally leaner When well-planned, vegetarian diets provide health benefit to adolescents such as complex CHO intake , high vitamin intake and protein With supplements from small amounts of animal foods such as milk and its products,
  20. 20.  Vegetarian diets should include adequate fats and essential fatty acids ( DHA, EPA )
  21. 21. Type of vegetarian diet Food excludedSemi- or partial vegetarian Red meatLacto-ovo-vegetarian Meat, poultry, fish, seafoodLaxctovegetarian Meat, poultry, fish, seafood and eggsVegan ( total vegetarian ) Meat, poultry, fish, seafood, eggs, dairy products ( may exclude honey )Macrobiotic Meat, poultry, eggs, dairy, seafood, fish ( fish may be included in some macrobiotic vegetarians)
  22. 22. Food groups Lcato-ovo-vegetarians Vegans 11 years 11 years 2200-2800 kcal 2200-2800Breads, grain, cereal 9-11 10-12Legumes 2-3 2-5Vegetables 4-5 3-5Fruits 4 4-5Nuts, seed 1 4-6Milk, yogurt, cheese 3 0Eggs ( limit 3/week ) ½ 0`Fats , oils ( added ) 4-6 4-6Sugar ( added teaspoons ) 6-9 6-9
  23. 23. Food source Alph-lenolenic acid, gFlaxseed, 2 tb 4.3Walnuts, 1 oz`` 1.9Walnut oil, 1 tb 1.5Canola oil, 1 tb 1.6Soybean oil, 1 tb 0.9Soybean, ½ cup cooked 0.5Tofu, ½ cup 0.4
  24. 24.  Most diets do not match the dietary guidelines 1% of teens consume diets that meet the recommendations for all food groups 45% of teens meet recommendations for one group or more 7% of males and 18% of females adolescents do not meet any of the recommendations
  25. 25. Male % Female %Dairy products 49 22Fruits 17 19Vegetables 50 46Grains 43 21
  26. 26.  Increases in lean body mass, skeletal mass and body fat during puberty result in energy and nutrient needs that exceed those of any other point of life Energy and nutrient requirements correspond with the degree of physical maturation
  27. 27.  Influenced by: Activity level BMR Increased requirements to support pubertal growth
  28. 28.  Influenced by many factors RDA for protein intake is: 9-13 years old 0.95/g/kg/day 14-18 years old 0.85/g/kg/day When protein is inadequate, growth, sexual maturity delay and reduced accumulation of lean body mass
  29. 29.  Primary source of energy From fruits, vegetables, whole grains and legumes 55-60% of total energy < 10% form sweeteners but adolescents consume about 16% of total energy for soft drinks
  30. 30. Ounces per day Adolescents %> 26 oz per day 2213-25 oz per day 280.1 12 oz per day 320 oz per day 18
  31. 31. Life-stage Calorie kcal Proteingroup grams Age, years Kcal/day Kcal/ cm Grams/day Grams/cmFemales 11-14 2200 14.0 46 0.29 15-18 2200 13.5 44 0.27 19-24 2200 13.4 46 0.28Males 11-14 2500 15.9 45 0.29 15-18 3000 17.0 59 0.34 19-24 2900 16.4 58 0.33
  32. 32.  AAP Recommends 0.5 g/kg/day of fiber Or 15.5-34.5 g/ day for 10-18 years old males 16-28.5 g/day for 10-18 years old females National data shows consumption is: 11.5-15.4 g/day for males 10-14 g/day for females Because low intake of fruits and vegetables
  33. 33.  Essential for growth and development National cholesterol education program NCEP recommends no more than 30% of total energy should come from fat < 10% from saturated fat DRI recommendations: 4-18 years old should consume 25-35% of total fats
  34. 34.  Teens consume around 33% of total energy from fats Over 12% from saturated fats
  35. 35.  adequate intake is important for growth and development Important for bone mass Females have the greatest capability of absorbing calcium at time of menarche then decreasing after By age 24 for females and 26 for males calcium accretion is almost nonexistent
  36. 36.  DRIs for 9-18 years is 1300 mg/day Adolescents females consume 536-815 mg/day Adolescents males consume 681-1146 mg/day Milk is the best source followed by cheese, ice cream and frozen yogurt Consumption of soft drinks may displace the consumption of more nutrient dense beverages such as milk and fortified juices
  37. 37.  Growth at this stage increases blood volume Menarche increases the need for iron
  38. 38. Group Ca P Mg Vit D Iron B1 B2 B3 mg/d mg/d mg/d mcg/d mg/d mg/d mg/d mg/dMales 9-13 1300 1250 240 5 8 0.9 0.9 12 14-18 1300 1250 410 5 11 1.2 1.3 16Females 9-13 1300 1250 240 5 8 0.9 0.9 12 14-18 1300 1250 360 5 15 1.0 1.0 14
  39. 39. Group B6 B9 B12 B5 B7 Vit A Vit C Vit E Se mg/d mg/d mg/d mg/d mcg/d mcg/d mg/d mg/d mcg/dMales9-13 1.0 300 1.8 4 20 600 45 11 4014-18 1.3 400 2.4 5 25 900 75 15 45Females9-13 1.0 300 1.8 4 20 600 45 11 4014-18 1.2 400 2.4 5 25 700 65 15 55

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