Body size and composition1

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Body size and composition1

  1. 1. BODY SIZE AND COMPOSITION AL-KALAMOON UNIVERSITY NUTRITION DEPARTMENT DR.LOUAY LABBAN
  2. 2. Body size <ul><li>Weight </li></ul><ul><li>Height </li></ul><ul><li>BMI </li></ul><ul><li>Waist circumference </li></ul><ul><li>35 inches ( 88 cm for females) </li></ul><ul><li>41 inches ( 102 cm for males) </li></ul><ul><li>Waist /hip ratio </li></ul><ul><li>Frame size </li></ul>
  3. 4. Tools to measure body size <ul><li>Standard scale </li></ul>
  4. 5. Regular measuring tape
  5. 6. Body Mass Index <ul><li>Weight (kg)/ Height ² (m) </li></ul><ul><li>Weight(lbs) x 703 / height ² (inches) </li></ul>
  6. 7. Body Mass Index ( BMI ) Kg/m ² Health Risk BMI Asian BMI Caucasian Classification Low < 18.5 < 18.5 Underweight Average 18.5-22.9 18.5-24.9 Normal Weight > 23.0 > 25.0 Overweight Mildly increased 23.0-24.9 25.0-29.9 Pre-Obese Moderate High Very High > 25.0 25.0-29.9 > 30.0 > 30.0 30.0-34.9 35.0-39.0 > 40.0 Obese Class I Class II Class III
  7. 8. BODY FRAME SIZE <ul><li>Body frame size is determined by a person's wrist circumference in relation to his height. For example, a man whose height is over 5' 5&quot; and wrist is 6&quot; would fall into the small-boned category. </li></ul>
  8. 9. BODY FRAME SIZE <ul><li>Determining frame size: To determine the body frame size, measure the wrist with a tape measure and use the following chart to determine whether the person is small, medium, or large boned. </li></ul>
  9. 10. MEASURING THE FRAME SIZE
  10. 11. Men <ul><li>Height over 5' 5&quot; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Small = wrist size 5.5&quot; to 6.5&quot; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Medium = wrist size 6.5&quot; to 7.5&quot; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large = wrist size over 7.5 </li></ul></ul>
  11. 12. <ul><li>Height 5'2&quot; to 5' 5&quot; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Small = wrist size less than 6&quot; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Medium = wrist size 6&quot; to 6.25&quot; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large = wrist size over 6.25&quot; </li></ul></ul>
  12. 13. <ul><li>Height over 5' 5&quot; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Small = wrist size less than 6.25&quot; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Medium = wrist size 6.25&quot; to 6.5&quot; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large = wrist size over 6.5“ </li></ul></ul>
  13. 14. Women <ul><li>Height under 5'2&quot; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Small = wrist size less than 5.5&quot; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Medium = wrist size 5.5&quot; to 5.75&quot; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large = wrist size over 5.75&quot; </li></ul></ul>
  14. 15. Frame size
  15. 16. Waist/hip ratio <ul><li>معدل الخصر الى الورك </li></ul><ul><li>> 0.9 in men </li></ul><ul><li>> 0.8 in women </li></ul>
  16. 17. Waist/hip ratio
  17. 18. Risk & BMI and waist/hip ratio
  18. 21. <ul><li>Standard scales can tell you a total weight, but can't determine the lean-to-fat ratio of that weight. By the old height-weight charts, an athlete can be &quot;over-weight&quot; and not &quot;over-fat. </li></ul>
  19. 22. <ul><li>A bodybuilder, for example, may be 8% body fat, yet at 250 pounds may be considered &quot;over-weight&quot; by a typical weight chart. </li></ul>
  20. 23. <ul><li>In general, charts are not a good indication of a athlete's ideal body weight for general health or for athletic performance </li></ul>
  21. 24. <ul><li>Body Composition is the technical term used to describe the different components that, when taken together, make up a person's body weight. </li></ul>
  22. 25. <ul><li>The human body is composed of a variety of different tissue types. The so-called 'lean' tissues, such as muscle, bone, and organs are metabolically active, while adipose (fat) tissue is not. </li></ul>
  23. 26. Body composition
  24. 27. Anthropometric measurements <ul><li>Regular scale </li></ul><ul><li>Regular measuring tape </li></ul><ul><li>Impedance </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrodesitometery </li></ul><ul><li>X- Ray </li></ul><ul><li>BMI </li></ul>
  25. 28. <ul><li>There are several different methods of assessing the percent of fat and lean mass of an individual. These methods are referred to as Body Composition Analysis. </li></ul>
  26. 29. <ul><li>The gold standard of body composition analysis is hydrostatic weighing or hydrodensitometry. </li></ul><ul><li>Although, because it is complex and complicated most physiologists use simple skinfold measurements to determine body fat percent. </li></ul>
  27. 30. Weighing under water or hydrodensitometery
  28. 31. <ul><li>The American College of Sports Medicine says that when performed by a trained, skilled, tester, they are up to 98 percent accurate. </li></ul>
  29. 32. SKINFOLD CALIPER
  30. 33. TALKING MEASURMENTS ABDOMINAL SKINFOLD
  31. 34. TAKING MEASURMENTS SHOULDER SKINFOLD
  32. 35. <ul><li>Bioelectrical Impedance is another method of assessing body fat percentage. There are a variety of Body Composition and Body Fat Analyzers and Scales available for home use that provide more than just total weight measurements. </li></ul>
  33. 36. Impedance machine
  34. 37. Impedance machine
  35. 38. <ul><li>These devices determine : </li></ul><ul><li>total weight </li></ul><ul><li>the percent and amount of body fat </li></ul><ul><li>muscle mass </li></ul><ul><li>water, and even bone mass. </li></ul>
  36. 39. <ul><li>While the readings can be affected by </li></ul><ul><li>hydration levels </li></ul><ul><li>food intake </li></ul><ul><li>skin temperature </li></ul><ul><li>other factors </li></ul>
  37. 40. <ul><li>Ideal Body Weight and Body Fat Percent </li></ul><ul><li>Your ideal weight and fat-lean ratio varies considerably for men and women and by age, but the minimum percent of body fat considered safe for good health is 5 percent for males and 12 percent for females. </li></ul>
  38. 41. <ul><li>The average adult body fat is closer to 15-18% for men and 22-25 % for women. </li></ul>
  39. 42. <ul><li>Athletes tend to be at low end of this scale due to their increased lean weight (muscle mass). While low levels of body fat seem to be related to improved performance </li></ul><ul><li>body composition alone is not a great predictor of sports success. </li></ul>
  40. 44. <ul><li>A football player needs to have enough body mass (lean and fat weight) to generate high forces and avoid injury. Body fat among elite athletes vary largely by sport. </li></ul>
  41. 45. <ul><li>There is little evidence of any benefit when men drop under 8 percent and women drop under 14 percent body fat. </li></ul>
  42. 46. <ul><li>How Low Is Too Low? </li></ul><ul><li>While the average body fat percent in the United States and Europe is increasing, extremely low body fat percent is also a health problem. </li></ul>
  43. 47. <ul><li>The female athlete triad highlights the problem. Women athletes who lose too much fat risk injury, decreased performance and health issues </li></ul>
  44. 48. Athlete triad
  45. 49. <ul><li>The female athlete triad refers specifically to three related health problems often found in women athletes: </li></ul><ul><li>Low energy availability ( eating disorders ) </li></ul><ul><li>Menstrual disorders ( amenorrhea ) </li></ul><ul><li>Weak bones (increased risk of stress fractures and osteoporosis ). </li></ul>
  46. 50. <ul><li>How Much Is Too Much? </li></ul><ul><li>Just as too little body fat can cause physiological complications, too much body fat is also harmful. For men over 25 percent and women over 32 percent fat there is a dramatic correlation with illness and disease. </li></ul>
  47. 51. Fat percentage
  48. 53. <ul><li>Isn't Body Composition Genetic? </li></ul><ul><li>Some aspects of your body composition are genetic (where you store fat), but most fat increase is related to lifestyle. </li></ul>
  49. 54. <ul><li>Can I Change My Body Composition? </li></ul><ul><li>Yes. To increase or decrease your percent of body fat you need to create the right balance between the calories in and calories out. </li></ul>
  50. 55. EXERCISE
  51. 56. <ul><li>The best way to do this is to decrease daily calories by about 500 and increase your exercise. Aerobic exercise along with strength training is ideal. </li></ul>
  52. 57. <ul><li>Weight increase </li></ul>Expenditure Energy intake
  53. 58. <ul><li>Weight loss </li></ul>Expenditure Energy Intake
  54. 59. <ul><li>Normal Weight </li></ul>Expenditure Energy intake

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