Guided by :-         Submitted By :-    Dr. Aulak sir   Dr.Laximan Sawant                     (L-2011-V-91-M)
 It is an acute to chronic disease characterized  by pustular skin lesions , multiple abscess  , necrosis in respiratory ...
• It is called “glanders” when the principal  lesions are seen in the nostrils, submaxillary  glands and lungs &• It is ca...
 Horse , donkey , mules are principle  animals affected by disease Sheep , goats , dogs and cats become  infected only i...
Etiology :-   Burkholderia mallei     Gram negative bacillus     Non motile     Non sporulating rod     Also known as...
 3rdCentury BC  › Described by Aristotle 1664: Contagious nature recognized 1830: Zoonotic nature suspected 1891: Mall...
History   World War I     Suspected use as biological      agent to infect Russian horses      & mules      ○ Affected t...
History   World War II     Japanese infected horses, civilians      and Prisoners of wars ’s     U.S. and Russia invest...
EPIDEMIOLOGY
Epidemiology Endemic    Parts of Africa, the Middle East, and Asia Sporadic cases    South and Central America Glande...
 Affects solipeds   Donkeys and mules        Acute form    Horses        Chronic form Carnivores,         humans and...
Transmission: Humans   Direct contact with infected animals       Abraded skin       Mucous membranes Inhalation Pers...
Transmission: Animals Ingestion: Major route Inhalation: Less likely Direct contact: Minor route       Enhanced by sha...
Who Is At Risk? Veterinarians Groomers Horsemen Butchers Lab workers
Clinical Signs :-  ▫ Chronic form in horses  ▫ Acute form in donkeys and mules  Classical descriptions of glanders is   di...
NASAL FORM OF GLANDERS:- Characterized   by unilateral or bilateral nasal  discharge. The yellowish-green exudate is hig...
CONT… Insome cases the septum may even be  perforated. Nasal lesions are accompanied by  enlargement or sometimes ruptur...
Purulent mucous nasaldischarge in donkey
CUTANEOUS FORM OF GLANDERS:- Multiplenodules may develop in the skin of the legs or other parts of the body . Thesenodul...
CONT… Cutaneous  lymphatic vessels in the region become involved. They become distended and firm by being filled with a t...
PULMONARY FORM OF GLANDERS:- lesions in the lungs develop along with nasal  and cutaneous lesions or there may be the sol...
CONT… The  nodules are gray or white and  firm, surrounded by a hemorrhagic  zone, and may become caseous or  calcified....
• Lesions may also occur in the liver or spleen  and,• In male animals , glanderous orchitis is a  common lesion
Gross Lesions-Necropsy Ulcers, nodules, stellate  scars in upper respiratory Pneumonia Firm rounded miliary nodules Sw...
Granulomatous lesion in   An extensivethe lip                   pyogenic granulomatous                          pneumonia ...
 Melioidosis Strangles Lymphangitis Other forms of pneumonia Gutter pouch empyema Dermatophilosis Dermatomycoses
Diagnosis: Humans Isolation of Burkholderia mallei   Blood, sputum , urine or skin lesions   Gram negative bacilli   S...
Diagnosis: HumansComplement fixation – More specific – Positive if titer is equal to or greater than   1:20   Chest radi...
Diagnosis: Animals o Isolation of Burkholderia mallei   – Blood, sputum , urine or skin lesions o Mallein test   Intra pal...
• Serological tests :-1. Indirect hemagglutination,2. Counter-immunoelectrophoresis3. Immunofluorescence4. Compliment fixa...
Prevention & Control1. No vaccine is available for animal use2. Identification and elimination of foci of   infection    i...
3. Public education – owners must be educated   about  1. contagious nature of disease ,  2. limitations of treatments  3....
Treatment :-• Antibiotics may be effective but  treatment is not generally  recommended, as infections can  be spread to h...
GLANDERS
GLANDERS
GLANDERS
GLANDERS
GLANDERS
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

GLANDERS

5,664 views

Published on

Published in: Health & Medicine, Lifestyle

GLANDERS

  1. 1. Guided by :- Submitted By :- Dr. Aulak sir Dr.Laximan Sawant (L-2011-V-91-M)
  2. 2.  It is an acute to chronic disease characterized by pustular skin lesions , multiple abscess , necrosis in respiratory tract , pneumonia and sepsis .
  3. 3. • It is called “glanders” when the principal lesions are seen in the nostrils, submaxillary glands and lungs &• It is called “farcy” when lesions are on the surface of limbs or body.
  4. 4.  Horse , donkey , mules are principle animals affected by disease Sheep , goats , dogs and cats become infected only if they come in contact with infected animals or if they eat their meat . Cattle and pigs are immune Man is also susceptible for glanders
  5. 5. Etiology :- Burkholderia mallei  Gram negative bacillus  Non motile  Non sporulating rod  Also known as Pseudomonas mallei, Malleomyces mallei and Actinomyces mallei.  predominatantly exists in infected hosts but may remain viable for several months in warm moist environments.
  6. 6.  3rdCentury BC › Described by Aristotle 1664: Contagious nature recognized 1830: Zoonotic nature suspected 1891: Mallein test developed 1900: Control programs implemented
  7. 7. History World War I  Suspected use as biological agent to infect Russian horses & mules ○ Affected troops and supply convoys  Large number of human cases Were repoted in Russia during and after WWI
  8. 8. History World War II  Japanese infected horses, civilians and Prisoners of wars ’s  U.S. and Russia investigated its use as biological weapon
  9. 9. EPIDEMIOLOGY
  10. 10. Epidemiology Endemic  Parts of Africa, the Middle East, and Asia Sporadic cases  South and Central America Glanders was once widespread throughout the world but it has been eradicated from many countries by test and slaughter programs.
  11. 11.  Affects solipeds  Donkeys and mules  Acute form  Horses  Chronic form Carnivores, humans and goats susceptible Swine and cattle resistant
  12. 12. Transmission: Humans Direct contact with infected animals  Abraded skin  Mucous membranes Inhalation Person-to-person (rare) Ingestion has never been recorded in humans
  13. 13. Transmission: Animals Ingestion: Major route Inhalation: Less likely Direct contact: Minor route  Enhanced by shared food and water facilities
  14. 14. Who Is At Risk? Veterinarians Groomers Horsemen Butchers Lab workers
  15. 15. Clinical Signs :- ▫ Chronic form in horses ▫ Acute form in donkeys and mules Classical descriptions of glanders is distinguish between1. Nasal2. Cutaneous and3. Pulmonary forms
  16. 16. NASAL FORM OF GLANDERS:- Characterized by unilateral or bilateral nasal discharge. The yellowish-green exudate is highly infectious. The nasal mucosa has nodules and ulcers. These ulcers may coalesce to form large ulcerated areas
  17. 17. CONT… Insome cases the septum may even be perforated. Nasal lesions are accompanied by enlargement or sometimes rupture and suppuration, of regional lymph nodes
  18. 18. Purulent mucous nasaldischarge in donkey
  19. 19. CUTANEOUS FORM OF GLANDERS:- Multiplenodules may develop in the skin of the legs or other parts of the body . Thesenodules may rupture, leaving ulcers that discharge a yellowish exudate to the skin surface and heal slowly.
  20. 20. CONT… Cutaneous lymphatic vessels in the region become involved. They become distended and firm by being filled with a tenacious, purulent exudate .(referred to as "Farcy pipes” )
  21. 21. PULMONARY FORM OF GLANDERS:- lesions in the lungs develop along with nasal and cutaneous lesions or there may be the sole manifestation of the disease (typical of latent cases). The lung lesions begin as firm nodules or as a diffuse pneumonic process.
  22. 22. CONT… The nodules are gray or white and firm, surrounded by a hemorrhagic zone, and may become caseous or calcified. Clinical signs in animals with lung lesions may range from inapparent infection to mild dyspnea, or severe coughing
  23. 23. • Lesions may also occur in the liver or spleen and,• In male animals , glanderous orchitis is a common lesion
  24. 24. Gross Lesions-Necropsy Ulcers, nodules, stellate scars in upper respiratory Pneumonia Firm rounded miliary nodules Swollen lymph nodes and vessels
  25. 25. Granulomatous lesion in An extensivethe lip pyogenic granulomatous pneumonia in a donkeyof a donkey.
  26. 26.  Melioidosis Strangles Lymphangitis Other forms of pneumonia Gutter pouch empyema Dermatophilosis Dermatomycoses
  27. 27. Diagnosis: Humans Isolation of Burkholderia mallei  Blood, sputum , urine or skin lesions  Gram negative bacilli  Safety pin appearance Agglutination tests  May be positive after 7-10 days  High background titer in normal sera makes interpretation difficult
  28. 28. Diagnosis: HumansComplement fixation – More specific – Positive if titer is equal to or greater than 1:20 Chest radiograph- demonstrateso bilateral bronchopneumonia,o miliary nodules oro cavitating lesions.
  29. 29. Diagnosis: Animals o Isolation of Burkholderia mallei – Blood, sputum , urine or skin lesions o Mallein test Intra palpebral or conjunctival injection Swelling 1-2 days later
  30. 30. • Serological tests :-1. Indirect hemagglutination,2. Counter-immunoelectrophoresis3. Immunofluorescence4. Compliment fixation and5. ELISACompliment fixation and ELISA – Most reliable in horses – Cannot be used in donkey or mule
  31. 31. Prevention & Control1. No vaccine is available for animal use2. Identification and elimination of foci of infection i. Surveillance and monitoring of equine herds especially in endemic areas ii. Positive animals should be slaughtered immediately & carcass should be disposed off by incineration or deep burial iii. In-contact & exposed animals should be segregated , Re- tested to detect and destroy the positives according to The Glander & Farcy Act XIII, 1899
  32. 32. 3. Public education – owners must be educated about 1. contagious nature of disease , 2. limitations of treatments 3. sanitary measures to be adopted4. Disease notification – cases of Glanders should be reported to monitoring agencies
  33. 33. Treatment :-• Antibiotics may be effective but treatment is not generally recommended, as infections can be spread to humans and other animals, and treated animals may become asymptomatic carriers

×