FULVALENE, ROTAXANE & CATENANE NANOCOMPOUNDS

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FULVALENE, ROTAXANE & CATENANE NANOCOMPOUNDS IN THE OPTIMIZATION OF PHOTOSYNTESIS

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FULVALENE, ROTAXANE & CATENANE NANOCOMPOUNDS

  1. 1. MeNMeNNN8Fulvalene, Rotaxane and Catenane Nanocompounds:Temperature and Ultraviolet Radiation Effects on Plants and itsBioremediationDr. Luis Alberto Lightbourn Rojas, PhD.Instituto de Investigación Lightbourn Research A. C., Chihuahua, MéxicoE-mail: drlightbourn@institutolightbourn.edu.mxPhone: +52 (629) 101 0028Effects of Climate Change On Plant GrowthDr. Luis Alberto Lightbourn Rojas, PhD.Instituto de Investigación Lightbourn Research A. C., Chihuahua, MéxicoInstitutodeInvestigaciónLightbournResearchA.C.The UV radiation can inhibit photosynthesis by altering gene expression and bydamaging the parts of the photosynthetic machinery (Smith et al., 2009). Sitesthat are affected by this type of light are the light collector complex II (LHCII),the PSII reaction center and PSI acceptor. However, most studies havedemonstrated that PSII is more sensitive to UV radiation as compared to PSI; thisis due to the chemical changes which produces the UV radiation on amino acidswith double bonds of the PSII proteinsSolar radiation (electromagnetic radiation) is oneof the most important factors in the growth anddevelopment of plants, and is involved in manyimportant processes such as photosynthesis,phototropism, photomorphogenesis, openingstomata, temperature of plant and soil, etc.Solar RadiationTemperatureThe increase in temperature causes a greaterfluidity in the membranes, causing problems incell functions, mainly in mitochondria andchloroplasts . Therefore, the deleterious effectsthat high temperatures cause on plants mainlyoccur in photosynthetic functions and thylakoidmembranes.UV RadiationThe plants exhibit different responses toenvironmental stresses like UV radiationexposure. The leaves commonly thatcontain anthocyanins absorb more light inthe visible green and yellow regionspectrum regarding those leaves which donot contain it; however, is unknown thisenergy function (Hatier and Gould, 2009).This energy could be used in repairmechanisms or photosynthesisoptimization, whereby the plant cancontinue to perform its metabolic activities with the least possible deficiency;nevertheless, this mechanism may occur deficient with nutritional techniques.Since the increase in certain nutrients appears not to be improved in plants thatare damaged by UV light, because it only considers some basic elements andexcluding that plants would use many more elements to carry out their functions(Lightbourn et al., 2011; Singh et al., 2012).On the other hand, there is an increase in the use of plastic greenhouses inorder to reduce the risk of pathogen attack, and also to reduce high UV radiationlevels, therefore preventing from reaching and damaging the plants. However,when the light passes from one medium to another, it suffers inverted cycloiddeviations namely tautocrony producing dicroism and birefringence that affectsthe polarity and intensity of the light beam incident and refracted whichconsequently alters the photosynthetic phenomenon. This can be quantified as afunction of light energy, starting from the basic conceptions and traditional untilthe logic formality given by the mathematical complex of variations calculationActually a new technology has developed in plant nutrition that consists onclusters of selenium, nickel, titanium and polioxomolibdate. This is in fulvalenicrotaxane-catenananic base, generating orthogonal sequence dendrimers thatare intra-tylacoidic nanosomes, which enables to optimize the photosyntheticefficiency by capturing, storing and maintaining more available power providedby the monochromatic beam of 563 nm. Therefore, induces the photosynthesisoptimization, serving as a light reserve at chloroplasts level. This helps tomaintain the plant metabolism, which results in phytotaxic stability, andtherefore, stability of production, irrespective of any adverse conditions such asUV radiation stress (Lightbourn 2011b).Lightbourn TechnologyFurthermore, this technology contains zincas the principal element, which is requiredfor growth hormones synthesis (cytokininsand auxins), besides participate inchlorophyll production and possiblyprevent its destruction (Salisbury and Ross,1994), thereby further reduce the damagecaused by high temperatures and UVradiation.The fulvalenic rotaxane-catenananic base aremolecules whose structure changes when exposed tosunlight, and can remain stable in that formindefinitely. Then, when a stimulus — a catalyst, asmall temperature change, a flash of light — it canquickly snap back to its other form, releasing itsstored energy in a burst of heat. The fulvalenicrotaxane-catenananic base are molecules whosestructure changes when exposed to sunlight, and canremain stable in that form indefinitely.Then, when a stimulus — a catalyst, a small temperature change, a flash of light— it can quickly snap back to its other form, releasing its stored energy in aburst of heat.This compound is applied by foliar absorption and involves an innovation insignaling and synchronization cell, because provide continuity in photosyntheticenergy uptake and transfer, due to that clusters absorb and store energy.Furthermore, owing of these clusters not interrupt the metabolism on accountof darkness, there are no delays in the formation and maintenance of planttissue which means the total dejection of metabolic delays and consequencestranslated into structural failures, metabolic, energetic and homeostatic thatdirectly affect the quantity and quality of biomass (Lightbourn, 2011b).Then, The (H+) controls the reversible interconversion between 8 and 9, inresponse to ultraviolet (I1) and visible (I2) stimulus. The intramolecular tripleswitch modulates the ratio between the two forms and the absorbance (O) of ⑨through of photoinduced protonic transfer, the truth table and the logicalsequence of the circuit show how is performed the intramolecularcommunication (Lightbourn, 2011b).HH+9MeNMeNNN+HThe three more sensitive photosynthetic sites to heat stress assimilationprocess, the ATP generation and the photosystems, mainly photosystem IIcomplexes (PSII), which are the most labile part of the photosynthetic system tothe heat effectsFulvalene, Rotaxane and Catenane Nanocompoundsin cycloid curves of mathematical analysis (Lightbourn, 2010).www. lightbournr.memx.linkedin.com/in/lightbourn/Monday, May 20, 13

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