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Organizational Behavior - Genel özet

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Organizational Behavior doktora yeterlilik sınavı için çıkardığım genel özet

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Organizational Behavior - Genel özet

  1. 1. Y e d i t e p e Ü n i v e r s i t e s i Kerem Koseoglu Bu dökümanda, OB yeterlilik sınavına yönelik çıkartılmış notlar bulunmaktadır. Fall 08 Organizational Behavior
  2. 2. 2 TABLE OF CONTENTS Science In General.....................................................................................................................................................................6 OB In General .............................................................................................................................................................................6 OB Basics.................................................................................................................................................................................6 Basic Business Functions and Principles............................................................................................................................6 Approaches of OB .................................................................................................................................................................6 Historical Development Of OB ............................................................................................................................................6 Classical Theories (traditional).......................................................................................................................................7 Neo Classical Theory ........................................................................................................................................................7 Modern Theories ..............................................................................................................................................................7 Values, Attitudes........................................................................................................................................................................8 Values......................................................................................................................................................................................8 Attitudes .................................................................................................................................................................................8 Job Satisfaction.................................................................................................................................................................9 Job Involvement................................................................................................................................................................9 Organizational Commitment..........................................................................................................................................9 Organizational Citizenship..............................................................................................................................................9 Personality & Emotions ............................................................................................................................................................9 Personality..............................................................................................................................................................................9 Personality Traits............................................................................................................................................................10 Self Esteem ......................................................................................................................................................................10 Person – Job Fit...............................................................................................................................................................11 Psychological Capital......................................................................................................................................................11 Emotions...............................................................................................................................................................................12 Perception & Decision Making..............................................................................................................................................12 Perception ............................................................................................................................................................................12 Decision Making..................................................................................................................................................................13 Motivation................................................................................................................................................................................14 Motivation Theories ...........................................................................................................................................................14
  3. 3. 3 Content Theories ............................................................................................................................................................14 Process Theories.............................................................................................................................................................15 Applications of motivation theories ................................................................................................................................15 Behavior Modification........................................................................................................................................................16 Groups .......................................................................................................................................................................................16 Roles ......................................................................................................................................................................................17 Group Dynamics ..................................................................................................................................................................18 Teams ....................................................................................................................................................................................18 Communication........................................................................................................................................................................19 The Process of Human Communication..........................................................................................................................19 The Message........................................................................................................................................................................20 Listening................................................................................................................................................................................21 Leadership.................................................................................................................................................................................21 Leadership Theories............................................................................................................................................................22 Trait vs Behavioral Theories .........................................................................................................................................22 Contingency Theories ....................................................................................................................................................22 Contemporary Theories.................................................................................................................................................24 LMX Theory......................................................................................................................................................................24 X – Y Theory .....................................................................................................................................................................25 Management Philosophy...................................................................................................................................................25 Ancient World.................................................................................................................................................................25 Calvinism, Protestant Ethic, Max Weber ....................................................................................................................25 Capitalism, Marxism.......................................................................................................................................................25 Christianity.......................................................................................................................................................................26 Culture..............................................................................................................................................................................26 Ethics.................................................................................................................................................................................26 Contemporary Issues of leadership.................................................................................................................................26 Trust..................................................................................................................................................................................27 Power & Politics.......................................................................................................................................................................27
  4. 4. 4 Power ....................................................................................................................................................................................27 Politics ...................................................................................................................................................................................28 Conflict & Negotiation............................................................................................................................................................28 Conflict..................................................................................................................................................................................28 Negotiation...........................................................................................................................................................................30 Organization Structure...........................................................................................................................................................30 Corporate Governance.......................................................................................................................................................30 Organizational Culture............................................................................................................................................................31 Culture in General...............................................................................................................................................................31 Culture vs Climate...............................................................................................................................................................31 Culture Theories ..................................................................................................................................................................31 Hofstede...........................................................................................................................................................................32 Schein................................................................................................................................................................................32 Denison.............................................................................................................................................................................32 Queen ...............................................................................................................................................................................33 GLOBE Project.................................................................................................................................................................33 HR Policies and Practices........................................................................................................................................................34 Recruitment..........................................................................................................................................................................34 Job Analysis & Evaluation..................................................................................................................................................35 Compansation Systems ......................................................................................................................................................36 Training & Development ....................................................................................................................................................36 Performance Appraisal.......................................................................................................................................................37 Organizational Change & Stress Management ..................................................................................................................38 Organizational Change & Development..........................................................................................................................38 Organizational Change...................................................................................................................................................38 Change Models ...............................................................................................................................................................38 Organizational Development........................................................................................................................................39 Stress Management............................................................................................................................................................40 Learning Organizations...........................................................................................................................................................40
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  6. 6. 6 BASICS SCIENCE IN GENERAL Bilimsel bir çalışmada 4 özellik aranır:  Measurement  Repeatability  Observability  Testability OB IN GENERAL OB BASICS OB, örgüt içindeinsan davranışını inceler.Input(emek + toprak + yatırım + girişim)  üretim  output vardır. OB, emek ileilgilenir. BASIC BUSINESS FUNCTIONS AND PRINCIPLES Basic businessfunctions:  Accusation (satınalma):Input’larıtoplar  Production  Marketing  Finance& Accounting  Management o Planning o Organizing o Directing o Controlling Business principles:  Economy (Elimination of waste)  Productivity (output / input)  Efficienct(our prod. / ideal prod.)  Profitability (profit/ capital)  Effectiveness (extent of reachingbusiness goals)  Rationality APPROACHES OF OB Systems approach (open system), Contingency approach HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF OB
  7. 7. 7 CLASSICAL THEORIES (TRADITIONAL) Friedrick Taylor Invented productivity:Max output, minimum cost Founder of scientificmanagement. Before him, methods were transferred from father to son.He brought scientific approach to management. For example, “How heavy should a shovel be?”. Span of control.Bir organizasyon ağacında,her bir pozisyonun altında en fazla 6 pozisyon olmalı,yoksa kontrol azalır ve conflictartar. Specialization.Herkes belli bir işteuzmanlaşıp hep onu yapmalı.Bu fikir departmanları vejob description’ları doğurdu ve ortaya trainingkavramı çıktı. Motivation.Job satisfaction =High performance so workers should be motivated with money. Training’I ilk kezgündeme getirdi. Conflict’I kaldır dedi. Today, Taylor is beingcritisized becausehe evaluates human beings likemachines.Becauseof him, syndicates existtoday. Fayol Functions of managers: Planning,organizing,yürütme, koordinasyon,kontrol . Weber Bürokrasi gereklidir.Boreacracy =standardization & rules,no exceptions. Red tape değil.3 kinds of power – lgeitimacy relations:Traditional (kral güneşin oğlu),Charismatic (üstün özellikler),Legal (bürokrasi). İdeal bürokrasi:Specialization,hierarhical authority,impersonal rel ationships,strictprocedural rules, recruitment on the basis of ability,differentaiation of privateand official income,written communication & documentation NEO CLASSICAL THEORY Hawtorn Studies Bir elektrik firmasında yapılan “İşşartlarını iyileştirirsek performans artar mı?” araştırması sonucunda ortaya çıkmıştır. İki grup çalışanın biri aydınlık,bir karanlık odalarda çalıştırılmıştır;aydınlık grubun daha iyi çalışması bekleniyordu. Ne var ki,sonuçlar öyleolmadı:Karanlık grup daha iyi çalışıyordu.Sonradan;bunun sebebinin, karanlık odadaki araştırma görevlilerinin çalışanlaradaha iyi davranması olduğu ortaya çıktı. Bunun sonucunda yeni Leadership fikirleri ortaya çıktı;farklı bir lider modeli:Humanistic management approach.Conclusions:  Work is a social activity as well as physical  Informal social organization creates its own norms, helps define the status of members and determine behavior,helps fulfill theneeds of members for recognition & self esteem & belonging. Hawtorn Effect: Biri seni izliyorsabaşta işini daha iyi yaparsın,sonradan alışıp tekrar yaymaya başlarsın. MODERN THEORIES
  8. 8. 8 (Post)Modern Age Eski çağlarda conflict’in engellenemeyeceği görüşü hakimdi.Group dynamics:İnsanlargrupların parçasıdır dendi ve grup çalışmaları araştırılmayabaşlandı.Şimdi ise,yeni yeni yöntemler ve yaklaşımlar var.“Conflictis good, as longas you know how to manage it”.  Total Quality Management  Downsizing  Delayering  Network Organizations  Learning Organizations  Outsourcing THE INDIVIDUAL VALUES, ATTITUDES VALUES Values  Attitude  Behavior Sağlık  “Sağlık önemlidir” Spor yapmak (Positivebehavior) Namus  “Namus önemlidir” Namus cinayeti (Negative behavior) Özgürlük  “İsteyen sigara içebilir” Sigara içenlerekarışmamak Aile “Ailem sağlıklı olmalıdır” Sigara içen oğluna karışmak Bu gibi durumlarda, Cognitive Dissonance adı verilen çatışmalar ortaya çıkar.İnsan bünyesi,bu gibi çatışmaları çözümlendirip kendi içindeçelişmeme yönünde eğilimgösterir.Çözüm: Change attitude, or change behavior. Çalışanlararasındaki değer farklılıkları organizasyonun hedeflerinezarar veriyorsa,değiştirilmelidir.Aksi takdirdebırak kalsınlar. Convivence: Livingtogether. Management should know how to livewith differences and get +’s out of them. Workforce Diversity: Şirketlerin farklı ırk,din, dilden insanları bir arayatoplaması. Self fulfilling prophecy. Bir insana akıllıymışgibi davranırsan bir süresonra hakikaten akıllıca davranmaya başlar.Aptalmış gibi davranırsan,bir süresonra aptallaşır.  Zencilerden çok suçlu çıkması  Köpeğe ısıracakmışgibi davranırsan ısırır  Elemana tembelmiş gibi davranırsan tembellik yapar (X)  Elemana güvenip sorumluluk verirsen sorumlu olur (Y) ATTITUDES Evaluativestatements or judgements concerning objects,people or events
  9. 9. 9 Degree of (un)pleasurablefeelings toward job. Socio-Technical Systems: İnsanın adapteolabileceği yapılar kurup,job design içindeparticipative management’ı yapabiliyorolmalı.Örnek: Volvo, takım kararlarınaödül veriyor. JOB SATISFACTION Satisfaction  performance goes in both ways. Ama bazı çalışmalardabu ikisi arasında hiçbirbağlantı bulunamadığı da olmuş. Çünkü; Performance = motivation x Capacity x (ability,training,technology,etc) Opportunity x (loc.educ. Backg, connect., etc) Environment (Supervision,culture,etc) Affects: Productivity (viceversa da olabilir),absenteeism,Turnover JOB INVOLVEMENT The degree to which a person identifies with his or her job, actively participates in it,and considers his or her performance important to self-worth. ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT Belief in the goal and values of the organization.Results in extra effort and desireto stay in organization.3 types of commitments (accordingto Meyer):  Affective. Şirketi ailegibi görmek. Sevgi.  Normative. “Şirketim bana çok şey verdi ben de kalıp karşılığını vermeliyim”. Minnet.  Continuance. Dışarıda işyok veya istifa tazminatı var diyekalmak.Korku. ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP İş sorumlulukları dışında da şirketi desteklemek. Dimensions:  Helping behavior: Başkalarına yardımetmek  Sportsmanship: Kendi istediği olmayınca huysuzlanmamak  Organizational loyalty: Spreadinggoodwill,defending organizational objectives  Organizational compliance: Kimse bakmıyorken de kurallara uymak  Individual initiative: Volunteering on extra responsibilities and encouragingothers to do the same  Civic virtue: Participatingactively in fovernance,monitor environment, look best interest  Self development: Kendini isteyerek geliştirmek PERSONALITY & EMOTIONS PERSONALITY Personality:The sum total of ways in which an individual reacts and interacts with others.
  10. 10. 10 Why is OBinterested in personality? BecausePerson – Job match is needed. You have to be careful aboutthis when recruitingand promoting someone. Personality is a relatively setof characteristicsthatdefine our behaviour.Determined by 2 factor sets:  Nature. Heredit specs of us which come by birth.  Nurture. Specs which were gained from the environment. PERSONALITY TRAITS Enduting characteristics thatdescribean individual’sbehavior Machiavelists: The Noble adlı romandan almıştır adını. Mach Type’lar, etraflarındaki insanları amaçları doğrultusunda “Herşey mübahtır” diyerek kullanırlar.İkna kabiliyetleri yüksektir veiyi pazarl ık ederler,politik oyunlarda başarılıdırlar. Self-Monitoring: Nabza göre şerbet verirler,çevreleri ileuyumludurlar. Big Five: Bu modele göre, 5 kişilik özelliği vardır.  Extraversion  Agreeableness  Conscientiousness  Emotional stability  Openness to experience Type A vs Type B  Type A is aggressive,struggleto achieve more in less time  Type B never suffer from senseof urgency, can relax without guilt Locus Of Control: İki tür insan vardır.Internalizer,olayları kendisinin idareedebileceğini düşünür.Externalizer, olayların dışfaktörler tarafından kontrol edildiğini vekendisinin pek etki edemediğini düşünür. Internalizer:  Tasks requiringcomplex analysis  High motivation  Piece-rate workers  More freedom from supervision Mobbing: Organizasyon içi duygusal terör.In a mobbing situation,the ringleader incites supporters,cohorts, copycats and unenlightened, inexperienced, immature or emotionally needy individualswith poor values to engage in adversarial interaction with the selected target. Bullying:Organizasyon içi fiziksel terör.Bullyingis persistentunwelcome behaviour, mostly usingunwarranted or invalid criticism,nit-picking,fault-finding,also exclusion,isolation,beingsingled outand treated differently, being shouted at, humiliated,excessivemonitoring,havingverbal and written warnings imposed,and much more. Role conflict:Rol çatışması.Sınıf öğretmeninin öğrencisi olan oğlunu sınıfta bırakamaması. Rol bulaşması:Bir öğretmenin, tanımadığı bir çocuğa sokakta “İn bakayım o duvardan” demesi. SELF ESTEEM
  11. 11. 11 Self Concept kavramının daraltılmışhalidir.Self concept, insanın kendisini bir nesneolarak nekadar değerli bulduğudur.Self esteem ise,kendini ne kadar sevdiği ve kendinden ne kadar memnun olduğuyla ilgilidir. Low Self Esteem’e sahip birineyöneticiler çok dikkatli yaklaşmalıdır.Böylebirinedoğrudan eleştiri yaparsan herşeyi kendine yıkıp kendini kötü hissedebilir.Negative Feedback verirken dikkatli,PositiveFeedback verirken cömert davranmak gerekir. High Self Esteem’e sahip birinehatasını söyleyincekabul eder ve bunu kendini geliştirmek için bir fırsatolarak kabul eder. Self Esteem’i; Heredity’den ziyadeçevre şekillendirir. İnsanlarda Self Esteem’in Low halegelmesini önlemek için savunma mekanizmaları çalışmaktadır.  Rationalization:Bir olayı aklauydurmak,genelleştirmek. Bu şekilde suçu kendi üzerine almamak,veya genelleştirmek.  Negativism. Patrona kırıp, gizlicebir ofis eşyasını kırmak.Bir nevi intikam.  Replacement. Patron sana kızıyor, sen de eşine kızıyorsun, o da çocuğa kızıyor, vs.  Withdrawal:Olaydan uzaklaşma.İstifa,kendi içineçekilmegibi yansımaları vardır.  Compensation. Terk edilen birinin besteyaparak duygularını ifadeetmesi ve rahatlaması.  Projection.Kendi zayıf yönünü herkeste görmek. PERSON – JOB FIT Holland’s typology of personality:  Realistic: Prefers activities thatrequirephysical skills.Mechanic,farmer,etc.  Investigative: Prefers activities thatinvolves thinkingand understanding.Mathematician,reporter, etc.  Social: Prefers activities thatinvolvehelpingothers.Social worker, teacher, etc.  Conventional: Prefers rule-regulated activities.Accountant,corporatemanager, etc.  Enterprising: Prefers verbal activities and opportunities for power. Lawyer, public relationsspecialist, etc.  Artistic: Prefers ambiguous activities thatallowcreativeexpression.Painter,musicial,writer,etc. PSYCHOLOGICAL CAPITAL Psychological capital1 has its roots in positive psychology (Larson & Luthans, 2006). It is defined as the positive and developmental state of an individual ascharacterized by four constructs: (Wikipedia,2008)  Hope is defined as a positive motivational state where two basic elements interact. These elements are successful feeling of agency (or goal oriented determination) and pathways (or planning to achieve those goals).  Self efficacy is defined as people's confidence in their ability to achieve a specific goal in a specific situation.  Optimism was defined by Attribution Theory (Manusov & Spitzberg, 2008). An Optimistic person is defined as one that makes internal attributions (West Virginia University, 1996) for positive events and 1 Also mentioned as Psycap
  12. 12. 12 external attributions (West Virginia University, 1996) to negative events. Optimism in Psycap is thought as a realistic construct that regards what an employee can or cannot do, as such, optimism reinforces self efficacy and hope.  Resiliency is a positive way of coping with danger or distress. In organizational aspect, it is defined as an ability to recuperate from stress,conflict,failure,changeor increasein responsibility. To improve psychap in an organization,HRMshould work on selection,trainingand performance evaluation. EMOTIONS Emotions: Intense feelings that are directed at someone or something. Moods are efelings that are less intense than emotions and that lack a contextual stimulus. Felt vs displayed emotions. Çatışırsa:Emotional dissonance Emotional dimensions:Variety, intensity,frequency & duration External constraings on emotions:Organizational,cultural Affective Events Theory: Theory that employees react emotionally to things that happen to them at work. This influences their job performance and satisfaction. EI (Emotional Intelligence): The ability to detect and manage emotional cues and information.  Self awareness: Being aware of what you arefeeling.  Self management: The ability to manage own emotions and impulses.  Self motivation: The ability to persistin the face of failures.  Empathy: The ability to sensehow others are feeling.  Social skills: The ability to handle emotions of others. OB Applications:Decision making,motivation,leadership,conflict,customer service, deviantworkspace behavior PERCEPTION & DECISION MAKING PERCEPTION Perception: A process by which individualsorganizeand interpret their sensory impressions to givemeaning to their environment. Perception Process  Selective Perception  Organization  Interpretation Attribution Theory When individuals observe behavior, they attempt to determine whether it is internally or externally caused. The determination of whether the causeis internal or external depends on three factors:  Distinctiveness refers to whether an individual displays different behaviors in different situations (Robbins, 2005). If the person being observed exhibits the same behavior in a variety of contexts, then
  13. 13. 13 distinctiveness is low; if they have different behavior depending on the context, then distinctiveness is high (Simmering, 2006).  If everyone who is faced with a similar situation responds in the same way, we can say the behavior show consensus (Robbins, 2005). If the observer sees others acting the same way that the person being perceived acts, then consensus is high. However, if others behave differently in the type of situation,then consensus is low (Simmering, 2006).  Consistency describes whether the person being observed behaves the same way when faced with the same set of circumstances. If the person being observed acts the same way in the same type of situation, consistency is high; if they act differently each time, then consistency is low (Simmering, 2006). Usually; external attribution is caused by high distinctiveness, high consensus and low consistency. On the other hand, internal attribution is caused by lowdistinctiveness,lowconsensus and high consistency. Fundamental attribution error: The tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors and overestimate the influenceof internal factors when making judgements. Self Serving Bias: The tendency for individuals to attribute their own successes to internal factors while putting blame for failures on external factors. Common Perception Errors  Stereotyping  Halo Effect  Primacy Effect  Selective Perception  ContrastEffect  Projection:It is the tendency of attributingone’s own characteristicsto other people  Self fulfillingprophecy Applications in OB:interview, performance expectations (self fulfillingprophecy),ethnic profiling,performance evaluation,employee effort. DECISION MAKING How individualsmakedecisionsand quality of choices areinfluenced by perceptions. Steps to rational decision making: Define the problem, Identify the decision criteria,Allocateweights to the criteria,Develop the alternatives,Evaluatethe alternatives,Select the best alternative Intuitive decision making: An unconscious process created out of distilled experience. Decision problems as person:  Overconfidence bias: İnsanlar %50 haklı olmasınarağmen %70 kararda Confidentolur.  Anchoring bias: Tendency to fizate on initial information as startingpoint.  Conformation bias: We seek out information that reaffirms our pastchoices and disciontinfo that contradicts.  Availability bias: Tendency to basejudgements on info that is already available  Representative bias: Assessingthe likelihood of an occurrenceby trying to match it with a preexisting category
  14. 14. 14  Escalation of commitment error: An increased commitment to a previous decision in spiteof negative information  Randomness error: Decision makingbecomes impaired when we try to create meaning out of random events  Hindsight bias: The tendency to believe falsely that we’d accurately predicted the outcome of an event, after that outcome is known Decision problems in groups:  Group Polarization Phenomenon: groups are more extreme in decisions. Çünkügrupiçindekilerbirbirinidestekleyipgazagelebilir. Meselagençgruplarıbiraradasaçmakararlarverebilir.  Groupthink: Grup olarak karar veriyorolmakbazençokkötükararlarayolaçar.Şudurumdaortayaçıkar: Grupkendiiçindebütün,karşıtgörüşhiçyok.  Persuasive Arguments Theory: Before meeting in a group, members of the group will develop arguments to supporttheir positions.To sway others, the arguments will tend to be more extreme. In the end, one argument will win and the group will find itself supportingan extreme decision.  Risky Shift Phenomenon: groups take either more or less extreme risks.Grupiçindealınan risk üyelerarasındabölünüyorgibigözüktüğüiçin,tekbaşınaalacağındandahaçok risk alırsın OB Implications2:Performanceevaluation,reward systems, formal regulations,system-imposed time constraints,historical precendents MOTIVATION Need  Drive  Behavior  Incentive  Satisfaction  Need  … Motivasyon = willingness x ability. MOTIVATION THEORIES Motivation: The processes thataccount for an individual’s intensity,direction,and persistenceof effort toward attaininga goal. İki tür teori var:Content (needs) ve Process. Bu teorilerde Reward önemli bir yer tutar. Intrinsic Reward:İçsel ödül.Uzun vadelidir.Motivators of Hereberg / higher levels of Maslow. Extrinsic Reward:Dışsal ödül.Kısa vadelidir.Routine/ Piece rate Task’lerdeişe yarar. CONTENT THEORIES Maslow: İhtiyaç piramidi.Fizyolojik  Security  Social  Esteem  Self actualization.Üstseviyedeki bir Need’de başarısızolursan biraltseviyeyedüşebilirsin.Eleştiri:Çin’desosyal ihtiyaçlar fizyolojik ihtiyaçların bile önünde. Bu sayılar hep aynı değildir ve yer biledeğiştirebilir. APA: (McClelland) 3 tür ihtiyaç vardır:Power, Affiliation,Achievement. ERG: Aldorfer ortaya attı. 3 tür ihtiyaç vardır:Existence,Relatedness, Growth. Bu Maslow’unkini temel almıştır; ama farklı ihtiyaçlar paralel bir şekildedoyurulmaya çalışılabilirdemektedir. XY: (McGregor) XY tipi liderlik. 2 Bunlar Decision Making’I etkileyen şeyler
  15. 15. 15 Two Factors Theory: Herzberg ortaya attı. Dissatisfaction veSatisfaction’u birbirinden ayırdı.Job Content: No Satisfaction  Satisfaction yaratabilir(Motivators).Job Context: Dissatisfaction  No Satisfaction yaratabilir (Hygene Factors).Eleştiri:Her kültürde farklı olabilir;bir kültürdeMotivator olan bir diğer kültürde Hygene olabilir. Cognitive Evaluation Theory: Allocatingextrinsicrewards for behavior thathad been previously intrinsically rewardingtends to decrease the overall level of motivation. PROCESS THEORIES İnsanların düşünebildiğini vebelli bir şekildemotive olup olmamaya kendilerinin karar verdiğini savunur. Expectancy Theory: Beklenti teorisi.Motivation = Valancex expectancy. Expectancy: “If I show effect, will I be ableto perform?” Valence: “Reward bana ne ifadeediyor?” Valence  Needs Goal Setting Theory: Elemanları serbestbırakıp “Çalışabildiğin kadarçalış”demek yerine belli hedefler koymak daha iyi sonuç verir.Ancak; Hedefler ulaşılabilir olmak zorunda.Goal çok yüksek olursa,ona ulaşmak için kaliteyi düşürebilir eleman. Fazla yüksek Goal, isteği ortadan kaldırır. Çalışanlara sonuçlarlailgili Feedback vereceksin Hedefleri koyarken çalışanlarlabirliktekarar vereceksin.“Söz verdim, yapmalıyım” diye düşünür o zaman. Equity Theory: İnsan,Input ve Output’larını başkalarıylakarşılaştırır sürekli.Eğer denge yoksa,kişi dengeyi sağlamaya çalışır. Eğer kendi Output’unu yüksek bulursa (Overcompansated),Input’larını arttırmaya çalışır.“Benim maaşım fazla yüksek” diyen birinin daha çok çalışması gibi. Eğer kendi Output’unu düşük bulursa (Undercompansated), Input’larını azaltmaya çalışır.“Benim maaşım çok düşük, bu kadar maaşa bu kadar iş”diyen birinin işi azaltması gibi. Consistency Theory: Self-fulfillingprophecy. Job Design Theory: Job CharacteristicsModel  Skill variety:işi tamamlamak için nekadar çeşitli aktivitegerekiyor  Task Identity: Tam ve tanımlanabilirbir işi tek başına mı yapıyor  Task significance:Diğer insanların hayatına nekadar değer katıyor  Autonomy: Zamanlama & plan yapmak konusunda ne kadar özgür?  Feedback: Performansı hakkında ne kadar cevap alıyor? APPLICATIONS OF MOTIVATION THEORIES Management By Objectives: Goal Setting Theory’nin organizasyon içindeki uygulamasıdır.Individual Goal  Department Goal  Division Goal  Organizational Goal şeklindefarklı hedefler vardır ve bu hedeflerin hepsi birden göz önünde bulundurulmalıdır.Ama pratiktehep böyle olmaz (Örnek: Satış – üretim çatışması).Goals should be specific.“Masrafları kısacağız”değil,“Herkes masrafını %7 kıssın”gibi. Employee Recognition Programs: Reinforcement Theory’nin uygulamasıdır. Employee of the month gibi. Employee Involvement Programs: İnsanları sürecedahil edip karar veönerilerdeonlardan da faydalanmak. İnsanları çok motive eder çünkü kendini firmaya aithisseder.ÖzellikleStock Option; FlexibleBenefits.
  16. 16. 16 Job Redesign and Scheduling Programs  Job Rotation: Birinin başka departman / görevlere kaydırılması.  Job Enlargement: Bir sorumluluğu varken,(muhtemelen aynı seviyede) 3-4 işi daha oluyor.Başta motive eder, orta vadede etkisi zayıf.  Job Enrichment: Bir işin farklı boyutlarını da kapsamaya başlıyor kişi.Mesela verdiğin dersin planlamasının da sana verilmesi.Bir nevi Empowerment.  Flextime  Job Sharing Empowerment: İşiyleilgili sorumluluk veriyorsun.Mesela Migros’taki manav,sebze reyonunun indirimlerini kendi ayarlayabiliyor.Eleştiri:Esas amacı gerçek güç vermek yerine daha çok çalıştırmak.Ama araştırmalarda Employee Engagement ve Well Being’I sağladığı ortaya çıkmış. BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION Reinforcement Theory: Pekiştirme teorisi.Davranışın sonucuna göre tekrarlatıl(ma)masına dayanır. Classical Conditioning: Pavlov.Otomatik öğrenme var. Operant Conditioning: Sonucu gözlemleyip kendin karar verme. Bilinçli öğrenme var. Stimulus  Organizm Outcome. Social Conditioning: Başkasının sonucuna bakarak öğrenme. Davranışmodifikasyonunda 3 temel yöntem vardır: Positivereinforcement. İstenen davranışödüllendirilir. Negative reinforcement. İstenmeyen davranış,ceza ilekorkutulur. Punishment. Ceza verilir.Yan etkisi çoktur,mümkünse uygulama. Schedules of reinforcement: Continuous. Davranışher tekrarlandığında ödül verilir.Davranışyeni öğreniliyorken işeyarar.Kısa vadelidir. Intermittent.Ara sıra ödül verilir.Öğrenilmişdavranışın sürekliliğini sağlamak için işeyarar.Uzun vadelidir. Ratio Based. Davranışı tekrarlama sayısına göreişler. Fix Ratio. Belli sayıda davranışödüllendirilir.Piece-rategibi. Variable Ratio. Belirsizsayıdadavranışödüllendirilir.Slotmakinasi veya balıkçı gibi. Interval Based. Süreye göre işler. Fix Interval. Belli süredeödül verilir.Aylık maaşgibi. Variable Interval. Belirsizsüredeödül verilir. Pop-Quizgibi. THE GROUP GROUPS GROUP: A collection of individualswho have interaction with one another toward some common goal or purpose. They have some common bands that tend to develop from common like, dislike,interestand goal.
  17. 17. 17 Formal Work Groups. Üst-astilişkisinin geçerli olduğu gruplar.Standartişyeri grupları; departmanlar gibi. Ad-Hoc Work Groups. People throughout the organization who have an interest or a topic or problem forms task forces or comities to make recommendations or take action as ad hoc work group. Informal Work Groups. Based on friendship and common interest or location.Friendship cliques. Cohesiveness  Grupa bağlılık. Group Norms +  Cohesiveness iyidir Group Norms -  Cohesiveness kötüdür Group Think3  Cohesiveness kötüdür Stages Of Groups Forming. Kişilerin meseleyeısınması,“Gruba girsem mi girmesem mi?” gibi soruları sorması.Statü & güç değerlendirmeleri yapılır,kimin nasıl biri olduğu araştırılır. Storming. Kim lider? Kimne yapacak? Roller & işler nasıl dağıtılacak? Norming. Statüler ve normlar oturur. Performing. İşaktif ve düzenli bir biçimdeyapılmaya başlanır.En verimli aşamadır. Adjourning. Group yapısı dağılır / değişir. ROLES A roleis a set of expectations believed by the individual or thegroup to be associated with a person who occupies a given position in the group or organization. Task Roles Initiator (Contributor). Sorunu ortaya atan,veya ilk adımı atan. Information Seeker. Araştırmacı. Seeking facts,searchingfor data,researchingsources, askingexperts for clarification. Information Giver. Offeringauthoritativefacts or relevant experience providingexamples, and help the group to understand issues by interpreting ideas,definingterms and clairifying the issues. Evaluator. Devils advocate.Questioningthe practicarity,logic or procedures. Summarizer. Putting together everything, checkinggroup by proposingalternatives. Maintenance Roles Harmonizer. Üyeler arasında farklılıkları vegerilimi azaltır. Encourager. Praisingand providingencouragement to other group members. Gate Keeper. Sessizoturanlara “Senin fikrin ne?” diyesorar. Blocking Roles 3 Bir grubun Extreme kararlar verip “Evet en iyisi budur”diyebirlik içindeolması.Bu esnada,“Ama şu açıdan da düşünmek lazım” deyip bu kararı bastırmak isteyebilecek küçük Subgroup’lar bastırılır.
  18. 18. 18 Dominator. Otorite veya büyük gözükme yoluyla grubu kontrol etmeye çalışır. Blocker. İnatla vemantıksız bir şekilde grupla ters düşer, genelde kişisel sebepleri vardır. Aggressor. Taktiklerlebaşkalarının önerilerini kabul etmediğini ortaya koyar. Disruptor. Grubun hedeflerine sahip değildir vegenelde ilgisiz& alaycı birtavır ortaya koyar. GROUP DYNAMICS The Pressure To Conform  Social Norms:groups have rules that must be followed.  Epistemological WeightingHypothesis: Grupisteklerine/ kendiisteklerinene kadarönemverdiğin, grupnormlarına ne kadaruyduğunubelirler  Group Locomotion Hypothesis:Kendi isteklerin yerinegrup isteklerini koyarsın.  Normative Social Influence:basic group need forces us to conform. Collectivistlerde daha yaygın. Örnek: moda  Politeness Theory: Positiveface:when others approveof us (Boss’akarşı),negative face: when we feel others cant constrain us (şirketteyenibaşlayanbirinekarşı).  Roles: Topluluktaki herkesin rolü vardır.İnsanlar oynadıkları rolü fazlasıylasahiplenebilirvekendi değerlerini unutabilir.Örnek: sahteelektro şok, guard & prisoner.  Social ImpactTheory: conformance increases with importance, immediacy (yakınlık time & space) and number of others.  Pluralistic Ignorance:sometimes most people disagreewith a group norm, but nobody speaks out. In-Group vs Out-Group  In-Group Bias:we give group members preferential treatment.  HostileMedia Phenomenon: opposed groups see neutral people as biased.(hakemleri o yüzden kimse sevmez)  Linguistic Inter-group Bias:Varyingabstraction in communication.Grup içi iyi & grup dışı kötü davranışlar,grup içi kötü & grup dışı iyi davranışlardan daha çok konuşulur.  Minority Influence: groups tolerate minorities,who should stick together.  Out-Group Homogeneity: seeing non-group people as 'all thesame'. Decision Making (bkz: Decision Making) Other Group Behavior  Deindividuation:losingour senseof self in the crowd. (örnek: riots,yağma)  Group Attribution Error: Grubun verdiği karar,gruptaki herkesin bireysel kararı olmayabilir.Bu, gruptaki insanları aslında olmadıkları kadar benzer sanmamıza yol açabilir.  Minimum Group Theory: when in any group, people use group behavior.Önemsiz gruplara üye hissedersede önemli gruplardaki gibi gruba uyar.  Leader-Member Exchange Theory: leaders and members create sözsüzagreements. (birazdan geliyor)  Social Loafing TEAMS Team: A group whose individual effortresults in a performance that is greater than the sum of individual inputs. Types of Teams: Problemsolving,self-managed work teams, cross-functional teams,virtual teams
  19. 19. 19 To build good teams:  Contextual factors (resources,performance eval,vs)  Composition (abilities,personality,diversity,size,etc)  Work design (autonomy, skill variety,task identity, task significance,etc)  Process (common purpose, specific goals,teamefficacy,etc) COMMUNICATION THE PROCESS OF HUMAN COMMUNICATION Model of Human Communication Communication: “Process of creatingmeaning” SENDER  MESSAGE  CHANNEL  NOISE  RECEIVER Message types:  Verbal o Intentional o Unintentional  Non-Verbal o Intentional o Unintentional Noise types:  Semantic (when the receiver does not attribute the same meaning to the signal thatthe sender does) o Physical o Psychological o Cultural Communication Contexts: Interpersonal,Intercultural,Interviewing,Small-Group,Public,Organizational,Mass Goals of communication  Understanding: “Accurate reception of the content of the intended stimulus”  Pleasure  Attitude Influence(Coke Zero)  Improved Relationships  Action Channels Of Communication Formal Downward. Üstten asta.Job instructions,procedures,rules,feedback, vision,etc. Upward. Asttan üste. Horizontal. Aynı seviyede iletişim. Diagonal. Hierarşik yapının değişik bölgeleri arasında iletişim. Informal MBWA. Management By WanderingAround. Çok sık yapmamak lazım. Site’da az olmalı, yemekhanede filan yapılabilir.
  20. 20. 20 Open Door Policy. Çalışanlaristediği zaman istediği müdüregelip konuşabilir.Kendi müdürünü atlayıp direktgenel müdüre giden bir işçinin cezalandırılmayacağı garanti edilmelidir. Grapevine. Rumor. Çok hızlıdır,%70-90’ı işleilgilidir,vedolaşan lafların %70-90’ı doğrudur.Akıllı bir yönetici bu yöntemi kullanarak nabızyoklayabilir. Non-Verbal Communication. Sözsüz iletişimdir –beden dili.İletişimin %90’ını bu oluşturur. Mesela birşeyi beğenirsen Pupils büyür.Stresli vücutküçülür,rahatvücut genişler, vs. Verbal Communication  Symbols & referants  Denotaion / connotation  Euphimism(memory garden) THE MESSAGE Verbal Message Words and Meaning  Symbols,Referants (Word, Object)  Denotation, Connotation (Main meaning, alternativemeaning)  PrivateMeaning (personal),Shared Meaning (shared),Overlappingcodes / Codeswitching(member of minority starts to talk different inbetween members) Language and Thought  Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis:“The world is perceived differently by members of different communities and this perception is transmitted and sustained by language”.  Language Problems o Abstract language(don’t stay out late) o Inferences (conclusion derived fromevidence or assumptions –when i sit,chair will carry me / she is thinkingabouther upcomingdate this weekend) o Dichtomies: “brilliany”,“stupid”, “winner”, “loser”. Usingextreme words to label. o Euphemisms: “Passed away”, “Memory garden” o Equivocal language:One word means many things (peace, truth, drink,freedom) The Nonverbal Message Interaction with verbal messages:Replacement, Reinforcement, Contradiction Spatial and Temporal Cues Space  Personal  Interpersonal o Intimate Distance o Personal Distance o Social Distance o Public Distance High-Low Contact
  21. 21. 21 Orientation Time: Monochronemic vs Polichronemic Visual Clues:Facial Expression,Oculesics(eye contact& behavior),Body Movements, Hand Gestures, Physical Appearance & Use Of Objects Vocal Clues:Volume, Rate & Fluency,Pitch, Quality LISTENING What is meant by listening?  Hearing  Attention (likepayingattention)  Understanding  Remembering Types of Listening  PleasurableListening  DiscriminativeListening(matematikdersinidinlergibi)  Critical Listening (when we need to make a choice) o Analogy o Example o Statistics o Testimony / Quatations  Empathic Listening LEADERSHIP Leadership: the ability to influencea group toward the achievement of a vision or set of goals. Management: Implementing the vision and the strategy provided by leaders,coordinatingand staffingthe organization,and handlingtheday-to-day problems. Management skills:technical,human,conceptual (analiz) ETHICAL LEADERSHIP Diverse perspectives on ethical leadership:  Burns: Increasingawareness aboutethical issues isa primary roleof leadership.  Heifetz: Authority is not needed for ethical leadership.Non-authority people can emerge for ethical leadership.  Greenleaf: “Servant leadership”.Service to followers is the essence of ethical leadership. Servant leader should stand for what is good and right, even if it’s financially notgood. Criteria for evaluatingethical leadership Criteria Ethical Unethical Use of power To serve followers To satisfy personal needs
  22. 22. 22 Handlingdiverseinterests of multiplestakeholders Balanceand integrate them Favors partners who offer the most personal gain Development of a vision Vision thatbuilds on follower input about their needs, values and ideas Attempts to sell a personal vision as the only way to succeed Integrity of leader behavior Acts consistentwith espoused values Does what is expedient for attainingpersonal objectives Risk taking Willingto take personal risks to accomplish mission Avoids decisions involvingpersonal risk Communication Makes disclosureof relevantinfo about events, problems and actions Uses deception to bias follower perception Response to criticsm Encourages critical evaluation Discourages criticism Development of follower skills Coaching,mentoring, trainingto develop followers Keeps followers weak and dependent to the leader LEADERSHIP THEORIES TRAIT VS BEHAVIORAL THEORIES Trait Theories: Theories that consider personal qualitiesand characteristicsthatdifferentiate leaders from nonleaders.Thatis,leaders areborn rather than made. Most traits can be grouped under bigfive. Eleştiri: Kültüre bağlı olarak değişebilir;teoriyeuymayan başarılı liderler var,durumsallığı hesaba katmıyor. Behavioral Theories: If there are specific behaviors thatidentified leaders,then leadership can betaught. Eleştiri: Durumsallık yok. Which behaviors?  Iowa Studies: Authoritarian vs Democratic vs LaissezFair.Vastmajority preferred democratic.  Ohio Studies: Two dimensions:Consideration4& InitiatingStructure5.Firststudy to point out and emphasize task & human dimensions. But; validity & focus has been criticized.  Michigan Studies: Two dimensions:Employee-oriented and Production-oriented. Result: Supervisors of high-productivegroups are employee-oriented; supervisors of low-productivegroups are production-oriented.  Managerial Grid: Blake & Mouton. Liderler iş / insaneilişkisi Grid’indebir yerlerdedir. CONTINGENCY THEORIES “It depends” LPC – Least Preferred Coworker Contingency (Fiedler): Şirkette en azsevdiğiçalışanı belli olumlu (yardımsever, arkadaşcanlısı,vs) veolumsuz(bencil,soğuk, vs) kriterlerbazındapuanlar.High LPC biryöneticigeneldeolumlu, Low LPC iseolumsuzpuanverecektir.High LPC’ler people-oriented, Low’larisetask-oriented olacaktır. Situation’lar,favorableveya unfavorableolabilir. Leader – Mentor Relation  Good, Poor Task Structure  Structured, Unstructured 4 The extent to which a leader is likely to have job relationships characterized by mutual trust, respect for subordinates’ideas and regard for their feelings 5 The extent to which a leader is likely to define and structure his/her roleand those of subordinates in the search for goal attainment
  23. 23. 23 Position Power  Strong, Weak Favorableve UnfavorableSituation’lardaTask Oriented yöneticiler iyi işyapar.Moderate Situation’lardaise People Oriented yöneticiler iyi işyapar.You should match the situation to the leader or match the leader to the situation.Eleştiri: İnsanları Task / PeopleOriented diyebu kadar kesin ayıramazsın. Path-Goal Theory: Leaders clarify thepath, remove roadblocks,and increaserewards.Styles:  Supportive: Consideringthe needs of the follower,showingconcern for their welfare. Best when the work is stressful,boringor hazardous.  Directive: Tellingfollowers whatneeds to be done and givingappropriateguidancealongthe way. This may be used when the task is unstructured and complex and the follower is inexperienced.  Participative:Consultingwith followers and taking their ideas into accountwhen makingdecisions. Best when the followers areexpert.  Achievement-Oriented: Setting challenginggoals,both in work and in self-improvement. This approach is bestwhen the task is complex. Leadership Substitutes Theory: Herzamanliderlazımdiyebirşeyyok.Şudurumdalideregerekolmayabilir:  Follower characteristics:Expertise,Self-driven  Task characteristics:Predictable,Feedback from task,Satisfyingtask  Organizational characteristics:Cohesive6 team, Formal organization,Distributed team Hersey & Blanchart: Maturity Level – astların o yönetim biçiminene kadar hazır olduğu.  Unable + Unwilling  Telling  Able + Unwilling  Participating  Unable + Willing  Selling(eğitimci gibi) 6 Birlikteiyi çalışabiliyorlarsa
  24. 24. 24  Able + Willing  Delegating CONTEMPORARY THEORIES İyi bir lider,ikisi deolabilmelidir. Charismatic Leadership: Vizyonu var, ve iyi bir hatip. Followers make attributions of heroic leadership abilities when they observe certain behaviors.Key characteristics:  Vision and articulation  Personal risk  Environmental sensitivity  Sensitivity to follower needs  Unconventional behavior Most experts believe that individualscan betrained to exhibitcharismatic behaviors.Butthere is also a dark sideof charisma (Hitler). Theories of charismatic leadership:  Attribution Theory: Charisma is attributional.Follower attribution of charismatic qualities to a leader is jointly determined by the leader’s behavior,skill,and aspects of the situation.  Self-Concept Theory: Charisma is observableprocess,rather than folkloreand mystique. Transformational Leadership: Değişim, gelişim,dönüştürücü lider.Charisma,inspiration,intellectual simulation,individual consideration. Charismatic’I kapsar bu,üzerineilaveeder. Idealized influence, individualized consideration,inspirational motivation,intellectual stimulation. Steps:  Articulatea clear and appaealingvision  Explain howthe vision can beattained  Act confidently and optimistically  Express confidence in followers  Use dramatic,symbolic actions to emphasizekey values  Lead by example  Empower people to achievethe vision Transactional Leadership: İşbitirici lider.Reward,management by active exception7, management by passive exception8, laissez-faire9. LMX THEORY Leaders in groups maintain their positions through a series of tacitexchange agreements. Liderlerinyakınçevresindekiinsanlar(asistan,danışman,vs) ileözelbirilişkisivardır.Onlaradahafazlasorumluluk, görev, kaynak,vsverirler.Bu grup, özelstatülerisebebiyledahaçokçalışarakbedelöder.Lideretam sadakatbeklenir. Dış çemberise, dahaazyetkiyevssahipolur,dahaönemsizdir.Lider de, içgrubunfazlapalazlanıpyerinialmamasıiçindikkatliolur. The LMX Process: 7 İstisna oluncamüdaheleediyor 8 İstisna oluncamüdaheleetmiyor, standartlar yakalanamazsa müdaheleediyor 9 Çalışanlara hiçkarışmaz
  25. 25. 25  Role taking: Birigrubayenikatıldığında;lider,onlarınyeteneklerinideğerlendirir.Zamaniçerisinde, yetenekleriniispatlayabilecekleriyenifırsatlarverebilir.İkitarafda,nasıldavranılmakistediğini belli eder  Role making: Bu aşamada,liderileher birarasındasözsüzanlaşmalaroturur.Dedication & loyalty karşılığında benefit & power verilir.Lideringüveninikıranbiridışgrubaitilebilir.  Routinization:leader & members arasındakisosyalalışverişinmotifleriotururvebelirginleşir. Success factors:  Similiarity to leader  Seeing viewpoint of leader  Better when job challengeextreme (low or high)  Onwards & upwards10 X – Y THEORY X tipindeki liderler,Taylor tipindedir.İnsanların defaultolarak tembel ve sorumluluk almayan kişiliğesahip olduklarını düşünürler;insanlar,ancak external forceileçalıştırılabilir. Y tipindeki liderler,insanların aslındatembel değil,sorumluluk almak isteyen varlıklar olduğunu veinsanları tembelleştiren şeyin sistemolduğunu savunur.İnsan davranışını hem dış, hem iç güçler etkiler. MANAGEMENT PHILOSOPHY ANCIENT WORLD  Egyptians (~2000 B.C.) experimented with decentralized government and a form of participatory management  Babylonians(~1800 B.C.) Hammurabi’s Code made supervisor responsiblefor worker  Chinese (~1100 B.C.) - Confucius and SunTzu (1st military text), system of gradingworkers into classes  Greeks (~400 B.C.) - Participatory management; invented job rotation, division of labor,generic vs. distinctmanagement, invented the staff principle  Romans (~200 B.C.) - Diocletian systemof central control,created job descriptions CALVINISM, PROTESTANT ETHIC, MAX WEBER  Calvinism:God chooses some to be saved and others have absolutely no opportunity for salvation  Max Weber: Religion  Economy. Calvinisminfluenced largenumbers of people to engage in work in the secular world,developingtheir own enterprises and engaging in trade. Protestant ethic: Unplanned force behind movement that lead to capitalism. o Authority: Rational-Legal,Traditional,Charismatic o Bureaucracy (not red tape) CAPITALISM, MARXISM  Capitalismfound by Karl Marx.Land and capital privately owned. Buyers & sellers.Consumers free to spend income.  Adam Smith: “Wealth of Nations”. Free market looks chaotic,butis led by an invisiblehand. 10 Lider de (mesela) şirket sahibinin inner circle’ında ise;bu, liderin inner circle’ındaki insanlara da yansır.En alt seviyedeki biri,böylebir zincir sayesindemuazzam güçlü olabilir.
  26. 26. 26 CHRISTIANITY  Christian Philosophy:Management functions11,Management skills12,Conceptual skills13,Ethics14  Christian Community: Rituals in Church CULTURE Managers have to learn aboutcultural differences.Managerial practices should bedifferentiated with respect to the cultures. ETHICS Theories  Cognitivism(objectivemoral truths) vs Non-cognitivism(subjectivemoral truths)  Teleological (get to good resultat any cost) o Ethical Egoism: Selfish acts o Utilitarianism:Act to maximize good of the majority o Machiavellianism:Do everything to get the job done  Deontological (get to good result, but not at any cost) o Kant: Good will o Locke: Inborn natural rights  Ground for any ethical decision  Virtue Ethics: “Nasıl bir insan olmalıyız,ne çeşit Virtue’larımız olmalı?”(courage, yardımsever, vs) Impacts:HR’sequiality of opportunity, Marketing’s advertising,Management’s whistleblowing,trade secrets, workplaceprivacy,social responsibility Corporate Social Responsibility (Corporate Citizenship) CSR Drivers:Societal,Employee, Shareholder, Consumer expectations CSR: that the corporation has not only economic and legal obligations,butalso certain responsibilities to society that extend beyond these obligations.considerstheimpact of the company’s actions on society. Carroll’s Four PartDefinition:Eonomic (be profitable),Legal (obey laws),Ethical (do what is right), Discretionary (be a good corporate citizen) Organizational Justice  Distributive Justice: Kaynak dağıtımının adaleti.Mesela maaş.  Procedural Justice: Yöntemin adil olup olmadığı.“3 ev satana 10.000 YTL” diyorsun ama bir bölge çok zor olabilir.  Relational Justice: Supervisor’lar nasıl davranıyor? Kayırma var mı?  Informational Justice: Şirkette olup bitenlerden herkesin adil bir şekildehaberi var mı? CONTEMPORARY ISSUES OF LEADERSHIP 11 Planning,Organizing(span of control),Leading,Controlling(benchmark – başkasıyla kıyasla) 12 Technical (iyi olan yönetsin),Human (conflict),Conceptional 13 Analysis,look for alternatives, 14 İşçi (showthey can be trusted), işveren (tam para ver),
  27. 27. 27 TRUST Trust: a positiveexpectation that another will notact opportunistically. Types of trust:  Deterrence based: Trust based on fear of reprisal if the trust is violated  Knowledge based trust: Trust based on behavioral predictability thatcomes from history  Identification based trust: Trust based on a mutual understandingof each others intentions Care and concern: Passiveconcern15 vs activeconcern16 Reliability: Do what you say.Sözlerini tut. Honesty: Tell the whole truth. Creating trust in organizations: Values and culture, interdependence, role & process clarity,goal congruity, visibility,consequences of transgression POWER & POLITICS POWER Power refers to a capacity that A has to influence the behavior of B, so that B acts in accordance with A’s wishes.  Sources of Power  Formal Power: It is based on an individual’sposition in an organization. o Coercive Power: Coercive power is the power that comes from a person’s authority to punish. o Reward Power: This is the opposite of coercive power. This type of power is based on the ability to distribute rewards that others view as valuable (Robbins, 2005). This power is obvious but also ineffectiveif abused. o Legitimate Power: This is the authority delegated to the holder of the position (Wikipedia,2008). o Information Power: Information power comes as a result of possessing knowledge that others need or want. This power type also extends to the ability to get information not presently held such as a casewith a librarian or data basemanager (Petress).  Personal Power: It is based on an individual’suniquecharacteristicsrather than a formal base. o Expert Power: It is an individual's power deriving from the skills or expertise of the person and the organization's needs for those skillsand expertise (Wikipedia,2008). o Referent Power: It is based on identification with a person who has desirable resources or personal traits. It develops out of admiration of another and a desire to be like that person (Robbins,2005). o Charismatic Power: The sociologist Max Weber defined charismatic authority as "resting on devotion to the exceptional sanctity, heroism or exemplary character of an individual person, and of the normative patterns or order revealed or ordained by him" (Wikipedia, 15 doingno harm 16 preventing harm in general (from other sources)
  28. 28. 28 2008). Power based upon charisma is an extension of referent power stemming from an individual’spersonality and interpersonal style (Robbins,2005).  Scope of Power: Üzerinde etkili olabileceğin insanesayısı.  Field of Power: Hangi alanda etkili olabileceğin. Mesela OB hocası “sunum hazırla” derse yaparsın, ama “gece uyuma” derse yapmazsın. Sustainingpower will requirethe audienceto be dependent on the power holder:  Importance: As longas the sourceof power is importantto the others, the power will be sustainable.  Scarcity: As longas the sourceof power is scarce,the power will besustainable.  Nonsubstitutability: The less substituted the source of power has, the more sustainable the power will be. Less substitutablesources of power will relateto a higher level of power. POLITICS Politics:Power in action Political behavior:Activitiesthatare not required as partof one’s formal role in the organization,butthat influence,or attempt to influence,the distribution of advantages and disadvantages within theorganization. Legitimate political behavior vs Illegitimatepolitical behavior Perception of organizational politics:decreased satisfaction,increased stress,increased turnover, reduced performance Defenses: avoidingaction,avoidingblame,avoidingchange. Impression management: The process by which individualsattempt to control the impression others form of them. Conformity (ona uymak), excuses (bahane uydurmak), apologies (özür dilemek), self-promotion (kendini övmek), flattery (karşındakini övmek),favors (karşındakineiyilik yapmak),association (bizonunla aynı okuldanız) CONFLICT & NEGOTIATION CONFLICT Disagreement. İki farklı kişi / grup arasındaki amaç / fikir ayrılığı. Old: Conflictis bad and must be avoided Modern : Conflictis inevitable Postmodern : Conflictis good if you can manage nature and amount of conflict. Natures of Conflict Task conflict.Generally good. Relationship conflict.Generally bad. Task  Relationship conflictarasında geneldepozitif korelasyon vardır,o yüzden dikkatetmek gerekir. İkisinin arasındaModeratingVariables da vardır;Trust,Communication,ConflictStyle (win-win) gibi. Amount Of Conflict
  29. 29. 29 Conflictne çok az, ne de çok fazla olmalıdır.Az conflict,grubu tekdüzeliğe ve durağanlığa iter;Group Think’e bileyol açabilir.Çok Conflictise,yönetilmesi zor bir duruma götürür. Conflict Management Related with communication closely. Levels of conflict Intrapersonel. Kişinin kendi içindeolur ve çözülmesi zordur.Cognitive Dissonance. Approach conflict. İki pozitif seçenek arasında karar vermegüçlüğü. Avoidence conflict. İki negatif seçenek arasında karar verme güçlüğü. Approach – avoidence conflict. Hem pozitif,hem negatif öğeler barındıran iki seçenek arasında karar verme güçlüğü.(Rejim yapan birinin “Şu keki yesem mi” demesi). Interpersonel. İki kişi arasında. Intragroup. Grup içinde. Intergroup. İki grup arasında.İnsanların gruba olan bağlılığını arttırır. Interorganizational. İki organizasyon arasında.Pepsi –Coca Cola arasındaki promosyon savaşı gibi. Lowering conflictlevels Avoiding. Turtle Style. Herşeyi önlersin,Lose – Lose olur.Durum önemli değilse,veya hedefe ulaşılamıyorsakullanılır.Karşı tarafı sakinleştirmek için geçici birsürede uygulanabilir. Acommodation. Teddy Bear Style. “Senin dediğin olsun”.Haklı olmadığını anlarsan uygulanır;Harmony & Peace isteyen biri de uygulayabilir.Bir dahaki sefer için seni güçlü kılacaktır. Competing (Forcing). Shark Style. “Benim dediğim olsun”.I win – you lose.Çabuk karar gereken durumlarda uygulanabilir.Amygdala17 insanı buna iter. Compromising. Fox Style. No lose, no win. Orta noktada buluşulur.Full utilization olmaz,iki taraf da biraz kazanıp birazkaybeder. Collabration. Owl Style. Win – win. En iyi alternatiftir,ama uygulayabilmek için tarafların taleplerinin değil, daha derindeki Need’lerinin anlaşılması gerekir. Competition 17 Hayvansal,saldırgan beyin.Bunu üstbeynin (Rational) idareetmesi beklenir.
  30. 30. 30 Aggression insan genlerindevardır,bu yüzden Competition olur.Social programmingdeCompetition’u körükler; yani doğduğumuzdan beri hep Competition’a itiliyoruz.Competition, genelde I Win – You Lose şeklinde yapılır.Sonuçları; Win – win. İki taraf da kazanır.Paylaşılan pasta büyür.Awareness, creativity,willingness gerektirir. Lose – lose. İki taraf da kaybeder. Paylaşılmak istenen pasta küçülür. Win – Lose. Biri kazanıp biri kaybeder,pasta boyutu değişmez. Corporation + Competition = Coopetition. Transactional Analysis: Parent – Adult – Child ilişkisi karşılıklı olarak. NEGOTIATION Negotiation olabilmesi için:  Conflict  Interdependency  Utility (anlaştıktan sonra sonuçlar) Negotiation’da güçlü olmak için BATNA’nı bilmen gerekir THE ORGANIZATION SYSTEM ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE Organizational structure:How job tasks are formally divided,grouped and coordinated.  Works specializaition:To what degree areactivities subdivided into separatejobs?  Departmentalization:On what basis will jobs begrouped together?  Chain of command: To whom do individualsand groups report?  Span of control:How many individualscan a manager efficiently direct?  (De)centralization:Where does decision-makingauthority lie?  Formalization:To what degree will there be rules and regulations to directemployees and managers CORPORATE GOVERNANCE Decidinghow corporations oughtto be governed involves some answer to the question, “In whose interests should corporations berun?”  Property Rights Theory: views the corporation as a private entity. shareholders,as owners of the corporation,havea rightthat itbe operated solely in their interests. It is argued that shareholders were no longer owners in any meaningful sense.  Social Institution Theory: regards the corporation as a public entity, in which the state grants individualstheright to do business in the corporateform in order to serve some social good.  Contractual Theory: the firmis a connection of contracts among all of its constituencies,in which groups deploy their economic assets for some return.
  31. 31. 31 ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE CULTURE IN GENERAL Perspectives  Traditional:Cultureis a social heritage  Behavioral:Way of living  Structural:Forms, values,shared by members  Functional:Way of solvingproblems and dealingwith adaptation issuesin regard of human activieis  Mental: Cognitiveprocess.Höfstede: “Mental programof human beings” = Culture. Dominant culture, subculture Strong vs weak culture Organizational vs national culture CULTURE VS CLIMATE Culture: A system of shared norms, rules,mores and ethics by the members of a given society. Learned and transmitted from generation to generation. Not static;culturechanges very slowly over time. Climate: Climateportrays organizational environments as beingrooted in the organization’s valuesystem,but tends to present these social environments in relatively static terms,describingthem in terms of a fixed set of dimensions. Point Climate Culture Reference Refers to a situation Refers to an evolved context Link Links to thoughts, feelings, behaviors Rooted in history Source Growing out of Lewinian field theory Growing out of social construction framework Generalization Possible Not possible,each cultureis unique Pointof View Etic – Describes concepts as partof observer Emic – Describes concepts as part of culture Methodology Quantitative Qualitative Temporal Orientation Historical snapshot Evolution over time Level of Analysis Surface, observations Deep, individual meanings LEADERSHIP & CULTURE Sources of culture: Beliefs & values & assumptions of founders,learning experiences of members, new beliefs & values & assumptions broughtin by new members and leaders. Culture is rooted in the vision (means:culture) of the founder; and the leaders who sustain thevision. If leaders vision would be wrong, the group would be disbanded soon. How leaders embed & transmitculture  Specifyingwhat they pay attention to; what they measure; and what they control
  32. 32. 32  Reactions to critical incidents and organizational crises  Observed criteria for resourceallocation  Role modeling, teaching, coaching  Observed criteria for Allocation of rewards or status  Observed criteria for Recruitment, selection,promotion, etc CULTURE THEORIES HOFSTEDE Artifacts:Symbols, heroes, rituals,values Dimensions:Power distance,Individualismvs Collectivism, Masculenity vs Femininity,Uncertainty avoidance, Long Term vs Short Term orientation SCHEIN Artifacs:Heroes, Symbols,Rituals DENISON Dimensions:  Involvement o Empowerment o Team orientation o Capability development  Consistency o Core values: Set of values, creatinga sense of identity o Agreement: employees capacity to reach an agreement on critical issues o Coordination & integration: Separate units ableto work together towards goal  Adaptability o Creating change: Ability to develop alternativeways of meeting external & internal changing needs o Customer focus o Organizational learning: Lessons out of experience
  33. 33. 33  Mission o Strategic direction: Strategic intentions towards goals o Goals & objectives: Operasyonel hedefler o Vision: Common vision enables eomployees to use their creativity QUEEN GLOBE PROJECT examiningthe inter-relationshipsbetween societal culture,organizational culture,and organizational leadership. Culturan Dimensions:  Performance Orientation: It is the degree to which a society encourages and rewards group embers for performance improvement.  Uncertainty Avoidance: This dimension is the society’s reliance on social norms and procedures to alleviatethe unpredictability of future events.  Humane Orientation: This is the degree to which a society encourages individuals to be fair, altruistic, generous, caringand kind to others.  Individualism vs. Collectivism: It is the degree to which individuals are encouraged by social institutions to be integrated into groups within organizations and society.  Institutional Collectivism: It is the degree to which organizational and societal institutional practices encourage and reward collectivedistribution of resources and collectiveaction.  In-Group Collectivism: It is the extent to which members of a society take pride in membership in small groups;such as families,circleof closefriends and a company.  Assertiveness: It is the extent to which a society encourages people to be tough, assertive and competitive.  Gender Egalitarianism: It is the extent to which a society maximizes gender roledifferences.  Future Orientation: It is the extent to which a society encourages future-oriented behaviors, such as planningand investingin the future.  Power Distance: This is the degree to which members of a society expect power to be unequally shared. Leadership Attributes:  Universal Positives: There are 22 attributes universally regarded as contributing to good business leadership,including“trustworthy,” “motive arouser,”and “excellence oriented”.  Universal Negatives: There are 8 attributes universally regarded as inhibiting outstanding business leadership,including“irritable”and “dictatorial”.  Culturally Contingent: Most revealing are 35 attributes viewed in some societies as promoting good leadership, and in other societies as impeding good leadership. This list includes surprises such as “cunning,” “evasive,” “class conscious,”and even “sensitive”. Culturally endorsed leadership theory dimensions:  Charismatic / Value Based: This CLT captures a leader’s ability to inspire, to motivate, and to expect high performance outcomes. This CLT was associated with “self-sacrifice,” “integrity,” “decisive,” and “performance oriented”. A key finding is that all cultures saw this dimension as very substantially
  34. 34. 34 contributing to outstanding leadership (Grove, 2007). However, being charismatic was considered more relevant in cultures with a high performance orientation (Yukl, 2002).  Team Oriented: It is described as emphasizing effective team-building and implementation of a common purpose or goal among team members. All cultures saw “team orientation” as contributing substantially to outstandingleadership (Grove, 2007). However, this dimension was considered more relevant for leader effectiveness in cultures that are collectivistic rather than individualistic (Yukl, 2002).  Participative: This CLT reflects the degree to which managers involve others in making and implementing decisions. Germanic Europe most positively associated “participative” with outstanding leadership. The least positive association was in the Middle East, where its association was modestly above the mid-point (Grove, 2007). This means, being participative was considered more relevant for leadership effectiveness in cultures with low power distance and low avoidance of uncertainty (Yukl, 2002).  Human Oriented: This CLT reflects supportive and considerate leadership, but also includes compassion and generosity. Worldwide, this CLT was viewed as only moderately contributing to outstandingleadership (Grove, 2007).  Self-Protective: This dimension focuses on ensuring the safety and security of the individual or group. Worldwide, this CLT was viewed as not contributing to outstanding leadership. The highest score, by South Asian cultures,was justbelowthe mid-point(Grove, 2007).  Autonomous: This CLT refers to independent and individualistic leadership (Grove,2007). In the study of Paşa, Kabasakal and Bodur in 2001, GLOBE’s findings were tested empirically in a Turkish study. Here are some significantresults:(Paşa,Kabasakal,& Bodur, 2001)  Collectivism has found to be the most dominant organizational value. Collectivistic values are found to influenceleadership behaviors of “Paternalistic-considerate”and “Laissez-Faire”.  Being the second dominant organizational values, performance orientation and uncertainty avoidance were not found to influenceobserved leadership behaviors.  Values of self-sacrificial, integrity, power distance and quality were found to influence the leadership behaviors of “Hierarchical-Autocratic”,“Transactional-TeamOriented” and “Laissez-Faire”.  The most frequently observed leadership types were: o Hierarchical-autocratic o Paternalistic-considerate o Transactional-teamoriented o Laissez-Faire HR POLICIES AND PRACTICES RECRUITMENT SELECTION Selection devices: Interview, written tests, performance-simulation tests,work sampletests Recruitment & job hunting methods: Media ads (Newspaper ads,electronic media,situation-wanted ads), point of purchasemethods, campus recruitment, outsiderecruiters (employment agencies,executive search firms,public employment agencies),employee referrals,directmail,computer databases,job fairs INTERVIEW
  35. 35. 35 Realistic Job Previews: Involves giving an applicantan honestassesment of a job. Reasons for lack of interview validity: Poor intuitiveability,lack of job relatedness,primacy effect, cotrast effect, negative-information bias,interview-interviewee similarity,appearance,nonverbal cues To improve interviews: Training,structured interviews,situational interviews REFERENCES Reason to use references: Confirmingresume, checkingfor disciplineproblems,discoveringnewinformation, predictingfuture performance Problems when using references: Leniency, knowledge of applicant,reliability,extraneous factors TESTS When choosing tests: Reliability & validity,cost& ease of use, potential for legal problems,scoringmethods, speed vs power Types of tests:  Psychological tests18: interest inventories19,ability tests,job-knowledge tests  Physical agility tests Assessment centers: In-baskettechnique, simulations,work samples,leaderless group discussions,business games JOB ANALYSIS & EVALUATION JOB ANALYSIS Needed for: Job descriptions,employee selection,training,personpower planning,performance appraisal,job classification,job evaluation,job design Job description mustinclude: Job title, DOT code, Brief summary, work activities,tools used,work context, performance standards,personal requirements Info is gathered through: Interviews, observation,task analysis,job praticipation Gathering Information:  Tasks & Activities o Position Analysis Questionnaire(PAQ). Cons: College level o Job Structure Profile(JSP). Revised version of PAQ o Job Elements Inventory (JEI). Less educated people can understand. o Functional Job Analysis (FJA). Used by federal government to analyseand compare thousands of jobs.  Tools & Equipment: Job Components Inventory (JCI)  Work Environment: Arbeitswissenscahftliches Erhebungsverfahren zur Tatigkeitsanalyse(AET). 18 Örnek: BigFive 19 Katılımcılara “do you liketo repair electrical wiring?”gibi like/ dislikesorular soruyorsun
  36. 36. 36  KSAO’s o Critical Incident(CIT) o Job Components Inventory (JCI) o Treshold Traits Analysis(TTA). Like JCI. o Fleishman Job Analysis Survey (F-JAS). Rate listof abilities,highly structured. o Job-Element Approach JOB EVALUATION Process of determining a jobs worth. Internal pay equity important:  Internal Equity o RankingMethod: İşleri önemine göre listele,üstteki alttakinden fazla alsın o PointMethod: Faktörleri belirle,faktöleri puanla,kişiler özelliklerinegöre puan (=para) alsın  External Equity: Salary Surveys COMPANSATION SYSTEMS VariablePay Programs  Piece-rate pay plans  Profit-sharingplans (organization wide)  Gainsharing(group productivity) Skill Based Pay Plans FlexibleBenefits TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT TRAINING Determining needs:  Organizational analysis  Task analysis  Person analysis:Performaneappraisal,surveys,interviews,skill & knowledge tests, critical incidents Training types:  Classroom instruction: Seminars,programmed instruction20,casestudies,critical incidents  Sample Job Performance: Simulation,RolePlaying,Modeling21,Behavior Modeling22, Job Rotation  Informal on-the-job training: Apprentice training,Coaching,PerformanceAppraisal Encouraging the user of training material: goal setting, feedback, incentives for learning LEARNING 20 Booklet ver, kitap gibi okusun sonra sınavı çözsün 21 By watching other employees 22 Role playinggibi,ama örnek aldığın kişi gerçekçiden ziyadeideal davranışlar sergiliyor
  37. 37. 37 How do we learn?  Classical conditioning(Pavlov gibi).Satınalma davranışı –Shavingcream & pleasure  Operant conditioning:Eylemsel.Positive& negative reinforcement.  Social learning:Biri ödül veya ceza alıyor,sen ona bakıp örnek alıyorsun. Types of training:basicliteracy skills,technical skills,interpersonal skills,problem-solvingskills Trainingmethods: on-the-job, off-the-job PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL Appraiseperformance, not effectiveness. Whatpeople do; observable,relevant to goals,measurable.Evaluate contextual performance as well. Requirements: Content must be objective, job-related,behavior-based,ratee control, relate to specific functios.Procedure must be standardized,formally declared,providedeficincies,providesuggestions,review allowed,input allowed,multipletrained raters,abuse detection. Sources of info:  Production data: Üretimden gelen veriler.Ama her zaman tam doğruyu göstermez, çevresel faktörler birini iyi kötü yaomış olabilir.  Personnel data: HR verileri.Kaç gün işe gelmemiş gibi.  Judgemental data. Değerlendiren kişinin yargısı. Techniques  Top – Down Evaluation o Graphical RatingScales o Employee Comparison.Leniency & central tendency önler, halo’yu önlemez.  Rank order. İyi – kötü arasındaki farkın miktarı belli olmaz.  Paired comparison. Zayıf yanı,kalabalık şirketlerdeçok vakitalması.  Forced distribution.Normal dağılımvarmış gibi varsayp insanları oraya yerleştirmek. Herkes iyi veya herkes kötüyse bu göz ardı edilecektir. o Behavioral Checklists.Davranışa dayanır.  Critical incidents. Yıl içindeperformansı arttıran veya azaltan davranışlar notedilir, ve sonra kişiler ona göre değerlendirilir.Olumsuz:Makinayı çalışır haldebıraktı. Olumlu:Hep baret giydi  BARS – Behaviorally anchored ratingscale. Incident’ler 5-10 dimension’da toplanır. Dimension’lar iyiden kötüye sıralanır.Üstsıradakileri yapanlar iyi,altsıradakileri yapanlar kötü olarak belirlenir.  BOS – Behavioral observation scale. BARS gibi,farkı:o davranışı belli bir dönemde ne kadar tekrarladığına bağlı.  Self Assesment. Overevaluation ve leniency23 olabilir.  Peer assessment.Zor tarafı,arkadaşlarbirbirinekötü demek istemeyebilir veya birbirinepuan vermek istemeyebilir. o Peer Nomination: Her bir üye, belli bir dimension’lagöreen iyi (mesela) 3 üyeyi seçer. o Peer Rating: Her bir üye, diğerlerinebelli dimension’laragörepuan verir 23 yumuşakça. Mesela manager’lar kendilerini supervisor’larından daha azkırıcı değerlendiriyorlar
  38. 38. 38 o Peer Ranking:Her bir üye, diğerlerini belli bir dimension’a göreen iyiden en kötüye doğru dizer  360 Degree Feedback. Manager’lar için herkesten Appraiseetmesi beklenir. Increases self-awareness. Rater Subjects  Common errors o Halo error o Leniency error o Central-tendency error  Rater Training o Prevent errors o Prevention ~ accuracy? o Rater calibration  Rater Motivation o No reward o Help friends o Emp. Rating= Man. Rating o Prevent negavite reactions ORGANIZATIONAL DYNAMICS ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE & STRESS MANAGEMENT ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE & DEVELOPMENT ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE Organizational changeis themovement of an organization away fromits present state and toward some desired future state to increaseits effectiveness  Reengineering  TQM  Innovation  Restructuring Need for Change: Proactive,Reactive, Crisis Dealingwith resistance:  Negotiation: Güçlü biri değişimsonunda birşey kaybedecekse  Participation & Involvement: Bilgi eksikliği varsa vegüçlüyse  Communication & Education: Bilgi eksikliği varsavezayıfsa  Facilitation & Support: Altyapı eksikliği varsa  Coercion: Hızlı değişimgerekiyorsa CHANGE MODELS
  39. 39. 39 McKinsey /-S Model There are seven factors workingcollectively,which arepartof this model: (Cellars,2007) 1. Shared Values: Mission / vision of the company 2. Strategy: How the company plans to react towards external changes 3. Structure: Organizational structureof the company 4. Systems: Procedures about how the work should be done 5. Style: Organizational cultureand management style 6. Staff: Employees and their responsibilities 7. Skill: The abilities of the employees and the organization There are many benefits and disadvantages of the McKinsey model (Cellars,2007).Advantages are:  It is an effective way to understand an organization  It is a guide for organizational change  All parts areinterrelated; therefore, all portions mustbe addressed and focused on The disadvantages are; when one part is changed, all parts must be changed as well because of interdependency. There is evidence that after the five years, many of the companies using this model fell from the top. Therefore; except its usefulness to understand an organization, it is not wise to accept this model as the most useful one. Lewin’s Three Step Model Unfreezing, Movement, Freezing. Kotter’s Eight Step Plan Like Lewin’s, but more detailed. 1. Establish a senseof urgency by creatinga compellingreason for why change is needed. 2. Form a coalition with enough power to lead change. 3. Create a new vision to directthe change and strategies for achievingthe vision. 4. Communicate the vision throughoutthe organization. 5. Empower others to act on the vision by removing barriers to change and encouraging risk taking and creative problem solving. 6. Plan for,create, and reward short-term “wins” that move the organization toward the new vision. 7. Consolidateimprovements, reassess changes,and make necessary adjustments in the new programs. 8. Reinforce the changes by demonstrating the relationship between new behaviors and organizational success. ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Organizational development (OD) is the use of social scienceknowledge to improve organizational effectiveness. Organizational development is a special approach to organizational changein which the employees themselves formulate the change that’s required and implement it, often with the assistanceof a trained consultant.Five steps:  Diagnosis:Collectdata aboutgroup, organization,vs  Feedback: Give information to them
  40. 40. 40  Planning:Plan future steps  Intervention  Follow-up Evaluation STRESS MANAGEMENT Stress: A dynamic condition in which an individual is confronted with an opportunity, constraint,or demand related to what he or she desires and for which the outcome is perceived to be both uncertain and important. Sources of stress:  Environmental factors (economic / political / technological uncertainty)  Organizatioal factors(task / role/ interpersonal demsnds,org. structure& leadership)  Individual factors(family / economic problems,personality) Consequences  Physiological symptoms (headache,high blood pressure,heart disease)  Psychological symptoms (anxiety,depression,decrease in job satisfaction)  Behavioral symtoms (prductivity,absenteeism, turnover) Managingstress:  Individual approaches.Timemanagement training,physical exercise,relaxation techniques,social supportnetworks.  Organizational approaches.Better selection & placement decisions,better goal setting, redesigningjobs,organizational communication. LEARNING ORGANIZATIONS Organization,which has developed the continous capacity to adopt and change. SingleLoop vs Double Loop Learning Characteristics:  Shared vision  Discard old ways  Open systems approach  Open communication  Sublimateself interest Disciplines:  Systems thinking o Balanceprocess with delay: shower o Self sustainingvs Self limitinggrowth: borsa inişçıkış,neresinde satıyorsun o Shiftingthe burden: cure disease,not symptoms. Sample: don’t cure stress by drinking o Tragedy of Commons o Personal mastery: deepen one’s vision and sustaininglifelonglearning.Hayaller yukarı çekerken gerçeklik aşağı çeker
  41. 41. 41  Mental models: Kafamızdaki modeller gerçeklikten uzak olabilir.Önlem:Make reasoningexplicit, define assumptions clearly,encourageothers to find gaps,inquireinto other views  Buildinga shared vision:Polariod –InstantPhotography gibi.Vizyon, Personal Vision’larada uymalı  Team Learning: Jazz grupları veya NBA takımları gibi.How? Sustain dialogue& discussion Learning Disabilities:  I am my position:Limits responsibility,blindnessof interaction  The enemy is out there: Blamingothers. Marketing  Production.Result of system blindness  Illusion of takingcharge:Proactiveness is reactiveness in disguise.Örnek: Projeucuz olsun diyeucuz ABAPçı alıyorsun ama üretim yanlışhesaplandığı için uzun vadede daha kötü oluyor.  Fixation on events: Kısa vadeye odaklanmak.  Parableof boiled frog  Delusion of learningfrom experience: R&D daha hafif bir saç kurutma makinası yapıyor,ama müşteri dokunuşunu “Cheap” bulduğu için almıyor. Musthave feedback – hard in open systems  Myth of management team: Usually,solvingan urgent problem is the subjectof a management team meeting, and a good solution will berewarded. On the other hand, questioningthe company’s current policies will not Laws of learningorganizations:  Today’s Problems Come From Yesterday’s Solutions:Ayakkabıcı günü kurtarmak için indirimyapıyor, ama sonar ucuz ayakkabılarla aynı seviyeyedüşüyor imajı  The Harder You Push, The Harder The System Pushes Back. ¨Example: USA aid program  Behavior Will GrowBetter Before It Will GrowWorse: Yazılımcı projeyi yetiştiremedi diyelim.Test sürecini zayıf tutup “gecikme” problemini çözdü diyelim.O anda aferin dendi. Ama uzun vadede yazılım patlayınca o kötü yazılımcı olarak bilinecek.  The Easy Way Out Usually Leads Back In: “Bigger Hammer”. carpenter who is tryingdifferent type of hammers to get a nail outof a cabinet. Whathe really needs is a pair of pincers.  The Cure Can Be WorseThan The Disease.¨Example: Alcoholism  Faster is Slower.As a managerial principle,itis a better idea to remove the factors limitinggrowth instead of pushinggrowth.  Cause& Effect Are Not Closely Related. Sales bad? Wrong: Firesalespeople.Right: Inspectreasons.  Least Obvious Areas of Leverage: when school officials makethe decision to introduceeducational reforms, simply sittingdown with teachers and easingtheir concerns about the impactthese reforms will haveon their lives can go a longway toward pavingthe way for a smooth transition  You Can Have Your Cake, and Eat It Too. But Not All At Once! This is an incorrectbelief.Some items in Ikea’s catalogueof 2008 are cheaper than the catalogueof 2007.IKEA stated that this happened because they were ableto decrease the pricebecauseof the high volume of sales and new production methods.  DividingAn Elephant In Two Doesn’t Produce 2 Elephants.Open systems have integrity. Leadership in LO: Leader as Designer24, Leader as Teacher25, Leader as Steward, Transformational Leadership 24 Sistemleri tasarlarken debulunmalı yönetici.Mesela ERP projesi varsa,tasarımaşamasındaolmalı 25 Create a spacefor learning& invite people into it

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