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Collocation and multi word lexemes

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Conference presentation at Skians 2015, Cornish Language Research Network Conference, 24th September 2015, Penryn Campus.

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Collocation and multi word lexemes

  1. 1. Cornish syntagmatic lexical relations: Collocations, colligations, and multi-word lexemes Dr Jon Mills Skians 2015, Cornish Language Research Network Conference 24th September 2015 Penryn Campus
  2. 2. Lexical relation Paradigmatic Syntagmatic
  3. 3. The paradigmatic lexical relation Ma’n den tebri aval dehen-rew kresigow kofen sevien
  4. 4. The syntagmatic lexical relation
  5. 5. The syntagmatic lexical relation godhvos gras dhe nebonan ‘be grateful to someone’ "Haw dremas a wor thym grace | Tha weyll vyadge mar nobell" 'And my husband will be grateful to me for undertaking such a noble enterprise' [Jordan 1611: 708-9] COMBINATORIAL
  6. 6. Collocation: recurring combination an tas a wruk ou formye | am offryn re woffe gras Origo Mundi: 529-30 'May the Father who created me thank me for my offering’ Gromercy agen lych da | mur gras y wothen nefra | thywy agis bolnogeth Ton 1504: 308-10 'Many thanks, our good liege. We are always most grateful to you for your intention’ Tha Thew y whon gras ragtha Jordan 1611: 2004 'I thank God for it.' godhvos gras
  7. 7. Colligation: Grammatical patterns Verb Noun Prep. phrase Prep. phrase godhvos gras dhe nebonan a neppyth Thank someone for something; be grateful to someone for something. "an tas a wruk ou formye | am offryn re woffe gras" 'May the Father, who created me, thank me for my offering’ [Origo Mundi: 529-30] "Gromercy agen lych da | mur gras y wothen nefra | thywy agis bolnogeth" 'Many thanks, our good liege. We are always most grateful to you for your intention’ [Ton 1504: 308-10]
  8. 8. Collocations: verb + noun doen sorr dhe nebonan • be angry with somebody "y whon gwyre dew agen tas y sor thyn y teig pur vras me an suppose'" 'I know that God our Father will be very angry with us’ [Jordan 1611: 860-2]
  9. 9. Collocation: verb + noun gorra with a • take care of; preserve "... re worro wyth am ene" '... preserve my soul' [Origo Mundi: 1978]
  10. 10. Collocation: verb + noun grontya kummyas dhe nebonan, dhiworth nebonan, dhe wul neppyth • allow someone something, somebody Lit: grant permission for something to someone from somebody " ... bos granntyes thynny cummyes | dywort an tas deu guella | the bales ha the wonys" '... that God allows us to dig and sow' [Origo Mundi: 412] "cummyas grantyys thym yma | thy anclethyas yn lowen" 'Fortunately, I am allowed to bury him' [Passio Domini: 3146]
  11. 11. Collocation: verb + adverb leverel (yn) freth • speak emphatically; say emphatically "In un stevya oll y eth bys yn pylat o Iustis un eʒow ʒoʒo yn freth yndelma a leverys" ‘Hurryingly they all went to Pilate who was a justice; a Jew emphatically spoke thus to him…’ [Pascon agan Arluth: 239ab] "Der gras Christ agen pernas, me, Modreth, a lever freth: Arthur a vyth guarthevyas hay yskerans ef a feth" ‘By the grace of Christ who redeemed us, I Modred, say emphatically: Arthur will be victorious and he will vanquish his foes’ [Bewnans Ke: 1486-89]
  12. 12. Collocation: verb + adverb mynnes kyns • prefer; would rather Me vendzha kenz It is better; I had rather [Lhuyd 1707: 127a]
  13. 13. Collocation: verb + adjective gwitha kompes yn-kever nebonan • remain faithful to someone "mal δa va prêv erra e urêg guiτa kẏmpez et i gever" 'that he might ascertain whether his wife was remaining faithful to him' [Lhuyd 1707: Dzhuan Tshei an Hor: 39]
  14. 14. Collocation: verb + adjective mynnes da dhe nebonan • wish someone well "dotho orth neb a vyn da" 'to him who wishes him well' [Ton 1504: 2850]
  15. 15. Collocation: verb + adjective prena da • buy cheaply "me a gesul bos ganse | prennys da gwon yn nep le" 'I advise that some open land somewhere is bought cheaply with them' [Passio Domini: 1543-4]
  16. 16. Collocation: verb + prepositional phrase sevel yn galloes • lie in one's power "ny seff henna yth galloys" 'That doesn't lie in your power.' [Ton 1504: 2387]
  17. 17. Collocations: noun + adjective fortun teg • good luck "rag esya an pedrennou ha rag stopya tarthennou yma thywy forten tek" 'For easing the buttocks and for stopping tertian fever you have good luck' [Ton 1504: 1422-4]
  18. 18. Collocations: noun + adjective goes nessa • close relative "my a vyn kyns es dybarth | muvye omma certan tra | rag dader hag honester | ze varyasek heb awer | ow goys nessa” 'I will before leaving | propose here a certain thing, | for goodness and decency, | to Meriasek, without grief, | my next of kin' [Ton 1504: 259-63]
  19. 19. Collocation: noun + adjective kolm re • slip knot (Lit: free knot) "me a vyn setye colm re | may fastyo an colm wharre | sur adro thiim bryangen | a thysempys thum tage " 'I will tie a slip knot, so that the knot may fasten around my throat to choke me immediately' [Passio Domini: 1525-8]
  20. 20. Collocations: noun + noun best arlythy • game "pyu a ros dywhy lescyans | rag dones in ou grond vy | the helghya best arlythy" 'who has given you permission to enter my territory, to hunt game?' [Ton 1504: 3463-5]
  21. 21. Collocations: comparative adj. + noun phrase gwella dha cher • cheer up Lit: better your cheer "eva wek guella the cher" 'Dear Eve, cheer up!' [Origo Mundi: 166] "the das kera thy lawe | a erghys guella the cher" 'Thy most dear Father, praise Him, has bidden "Cheer up"' [Passio Domini: 1049-50] "ow fryas gwella tha geare" 'My spouse, cheer up!' [Jordan 1611: 1306]
  22. 22. Collocation: adjective + adverb teg lowr • easy "y thew tege lowre the undirstondia" 'it is easy to understand' [Tregear Homilies: 55a]
  23. 23. Collocation: adverb + adverb stag omma • right here "mensen stak omma merwell" 'I would like to die right here' [Ton 1504: 1368]
  24. 24. Collocation: noun + prepositional phrase haval dhe fas nebonan • in appearance like someone "ny ad wra ty then a bry | haval dagan face whare" ‘Presently I shall make you, you man, from clay, in appearance like us’ [Origo Mundi: 59-60] "Me a wra ge dean a bry | Havall thagan face whare" 'Presently we shall make you, you man, from clay, in appearance like us' [Jordan 1611: 346-7]
  25. 25. Restricted collocational range mo m. night "jhesu an map luen a ras. sokyr ny mo ha meten an sperys sans benygas y gras genen may keffen" 'Jesus, the Son full of Grace, assist us night and day, so that we may receive the grace of the blessed Holy Ghost.' [Ton 1504: 2737-40]
  26. 26. Restricted collocational range morel adj. black (of a horse) "py ma thym ou margh morel" 'Where is my black horse?' [Ton 1504: 2111]
  27. 27. Opaque meaning: Idiomskows gerennow • quibble Lit: ‘speak words’ "na wele cous gerennou" 'Don't try to quibble!' [Ton 1504: 2964]
  28. 28. war an ke Lit: ‘on the hedge’ • unclaimed; abandoned "pur a wylsta war an kee gesys yn bys ma enaff" 'When did you really see an unclaimed soul left upon this earth' [Ton 1504: lines 1253-1254]
  29. 29. a leun kolonn Lit: ‘of a full heart’ • sincere; passionately; whole-heartedly; heartfelt "wy abys a leun golon" 'you who pray whole- heartedly' [Pascon agan Arluth: 1.2] "pyiadow a luen colon" 'whole-hearted prayer' [Passio Domini: 25]
  30. 30. doen sorr dhe nebonan Lit: ‘carry anger to someone’ • be angry with somebody "y whon gwyre dew agen tas y sor thyn y teig pur vras me an suppose'" 'I know that God our Father will be very angry with us [Jordan 1611: 860-2]
  31. 31. heb hwedha dha gorn • without making a fuss Lit: without blowing your horn "dyson hep whethe the gorn | dysempys gura y thybry" 'quietly, without making a fuss, eat it immediately' [Origo Mundi: 207-8]
  32. 32. mes a dhornow • unexpectedly Lit: ‘out of hands’ "Mee rese mos tha Loundres mes a thor[n]ow" 'I must go to London unexpectedly' [Bilbao MS.]
  33. 33. taves re hir Lit: tongue too long • chatterbox "Bedh dɐrn rê ver, dhɐn tavaz rê hîr" 'A fist is too short for a chatterbox' [Lhuyd 1707: 251c]
  34. 34. FIXED EXPRESSIONS IDIOMS war an ke : unclaimed; abandoned a leun kolonn : passionately; whole-heartedly heb whedha dha gorn : without making a fuss VERY RESTRICTED mo : night morel : black (of a horse) RECURRING COMBINATIONS godhvos gras : be grateful godhvos breus : suffer judgment FREE COMBINATIONS godhvos Wella : know Wella godhvos skrifa : know how to write
  35. 35. Cornish syntagmatic lexical relations: Collocations, colligations, and multi-word lexemes Dr Jon Mills, University of Kent Skians 2015, Cornish Language Research Network Conference 24th September 2015

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