Social problems

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Social problems

  1. 1. SOCIAL PROBLEMS Unit – XII Sociology of Nursing
  2. 2. Social Problems  Social disorganization  Control & Planning: Housing, Illiteracy, Food Supplies, Prostitution, Rights of Women & Children.  Vulnerable groups: Elderly, Handicapped, Minority groups and Marginalized groups, Child Labour, Child Abuse, Delinquency and Crime, Substance abuse, HIV/AIDS.  Social  Role welfare Programs in India of Nurse
  3. 3. SOCIAL DISORGANIZATION  Social disorganization is the process opposed to social organization.  Social disorganization implies some breakdown in the organization of society.  Social organization and social disorganization is the dual aspects of the whole functioning of society.  When the parts of social structure do not perform their functions efficiently and effectively or perform badly there occurs an imbalance in society.  That imbalance is called social disorganization.  Social disorganization disturbed the social equilibrium and society gets out of gear.
  4. 4. DEFINITION OF SOCIAL DISORGANIZATION  Emile Durkheim – “social disorganization as a state of disequilibrium and a lack of social solidarity or consensus (agreement or compromise) among the members of a society”.  Thomas and F. Znaniecki – “social disorganization as a decrease of the influence of existing rules of behaviour upon individual members of the groups”.  Mowever – “social disorganization is the process by which the relationships between members of a group are shaken”.
  5. 5. CHARACTERISTICS OF SOCIAL DISORGANIZATION Conflict of mores and of institutions.  Transfer of functions from one group to another.  Individualization.  Change in the role and status of the individuals. 
  6. 6. CHARACTERISTICS 1. Conflict of Mores and of Institutions:    1. Every society has its mores and institutions which regulate the life of its members. New ideals arise and new institutions are formed. With the destruction of agreement, social organization breaks up and social disorganization ensues. Transfer of Functions from One group to another:  Society is dynamic, the functions of one group are transferred to another.  Thus transfer of functions from one group to another is characteristic of social disorganization  (ex.) the family stand transferred today a nurseries, schools and clubs. This has caused family disorganization.
  7. 7. 3. Individualization:    4. Man today thinks in terms of self. The young man and women want to take decisions on such important matters as marriage, occupation, recreation and morality. This trend has set in a dangerous process of social disorganization. Change in the Individuals:    role and status of the In an organized society the roles and status of people are defined and fixed. But in course of time our norms change which also brings a change in the roles and statuses of the people. The women are no longer confined to homes. They work in office. This change in the role of women has caused family disorganization.
  8. 8. CAUSES OF SOCIAL DISORGANIZATION Division of labour.  Violation of social rules.  Industrialization.  Cultural lag.  Natural catastrophes.  War. 
  9. 9. Causes of Social Disorganization 1. Division of Labour  According to Emile Durkheim, extreme division of labour is the cause of social disorganization.  Extreme division of labour gives rise to economic crises of all kinds, class struggles, and industrial strife, and leads to the demoralization of individuals, the family, and the community. 1. Violation of Social rules  In society there are always individuals violate the social rules.  This has a disorganizing effect upon social institutions, and unless the violations are checked, they may eventually lead to the death of institutions.
  10. 10. 3. Industrialization  Industrialization had led to capitalism, exploitation and class conflicts.  It has also contributed to unemployment, crime, immorality, family disorganization, urbanization and its evils. 3. Cultural Lag  Modern technology is changing at a rapid rate and creating important social changes with which our institutions have not yet caught up.  So that gap between modern and traditional culture creates social disorganization.
  11. 11. 5. Natural disasters  5. Ecological disturbances, i.e., disturbances in the relationship of man to his environment, including such natural phenomena as earthquakes, floods, volcanic eruptions and various other disasters of nature, may also have a disorganizing effect on society. War    War disturbs the economy of a country and introduces confusion and disorder in society. War leads of scarcity. There is economic crisis during the war period. War also affects the male-female ratio.
  12. 12. POVERTY
  13. 13. POVERTY  Poverty as a social problem is very much out of control in India.  It means the condition of an individual in which he is unable to meet out his basic needs.  It is measurable only in terms of the living standards and resources of a given society at a particular time.  It is that condition in which a person either because of inadequate income or unwise expenditures.
  14. 14. TYPES OF POVERTY  Poverty means the condition of an individual in which he is unable to meet out his natural dependents basic needs as to function normally as a part and parcel of the society.  Relative poverty is that in which the individual is relatively poor comparing some other members of the society who are relatively rich.  Absolute poverty means that in which the individual is unable to maintain a minimum decent standard of living for himself and his dependents.
  15. 15. CAUSES OF POVERTY Personal factors  Political and economic factors  Biological factors  Technological and Environmental factors  Social factors 
  16. 16. CAUSES OF POVERTY  Personal factors:  It included the physical weakness, defects or diseases which may be hereditary or accidental.  All these factors affects the capacity of the worker to compete and earn sufficiently for his livelihood.  Political and Economic Factors:  The government did not render any assistance to the cultivators to adopt new techniques of agriculture, producing lack of education facilities and followed the laissez faire policies.  Industrial revolution in the 18th century brought many drastic changes in agriculture.
  17. 17. CAUSES OF POVERTY  Biological factors:  Absence of any family planning scheme and this led to increase in poverty.  Technological and environmental factors:  Scarcity of raw materials and fuel and uncertainty of rains were also some of the reasons for poverty.  Social factors:  The joint family system (discourages youngsters), the caste system (traditional occupation) and the religious beliefs (karma theory and fate theory) disturbs the growth of the industrial sector and economic development.
  18. 18. STRATEGIES FOR ALLEVIATING POVERTY Five year plans  Nationalization of bank  20 Point Programme  State Poverty Programmes  IRDP (Integrated Rural Developmental Programmes)  TRYSEM (Training Rural Youth for Social Employment)  NREP (National Rural Employment Programme)  RLEGP ( Rural Landless Employment Guarantee Programme)  JRY ( Jawahar Rozgar Yojana)  Antyodaya Programme  Garibi Hatao and Bekari Hatao Programme 
  19. 19. HOUSING
  20. 20. HOUSING  Houselessness, Overcrowding, Slums and rental are serious problems in urban areas.  The houses of the poor are not only over crowded but lack privacy.  The darkness of the houses drives the children out into the street creating problems for the parents in controlling their children.  There are certain unique characteristics of Indian culture which drives its housing set-up. The most common structure is for the extended family (usually referred to as joint family) to live in the same house.
  21. 21. CONDT…  With modernization there are migration form rural and growing section of nuclear families in urban areas also creates housing problems.  According to the Times of India, "a majority of Indians in urban area have per capita space equivalent to or less than a 10 X 10 feet room for their living, sleeping, cooking, washing and toilet needs.".  Year by year the urban population rate are increase. But the facilities not given for equally to all.  These reasons slums, poor sanitation, low standard of life is increasing.
  22. 22. Causes of housing problems Industrialization  Urbanization  Growth the population  Migration from one place to another place  Welfare programmes The subsidized  Housing finance  Socialization of urban land  Environmental improvement of urban slums  Various urban development programmes  Urban basic services for the poor  Integrated development of small and middle town  Mega cities scheme 
  23. 23. ILLITERACY
  24. 24. ILLITERACY  Illiteracy in India has, since long before independence, been regarded as an obstacle to development.  Who can read but cannot write are not literate.  Formal education in a school is not necessary for a person to be considered as literate.  Who is literate?  One who can read and write some language is literate.  UNESCO has defined a literate person as “one who can with understanding both read and write a short simple statement on his every day life”.
  25. 25. CAUSES OF ILLITERACY  High rate of population growth in relation to low rate of adult population gaining literacy.  Ineffectiveness of primary schools in enrolling and retaining students.  Traditional outlook of lower-caste people is using young children for their occupation,  High level of poverty.  Non-conducive educational policies of the colonial rulers to the spread of education  Low allotment of funds till the Seventh Five Year Plan.
  26. 26. STRATEGIES FOR ALLEVIATING ILLITERACY  National Policy on Education National system of education laying down:  To establish education all over the country.  Reinforcing the integrative aspect of society and culture.  Establishing a value system necessary for an egalitarian, democratic and secular society.  Education implemented through various channels  Establishment of centres in rural areas.  Worker’s education through the employers.  Radio, TV, Films as mass and group learning media.  Programmes of distance learning.  Organizing assistance in self-learning.
  27. 27.  National Adult Education Programme (NAEP) The NAE Programme was launched on Oct. 2, 1978. package with envisages are:  Imparting literacy skills to the target illiterate population.  Their functional development.  Creation of awareness among them regarding laws and policies of the government. Special emphasis is being placed on the education of women, Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes and weaker sections of society.
  28. 28. Rural Functional Literacy Programme (RFLP) The RFLP is sub-programme of the NAEP.  The broad objectives of the programme are:  To develop abilities in the learners to read and write.  To create awareness among the learners about their rights and duties. The RFLP was launched in May 1986 by involving the NSS and other Student Volunteers in college and universities on the topic of “Each One Teach One”.  National Literacy Mission (NLM) NLM with a view of achieving literacy goals through setting into motion Total Literacy Campaigns (TLCs) all over the country. The NLM was launched in May 1988.
  29. 29. FOOD SUPPLIES
  30. 30. FOOD SUPPLIES  1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. The Government of India have launched several nutritional programmes to tackle major problems of malnutrition prevailing in India. There are: Applied nutrition programme Mid-day meal programme Vitamin ‘A’ Prophylaxis Prophylaxis against nutritional Anaemia Control of iodine deficiency disorders Special nutrition programme Balwadi nutrition programme ICDS programme
  31. 31. APPLIED NUTRITION PROGRAMME  This project was launched by the Government of India in 1963 with aid from UNICEF, WHO and FAO for improving the nutrition of the nursing, and expectant mothers and children. ANP (Applied Nutrition Programme) has now become an integral part of the community development programme in different state of India. MID-DAY MEAL PROGRAMME  The Mid-day meal programme is also known as school lunch programme. This programme has been in operation since 1961 throughout the country. The major objective of the programme is to attract more children for admission to schools and retain them so that literacy improvement of children could be brought about.
  32. 32. VITAMIN ‘A’ PROPHYLAXIS  One of the components of the National Programme of Control of Blindness is to administer a single massive dose of Vitamin ‘A’ daily. Preparation orally to all preschool children in the community every six months through peripheral health workers. An evaluation of the programme has revealed a significant reduction in Vitamin ‘A’ deficiency in children. PROPHYLAXIS AGAINST NUTRITIONAL ANEMIA  The programme consists of distribution of iron and folic acid tablets to pregnant women and young children (1-12 years). Mother aid, children health centres in rural areas and ICDS projects are engaged in the implementation of this programme.
  33. 33. CONTROL OF IODINE DEFICIENCY DISORDERS  Nearly 145 million of people estimated to living in known goitre endomic areas of the country. The National Goire Control Programme was launched by the Government of India in 1962 in the conventional goitre belt in the Himalayan region with the objective of identification of the goitre endemic areas to supply. Iodised salt in place of common salt and to asses the impact of goitre control measures over a period of time. SPECIAL NUTRITION PROGRAMME  This programme was started in 1970 for the nutritional benefit of children below 6 years of age, pregnant and nursing mothers and is in operation in urban slums, tribal areas and backward rural areas. The beneficiary mothers receive daily 500 kcal and 25 grams of protin. This supplement is provided to them for about 300 days in a year.
  34. 34. BALWADI NUTRITION PROGRAMME  This programme was started in 1970 for the benefit of children in the age group 3-6 years in rural areas. It is under the overall charge of the department of social welfare. Four national level organizations including the Indian Council of Child Welfare are given grants to implement the programme. The porgramme is implemented through balwadi which also provide preparatory education to these children. ICDS PROGRAMME  Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) was started in 1975 in pursuance of the National Policy for Children. There is strong nutrition component in this programme in the form of supplementary nutrition, vitamin ‘A’ prophylaxis and iron and folic acid distribution. The beneficiaries are preschool children below 6 years, pregnant and lactating mothers.
  35. 35. PROSTITUTION
  36. 36. PROSTITUTION       Its world’s oldest profession. Its not only personal disorganization Its affect family and the community at large. It is a burning social problems the globe. Combinations of factors are enhancing the prostitution. “A prostitute is a persons who agrees to have sexual intercourse with any persons, who offers money or in kind”. Causes of prostitution  Biological: Biological Sex urge is human being  Socio-Economic: Poverty, Mother’s occupation, Socio-Economic Industrialization, Urbanization, Lack of family and social control and Lack of moral teaching.
  37. 37. Causes of females Economic factor: with out any support  Ignorance: rural girls, employment posts  Unhappy marital relations:  Inordinate sex desire:  Desire for new experience:  Restrictions on widow remarriage:  Devadasi system:  Causes of males The unmarried persons: leads bachelors to prostitution.  The married person: unsatisfactory marital relationship, temperamental or cultural differences between the couple.  The widower or the divorces 
  38. 38. TYPES OF PROSTITUTES  The overt prostitute:  Professional registered, unregistered prostitute who live in brothel houses.  Act as entertainers, supplements to their legitimate earnings.  Clandestine group:  The occasional prostitute: who alternates periods of reforms with period of active prostitution.  The incidental prostitute: Inadequate legitimate income, by the role of sex favour increased income.  Married women occasionally resort to mercenary and adulterous practices.  Lower status of women which the guardian enters into agreement with a member for a stipulated period.
  39. 39. Legislation on prostitution Bombay prevention of prostitution Act 1923, Madras 1930, Bengal 1933, UP 1933, Punjab 1935, Bihar 1948, MP 1953. Suppression of Immoral Act 1956. Future Programme Sex education  Employment opportunity for women  Removal of certain social customs  Publicity and propaganda 
  40. 40. RIGHTS OF WOMEN
  41. 41. RIGHTS OF WOMEN The Department of Women and Child Development created in 1985 and implements the policies and programmes relating to women and child welfare. Social legislation  Compare to other religion Hindu women suffered from many legal disabilities.  After the New Constitution of India in 1950. Women’s position was changed that is  Equal of rights to women with men.  Rights to vote and get elected.  Panchayati Raj bodies seats are reserved.  72nd and 73rd Amendment Bills dealing have provided 30% reservation seats for women.
  42. 42. Social legislation Acts The Hindu Succession Act 1956  The Hindu Guardianship Act 1956  The Child Marriage Restraint Amendment Act 1978  The Dowry Prohibition Act 1961  Maternity Benefits Act 1961  The Factories Amendment Act 1976  The equal Remuneration Act 1976  These social legislation acts have removal the several disabilities for women
  43. 43. Education Programme  Lack of education has been a great hindrance to women’s progress.  The Central Government gives financial assistance to the educationally backward states for establishing schools and colleges exclusively for girls.  Loans and grants are given for construction of women hostel buildings.  The SC/ST girls receive higher rates of postmatric scholarship as compared to boys.
  44. 44.  Adult education centres providing education for women especially Health, Nutrition, Child Care and Family Planning.  The curriculum also includes skills like teaching, stitching, embroidery and knitting etc..  The Ministry of Welfare has launched Functionally Literacy Programmes for Adult women.  The Central Social Welfare Board gives grants to Voluntary Organizations for women education.
  45. 45. Employment and Income Generating Programmes  The Government is giving greater attention to the training of women in vocational courses.  More women polytechnics are being opened where girls are provided training in Instrumental technology for repair and maintenance of electronic equipment, manufacturing of ready-made garments, handloom weaving, food preservation, typing and stenography etc..  The various trades in which training is imported are electronics, watch assembly and repair, computers programming printing and binding, handloom weaving, handicrafts, weaving and spinning, toy-making etc.
  46. 46.  These programmes is implemented through Public Sector Undertaking / Corporations / Autonomous Bodies/ Voluntary organizations.  The rehabilitation of women in distress, a scheme was launched in 1977 to provide vocational training-cumemployment and residential care so that women in distress such as Young and Old Widows, Unmarried Mothers, Victims of Kidnapping, Deserted Women could become economically independent.  Women’s employment in various sectors such as agriculture, dairying, handloom and handcrafts where women are preponderantly engaged in work, was formulized at the beginning of the seventh Five Year Plan (1985-1990).
  47. 47. Hostels for Working Women  One of the main difficulties faced by working women is lack of suitable accommodation in a healthy and wholesome environment. A Central Scheme of Assistance for Constructing of Hostel Buildings for working women was started in 1972. The scope of the scheme was widened in 1980 by including a provision for DayCare Centres for the children.  Financial assistance to the extent of 50% of the cost of land and 75% of the cost of construction of the Hostels is given to Voluntary Organizations.
  48. 48.  An Advisory Committee on working women’s hostel has been set up under the chairmanship of the Minister of State for Women and Child Development to review the functioning of the programme and advise the Government on the measure for its improvement and expansion.  The Department also gives financial assistance to Voluntary organization for establishing and running short stay homes to protect and rehabilitate those women’s.  Under the scheme social facilities of adjustment, education, vocational and recreational activities are provided.
  49. 49. Appointment of Commissions and Committees The Government of India in order to study the problems of women and invite suggestions and recommendations for their solution.  For Women’s welfare has been appointing various committees and commissions from time to time and accepting their recommendations to the extent possible.  National Committee on the Status of Women (1974)  National Expert Committee on Women Prisoners (1986)  National Committee on Women (1980)  National Commission on Self-employed Women and Women in the informal Sector (1987)
  50. 50. CHILDREN
  51. 51. CHILDREN  Children constitute about 40% of India’s population.  Nearly 40% suffer form malnutrition, about one lakhs succumbing to it every month.  India’s infant mortality rate of 120 per 1000.  For every seven children born, one dies before the age of 5.  Over 30,000 children go blind every years.  Nine out of every 1000 schools going children suffer from rheumatic heart disease because of nutritional anemia.  The 100 of children are kidnapped every year and many of them are sold for forced into beggary.
  52. 52. Constitutional Provisions  The national concern for children is reflected in the constitutional and legislative provisions which govern the rights of children.  Article 25 lays down that no child below the age of 14 shall be employed to work in any factory or mine hazardous nature.  Article 39 requires the States to ensure that children are not forced by economic necessity to enter vocations unsuited to their age and strength.  Article 45 requires the State to endeavour to provide free and compulsory education for all children upto the age of 14 years.
  53. 53.  The Hindu Adoption and Maintenance Act 1956.  Women’s Act 1960.  State and Children’s Institutions (Licensing) Children Act  Factories Act of 1948.  Plantation  The Labour Act of 1951 Mines Act of 1952.  Juvenile Justice Act 1986.
  54. 54. Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) scheme was introduces on October 2, 1975. main objectives…  To improve the nutrition and health status of children in the age group of 0-6 years.  To lay the foundations for proper psychological.  Physical  To and social development of the child. reduce the incidence of mortality.  Morbidity.  Malnutrition  To and school drop outs. achieve effective coordination of policy and implementation among the various departments to promote child development.
  55. 55.  The scheme covers children below the age of six years.  It aims at the delivery of package of services such as.  Supplementary nutrition  Immunization  Health check-up  Referral services  Non-formal  Nutrition (pre-school) education and health education to all women. The focus point to provide an anganwadi in every village, or a ward of an urban slum area.
  56. 56. Other programmes The Welfare Department of Child Welfare are:  Day Care Centre for children of working and ailing women  Early childhood education centre  Ananad pattern Integrated Family Welfare Programme  National Award for Child Welfare  Celebration of Children’s Day  Mid Day Meal Scheme for School-going Children  Public awareness programme through mass media agencies like radio, television, children’s films.
  57. 57. And also interduce  Children’s park  Painting competitions  Cultural programmes  Children’s publications  Children’s libraries  Bal Bhawans  Doll’s Museum  Children’s film Society  Children’s Book Trust  Children’s fair etc.
  58. 58. ELDERLY
  59. 59. ELDERLY  The population of the old people of 60-plus age is estimated to be about 60 million in India.  Most of the elderly people in villages.  Once the elderly people commanded great respect due to the traditional norms and values of Indian society but now the situation has undergone a change.  Because of disintegration of joint family system and recent changes in social values, social structure and economy resulting form industrialization, urbanization and impact of western culture.
  60. 60.  These elderly people are now neglected by their children and they feel “unwanted”.  The generation gap is widening and the children find it difficult to adjust with their elderly parents.  Consequently the aged now suffer from numerous familial, social, economic and psychological problems. Government Organizations The problems of the aged can be mitigated by providing necessary welfare services to them by way of…. Reasonable amount of old age pension  Free medical care  Housing facilities in the form of old age homes  Recreational facilities to relative their loneliness  Usual courtesies extended to them 
  61. 61. VOLUNTARY ORGANIZATIONS  Various voluntary organizations and associations concerned with the care and welfare of the elderly people.  But particularly Help-Age India and Age-Care India are carrying on in the field of the care of the aged. HELP-AGE INDIA  It was established in 1978 on the pattern of Help the Aged Society of England.  It is a voluntary organization working national wide for elderly people care.
  62. 62.  In India it operated throughout the country with a network of 22 centres in major cities.  Its head office in New Delhi.  It also conduct various events like  Painting competition  Debates  Grandparents meet etc. These includes Home for aged, day centres, geriatric wards, mobile Medicare units, rehabilitation of the blind aged, physically handicapped and leprosy patients and cataract operations.
  63. 63. AGE-CARE INDIA Age-Care India (ACI) was established in 1980.  Providing educational, recreational , social, cultural and spiritual services.  Arranging for medical services, part-time employment to supplement their income  Organizing tours, trips and pilgrimages.  Conducting research and studies on the problems of the aged and arranging study circles, seminars, fetes, rallies, etc.  It has four types of member vizFounder members  Life members  Associate members  Temporary members 
  64. 64. OLD AGE HOMES The Central/State Governments Municipal bodies Philanthropic Welfare Associations Old/Elderly Citizens Welfare Association have set up homes for the old/elderly citizens  At present there are only some 300 homes in the country mostly in urban areas.  These demands are not really off-target, considering the hardship the senior citizens face to on retiring or when they have no means of livelihood and are ignored by the younger lot in their families.
  65. 65. HANDICAPPED
  66. 66. HANDICAPPED A disabled person is one who suffers from the loss or impairment of a limp or deformity in physical or mental capability whether due to nature’s foul play or an unexpected unfortunate accident.  It is estimated that about 12 millions Indians about 1.8% of Indian population have at least one disability or the other.  About 10% of the handicapped are having more than one type of physical disability.
  67. 67. National Institutes for the Disabled  There are four National Institutes in each major are of disability under the Ministry of Welfare, these are  National Institute for the Orthopedically handicapped at Calcutta.  National Institute for the Visually handicapped at Dehradun.  National Institute for the Mentally Handicapped at Secunderabad  Ali Yavar Jung National Institute for the Hearing Handicapped at Bombay. These institutes have been designated as top organizations for training of professionals, production of education material and other aids for the handicapped.
  68. 68. District Rehabilitation Centres  The Ministry of Welfare started the District Rehabilitation Centre Scheme in 1983 for disabled persons living in rural areas.  The scheme predict comprehensive identification of disabled persons following which restorative, medical, educational, vocational and placement services are arranged for them.  These District Centres also encourage NonGovernmental Organizations to provide community awareness, parental counseling and Vocational training services.
  69. 69. Other Facilities for Handicapped  Loans are available from banks at concessional rates of interest for the handicapped persons to set up selfemployment ventures.  3% of vacancies in group ‘C’ and ‘D’ posts in the Government and public sector undertaking have been reserved for the disabled persons.  A ten year relaxation in age has been given to enable them to take advantage of reservation policy  Special concessions to handicapped persons for travel by bus, train and air.  Periority is also given to disabled persons in the allotment of Government houses.
  70. 70.  Scholarship for handicapped students from class IXth upwards including higher and professional education are also given.  H.M.T. has produced Braille wrist watches for blind students.  Sports competition are organized for physically handicapped persons and the winners are awarded prizes.  The state gives pension to handicapped persons.
  71. 71. MINORITY GROUPS Schedule caste (SC) Schedule tribe (ST)
  72. 72. SCHEDULED CASTE / SCHEDULE TRIBE  The scheduled caste and scheduled tribe classes constitute under privileged who have been oppressed, suppressed, exploited humiliated and deprived equality liberty and justice in various field of life.  They have suffered numerous disabilities and deprivations and are therefore known as minority groups of society.  The term scheduled caste appeared for the first time in Government of India Act, 1935.  In April 1936, the British Government had issued the Government of India (Scheduled Castes) order.  1936 specifying certain castes, races and tribes as scheduled castes.
  73. 73. Constitutional Safeguards  The constitution prescribes protection and safeguards for the SCs and STs The main safeguards as:  The abolition of untouchability and the forbidding of its practices in any form (Art.17);  The throwing open by law of Hindu religious institutions of a public character to all classes and section of Hindus (Art.25 b);  Special representation in the Lok Sabha and the State Raj Sabhas to SCs and STs till 25 January 2010 (Art. 330,332 and 334).
  74. 74. Reservation in Services  Article 335 of the Constitution provides that the claims of the members of SCs and STs shall be taken into consideration, in making appointment to posts and services, in connection with the affairs of the union of the states.  Article 16 (4) permits reservations in favour of citizens of backward classes, who may not be adequately represented in services.  Reservations for SCs and STs is subject to the maximum of 50 % of the total number of vacancies. This scheme of reservations is also being followed by the public sector undertakings.
  75. 75. Centrally Sponsored Schemes  Post-Martic Scholarships for SCs and STs students.  Pre-Martic Scholarships for the children of those engaged in unclean occupations.  Book banks for SC/ST students studying in Medical and Engineering colleges.  Boys and Girls Hostels Scheme for SCs.  Coaching and Allied schemes for SCs and STs.
  76. 76. Objectives of Tribal Development The major objective in tribal development were:  Taking up family oriented beneficiary programmes in the field of agriculture, horticulture, animal husbandry, small industries, etc.,  Elimination of exploitation of tribal.  Human resource development through education and training programs.  Infrastructure development.
  77. 77. MARGINALIZED GROUPS Other Backward Class (OBC)
  78. 78. OTHER BACKWARD CLASS (OBC)  As regard the socially and educationally backward classes, now popularly called OBCs the only special provision for them is under Article 340 (15) of the Constitution regarding the appointment of a Commission by the President of India to investigate the condition of backward classes.  The Commission in 25 reports submitted in March, 1955 recommended that the basic certain for identification of the Other Backward Classes accordingly prepared a list of almost 2700 communities, and tired of the country’s population.
  79. 79. Mandal Commission the appointment of Second Backward Classes Commission headed by Shri. B.P. Mandal in 1978. The recommendations of the Mandal Commission were summarized as follows: 27% of the posts in public services should be reserved for OBCs.  Welfare programmes specially meant for OBC’s should be financed by the Government of India in the same manner and to the same extent already done in the case of SCs and STs.  OBCs should be encouraged and helped to set up small scale industries.  Special educational schemes, with emphasis on vocational training should be started for OBCs. 
  80. 80. Child labour
  81. 81. CHILD LABOUR  Child labours are exploited, exposed to hazardous work conditions and paid a pittance for their long hours of work.  Forced to do without education, shouldering responsibilities for beyond their years.  The Indian Constitution protect that:  No child below the age of 14 years shall be employed to work in any factory or in any hazardous employment (Article 25).  The state shall endeavour to provide within a period of 10 years from the commencement of the Constitution free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of 14 years (Article 45).
  82. 82. Nature of Child Work  A majority of the working children are concentrated in the rural areas.  In urban areas who work in canteens and restaurants.  Mumbai has the largest number of child labourers.  For instance, the fireworks and match box units in Sivakasi in Ramanathapuram district in Tamil Nadu employ 45,000 children.  In the slate pencil industry of Mandsaur in Madhya Pradesh, out of total workforce of 12,000 workers.  In the slate industry of Markapur in Andhra Pradesh, about 3,750 child workers are involved in a total workforce of 15,000 workers.
  83. 83.  The lock making industry of Aligarh in Uttar Pradesh employs between 7,000 and 10,000 children below the age of 14 years.  In the brassware industry of Moradabad in Utter Pradesh, about 40,000-50,000 children are working.  In the glass industry of Firozabad in Uttar Pradesh, 50,000 children are working.  Surat (Gujarat), boys in their early teens are engaged in large numbers in diamond-cutting operations which causes irreparable damage to the eyes.  In kashmir and Mirzapur, the carpet weaving industry employs small girls in back breaking works.  In Saharanpur, 10,000 child workers are engaged in the wood carving industry.  In Varanasi, 5,000 children work in the silk weaving industry.  In Delhi, 60,000 children work in dhabas, tea-stalls and restaurants on daily wages.
  84. 84. Causes of Child Labour  A large number of them do not have families or cannot count on them for support.  In these circumstances, the alternatives to work may be joblessness, poverty, worse, crime.  The social scientists say that the main cause of child labour is poverty.  The persons are forced to send their children to work in factories.  Another reason is that child labour is deliberately created by vested interests to get cheap labour.  Child labour is that it benefits industries.
  85. 85. Child abuse
  86. 86. CHILD ABUSE Kempe and Kempe (1978) have defined child abuse as “a condition having to do with those who have been deliberately injured by physical attack”. Burgess (1979) child abuse refers to “any child who receives non-accidental physical and psychological injury as a result of acts and omissions on the part of his parents or guardians or employers…”
  87. 87. Types of abuse  Physical abuse  Sexual abuse  Emotional abuse Problems of abuses Physical abuse: burns, fractures, human-bite, abdominal abuse injuries, bruises etc.  Sexual abuse: difficulty in walking and sitting, abuse complaints of pain, bleeding, venereal disease, pregnancy.  Emotional abuse: failure to provide food, cloth, shelter, abuse care and supervision, alcoholism, sex relation, smoking etc. 
  88. 88. The victims of abuse: on the three types of child abuse, namely, physical, sexual and emotional. Physical Abuse:  Boys are more battered than girls  School going children run greater risk to being physically abused than those who do not go to school.  Older children (14-16 yrs) are more abused physically than younger children (10-13 yrs).  Non-working children are beaten more than working children.  A large number of abused children belong to poor families.  Mother abuse children physically more than fathers.
  89. 89. Sexual abuse:  Girls are more victims of sexual abuse than boys. A high proportion of children become victims of sexual abuse when they are 14 or above 14 years of age.  Males are usually abused sexually by one person while girls are generally assaulted by more than one person.  In about two-third cases, the perpetrators have secondary relationship with the victims.  Boys are generally the victims of “employmentrelated” abuse while girls are generally the victims of “acquaintance-related”.
  90. 90. Emotional abuse:  Boys are more emotionally maltreated than girls.  Working children are as much neglected as nonworking children.  School-going children are a little more maltreated than non-school going children.  In a large number of cases, the parents who neglected the child are those whose income is low and liabilities are many; who are middle-aged, illiterate or less educated; and who are engaged in low-status jobs.
  91. 91. Causes of child abuse causes of physical abuse:  Relation between parents and children  Disobeying parents  Not taking interest in studies  Spending most of the time away form home  Misbehavior from outsides and deviant behavior theft, smoke etc.
  92. 92. Causes of sexual abuse:  Family environment  Family structure  Situational factor  Fails to parent-child relation  Lack of adequate control Causes of emotional abuse:  Poverty  Alcoholism of parents  Maltreatment faced by the children  Deficient parental control
  93. 93. Delinquency
  94. 94. DELINQUENCY Juvenile delinquents are simply under-age criminals constitute crimes when committed by adults.  Between the age group of 7 to 16 or 18 years, as prescribed by the law of the land. Definition  According to Reckless (1956), the term ‘juvenile delinquency’ applies to the “violation of criminal code and/or pursuit of certain patterns of behaviour disapproved of for children and young adolescents”. 
  95. 95. Nature of Juvenile Delinquents 1. The delinquents rates are much higher among boys than among girls, that is, girls commit less delinquents than boys. 2. The delinquents rates tend to be highest during early adolescence (12-16 yrs age). 3. Juvenile delinquency is more an urban than a rural phenomenon. 4. Children living with parents and guardians are found to be more involved in the juvenile crimes. 5. Low educational background is the prime attribute for delinquency. 6. Poor economic background 7. Not many delinquents are committed in groups.
  96. 96. Factors in Juvenile Delinquency Individual factors 1. Submissiveness 2. disobedience 3. lack of sympathy 4. irresponsibility 5. Feeling of insecurity 6. Fear Situational factors Peer group 1. Parents’ discipline relations Family 2. Parents’ affection 3. Cohesiveness of family 4. Conduct-standards of home 7. Emotional conflicts 5. replacement parents 8. Lack of self-control 6. Father’s work habits 7. Economic conditions of family 8. Conjugal relations of parents 9. Broken homes movies School environment 1. Adjustment to school mates 2. Attitudes toward school 3. Failure in classes or academic interests Working environment
  97. 97. Preventive programmes 1. General improvements in the institutional structure of the society, for example, family, neighborhood, school. 2. Raising the income levels of poor families. 3. Providing job opportunities to children 4. Establishing schools 5. Improving job conditions 6. Providing recreational facilities in neighborhoods 7. Improving marital relations through family counseling services 8. Imparting moral and social education.
  98. 98. Crime
  99. 99. CRIME Definition Tappan has defined crime as “an intentional act or omission in violation of criminal law committed without defense or justification”. Thorsten Sellin has described it as “violation of conduct norms of the normative groups” Mowrer had defined it as “an anti-social act”.
  100. 100. Characteristics of Crime  Hall Jerome (1947), according to him, no action is to be viewed as crime unless it has five characteristics 1. It is legally forbidden It is intentional It is harmful to society It has criminal objective Some penalty is prescribed for it. 2. 3. 4. 5.
  101. 101. Confinement of Correction of Criminals  Two methods are mainly used in our society in punishing/treating the criminals.  Imprisonment and release on probation Prisons  The condition in Indian jails were horrible up to 1919-20.  It was after recommendations of 1919-20 Indian Jails Reform committee that changes like classification, segregation of prisoners, education, recreation, assigning productive work and opportunities for maintaining contacts with family and society were introduced in maximum-security prisons.  That is central jail, district jails and sub-jails
  102. 102. Probation Probation is an alternative to a prison.  It is suspension of sentence of an offender by the court and releasing him on certain conditions to live in the community with or without the supervision of a probation officer.  The system was introduced in India in 1958 by passing the Central Probation Act.  Through section 562 in 1898 IPC permitted release of an offender on probation but it applied only to juvenile delinquents and first offenders. 
  103. 103. Substance abuse
  104. 104. SUBSTANCE ABUSE  The term substance can refer to any physical matter.  Substance abuse may be perceived both as abnormal behaviour and as a social problem.  In spite of this increase, drug abuse in India is still considered more as an abnormal behaviour than an anti-social or a non-conforming behaviour.  Several researches have been conducted on drug abuse in India in the last two decade by Medical scientists, psychiatrists and sociologists.
  105. 105. Motivation in Drug Usage 1. Psychological causes:  1. Social causes:  1. Like facilitating social experiences, being accepted by friends and challenging social values. Physiological cause:  1. like relieving tension, depression, removing inhibitions, satisfying interest, removing boredom, getting kicks, feeling high and confident, and intensifying perception. Like increasing sexual experiences, removing pain and getting sleep. Other cause:  Like improving study, depending self-understanding and solving personal problems, etc.
  106. 106. Control over Substance Abuse 1. Teaching education about drugs:    1. Changing physicians’ attitude:    3. Prevention should be young college/university students particularly those living in hostels and way from control of their parents. And living in slums, industrials workers, and truck drivers and rickshaw-pullers. Parents have to play an important role in imparting education. The doctors have to show a greater care in controlling the side efforts of the drugs. Though drugs help many, yet there are dangers of overdependency. Thus, people come to depend more on medication than on physician which is a dangerous practice. Rehabilitation centre:  Of addicts treated under rehabilitation centers .
  107. 107. 4. Counseling to the Parents:     5. Communicate with openly with the children, listen to their problems patiently and teach them how to handle the problems Take interest in children’s activities and their circle of friends Set an example for children by not taking drugs or alcohol Keep track of prescribed drugs in home The teachers:       They can discuss dangers of drug abuse with the students by taking informally and openly They can keep themselves interested in their students’ interested and activities. They can encourage them to volunteer information of any incident of drug abuse They can talk about the problems of adolescence and guide students how to solve them They can help them in selecting career options and setting goals They can encourage them to discuss their crises with them and help them to the best of their abilities in facing these crises.
  108. 108. HIV/AIDS
  109. 109. HIV/AIDS  AIDS (Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome) is a disease which is caused by a virus called Human Immuno-deficiency Virus or HIV.  This virus is fatal and dangerous because it destroys the immune system (the capacity of the body to fight diseases) in the human body.  This virus is smaller than even bacteria and is not observable even with the microscope.  This virus can be transmitted to other persons in a number of ways.  AIDS is the last stage of infected with HIV and developing AIDS.  No vaccine has been invented till today as a cure for AIDS or for protecting people for the HIV.
  110. 110. High Risk Groups and Means of Transmitting the Virus  HIV infection is not contagious in the same sense as measles, chicken pox, tuberculosis, cholera, plague or small pox  It mainly spreads through a sexual route and blood to blood contact.  It may be said that HIV spreads mainly through four sources: 1. 2. 3. 4. Sex with an infected partner – heterosexual as well as homosexual. Transfusion of blood and blood products infected with HIV Injection drugs with infected syringes or needles Infected mother to her unborn child.
  111. 111. Stages in the Development of the Disease 1. Initial HIV infection:   1. In this stage, with the entering of HIV virus in the body. Within few weeks which resembles influenza of flu with symptoms like fever, bodyache and headache. Persistently enlarged glands:   In the next stage, a person develops enlarged but painless glands in the neck and armpits which are free of any symptoms. The early symptoms of AIDS are fatigue, weight-loss, chronic diarrhoea, prolonged fever, cough, night sweats and lymph gland enlargement.
  112. 112. 3. AIDS-related complex:  In this stage, the virus damages the immune system which produces symptoms like attacks of diarrhoea, sweating, loss of weight and extreme weakness. 3. Full-blown AIDS:  This stage is reached after an average of nine to ten years form the time of containing the HIV infection.  The immune system is totally destroyed and many infections and cancers are produced.  The patient becomes very weak and always feel tired.  This stage is easily recognized by doctors.  A man does not survive for more than three to four years after this stage.
  113. 113. Caring for the Infected  Indian government had identified 13 medical college hospitals all over the country where facilities for the effective clinical management were to be set up.  However, so far only four institutions at Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai and Calcutta have these facilities.  Besides about 100 surveillance centres have been established for detecting AIDS infection.  There is also a plan under the National AIDS Control Programme to train one specialist from each hospital in metropolitan cities in the early detection of AIDS cases.  These specialists, to be called PRADS (Physicians Responsible for AIDS Diagnosis) will provide training to at least one doctor in each district.
  114. 114. Social welfare programmes in India
  115. 115. SOCIAL WELFARE PROGRAMMES IN INDIA  The Department of Social Work created in 1964.  Ministry of Welfare under the Central Government is responsible for general social welfare.  It plans in 1985 social welfare programmes and coordinates welfare services maintained by the Government of India, the State Government and the National Voluntary Agencies.  A Central Social Welfare Board was set up in August 1953 to distribute funds to voluntary social service organizations for “strengthening, improving and extending” the existing activities in the field of social welfare and for developing new programmes and carrying out pilot projects.
  116. 116. ROLE OF NURSE There are so many social problems are there in the society.  The nurse should understand the people and their problems.  Illeterarcy, uneducated people are come to the hospital, they don’t know about the diseease condition as a nurse should understand their problmes and ready to help the patients.  Nurse give health education to patients and their family members also. 
  117. 117. Superticious beliefs attitude about their health, so the nurse should explain and teach about what is good and what is bad to their health and give idea that how to get cure from wrong activities.  Poverty also social problem: nurse should know their family income and economic conditions and treat them. 
  118. 118. So many children in family will affect malnutrition so nurse teach than to follow family planning.  Nurse should changing the attitude of the Handicapped and elderly person about their self and that of his family, friends, neighbours, employers and co-workers about the disabled in general.  Thus nurse can help in changing the attitude of the people.  Social change has led to the disintegration of the joint family system and nuclear families have emerged.  Nurse should understand the society and its problems. 
  119. 119. Thank you

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