Unit – XII
Sociology of Nursing
& Planning: Housing, Illiteracy, Food
Supplies, Prostitution, Rights of Women &
groups: Elderly, Handicapped,
Minority groups and Marginalized groups,
Child Labour, Child Abuse, Delinquency and
Crime, Substance abuse, HIV/AIDS.
welfare Programs in India
disorganization is the process opposed to
disorganization implies some breakdown in
the organization of society.
organization and social disorganization is the
dual aspects of the whole functioning of society.
the parts of social structure do not perform
their functions efficiently and effectively or perform
badly there occurs an imbalance in society.
imbalance is called social disorganization.
disorganization disturbed the social
equilibrium and society gets out of gear.
DEFINITION OF SOCIAL
Durkheim – “social disorganization as a state
of disequilibrium and a lack of social solidarity or
consensus (agreement or compromise) among the
members of a society”.
and F. Znaniecki – “social disorganization as
a decrease of the influence of existing rules of
behaviour upon individual members of the groups”.
– “social disorganization is the process by
which the relationships between members of a group
CHARACTERISTICS OF SOCIAL
Conflict of mores and of institutions.
Transfer of functions from one group to another.
Change in the role and status of the individuals.
Conflict of Mores and of Institutions:
Every society has its mores and institutions which
regulate the life of its members.
New ideals arise and new institutions are formed.
With the destruction of agreement, social
organization breaks up and social disorganization
Transfer of Functions from One group to another:
Society is dynamic, the functions of one group are
transferred to another.
Thus transfer of functions from one group to another
is characteristic of social disorganization
(ex.) the family stand transferred today a nurseries,
schools and clubs. This has caused family
Man today thinks in terms of self.
The young man and women want to take decisions on
such important matters as marriage, occupation,
recreation and morality.
This trend has set in a dangerous process of social
Change in the
In an organized society the roles and status of people
are defined and fixed.
But in course of time our norms change which also
brings a change in the roles and statuses of the
The women are no longer confined to homes. They
work in office. This change in the role of women has
caused family disorganization.
CAUSES OF SOCIAL DISORGANIZATION
Division of labour.
Violation of social rules.
Causes of Social Disorganization
Division of Labour
According to Emile Durkheim, extreme division of
labour is the cause of social disorganization.
Extreme division of labour gives rise to economic
crises of all kinds, class struggles, and industrial
strife, and leads to the demoralization of
individuals, the family, and the community.
Violation of Social rules
In society there are always individuals violate the
This has a disorganizing effect upon social
institutions, and unless the violations are
checked, they may eventually lead to the death of
Industrialization had led to capitalism,
exploitation and class conflicts.
It has also contributed to unemployment, crime,
urbanization and its evils.
Modern technology is changing at a rapid rate
and creating important social changes with
which our institutions have not yet caught up.
So that gap between modern and traditional
culture creates social disorganization.
Ecological disturbances, i.e., disturbances in the
relationship of man to his environment, including
such natural phenomena as earthquakes, floods,
volcanic eruptions and various other disasters of
nature, may also have a disorganizing effect on
War disturbs the economy of a country and
introduces confusion and disorder in society.
War leads of scarcity. There is economic crisis
during the war period.
War also affects the male-female ratio.
as a social problem is very much out of
control in India.
means the condition of an individual in
which he is unable to meet out his basic needs.
is measurable only in terms of the living
standards and resources of a given society at a
is that condition in which a person either
because of inadequate income or unwise
TYPES OF POVERTY
Poverty means the condition of an individual in which
he is unable to meet out his natural dependents basic
needs as to function normally as a part and parcel of
Relative poverty is that in which the individual is
relatively poor comparing some other members of the
society who are relatively rich.
Absolute poverty means that in which the
individual is unable to maintain a minimum decent
standard of living for himself and his dependents.
CAUSES OF POVERTY
Political and economic factors
Technological and Environmental factors
CAUSES OF POVERTY
included the physical weakness, defects or diseases
which may be hereditary or accidental.
All these factors affects the capacity of the worker to
compete and earn sufficiently for his livelihood.
Political and Economic Factors:
government did not render any assistance to the
cultivators to adopt new techniques of agriculture,
producing lack of education facilities and followed the
laissez faire policies.
Industrial revolution in the 18th century brought many
drastic changes in agriculture.
CAUSES OF POVERTY
of any family planning scheme and this led to
increase in poverty.
Technological and environmental factors:
of raw materials and fuel and uncertainty of
rains were also some of the reasons for poverty.
joint family system (discourages youngsters), the
caste system (traditional occupation) and the religious
beliefs (karma theory and fate theory) disturbs the
growth of the industrial sector and economic
STRATEGIES FOR ALLEVIATING
Five year plans
Nationalization of bank
20 Point Programme
State Poverty Programmes
IRDP (Integrated Rural Developmental Programmes)
TRYSEM (Training Rural Youth for Social
NREP (National Rural Employment Programme)
RLEGP ( Rural Landless Employment Guarantee
JRY ( Jawahar Rozgar Yojana)
Garibi Hatao and Bekari Hatao Programme
Overcrowding, Slums and rental are
serious problems in urban areas.
houses of the poor are not only over crowded
but lack privacy.
darkness of the houses drives the children out
into the street creating problems for the parents in
controlling their children.
are certain unique characteristics of Indian
culture which drives its housing set-up. The most
common structure is for the extended family
(usually referred to as joint family) to live in the
modernization there are migration form rural
and growing section of nuclear families in urban
areas also creates housing problems.
to the Times of India, "a majority of
Indians in urban area have per capita space
equivalent to or less than a 10 X 10 feet room for
their living, sleeping, cooking, washing and toilet
by year the urban population rate are
increase. But the facilities not given for equally to
reasons slums, poor sanitation, low standard
of life is increasing.
Causes of housing problems
Growth the population
Migration from one place to another place
Socialization of urban land
Environmental improvement of urban slums
Various urban development programmes
Urban basic services for the poor
Integrated development of small and middle town
Mega cities scheme
Illiteracy in India has, since long before independence,
been regarded as an obstacle to development.
Who can read but cannot write are not literate.
Formal education in a school is not necessary for a
person to be considered as literate.
Who is literate?
who can read and write some language is literate.
has defined a literate person as “one who
can with understanding both read and write a short
simple statement on his every day life”.
CAUSES OF ILLITERACY
High rate of population growth in relation to low rate of
adult population gaining literacy.
Ineffectiveness of primary schools in enrolling and
Traditional outlook of lower-caste people is using young
children for their occupation,
High level of poverty.
Non-conducive educational policies of the colonial rulers
to the spread of education
Low allotment of funds till the Seventh Five Year Plan.
STRATEGIES FOR ALLEVIATING
Policy on Education
National system of education laying down:
establish education all over the country.
Reinforcing the integrative aspect of society and
Establishing a value system necessary for an
egalitarian, democratic and secular society.
implemented through various channels
of centres in rural areas.
Worker’s education through the employers.
Radio, TV, Films as mass and group learning media.
Programmes of distance learning.
Organizing assistance in self-learning.
Adult Education Programme (NAEP)
The NAE Programme was launched on Oct. 2, 1978.
package with envisages are:
Imparting literacy skills to the target illiterate
Their functional development.
Creation of awareness among them regarding laws
and policies of the government.
Special emphasis is being placed on the education of
women, Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes and
weaker sections of society.
Rural Functional Literacy Programme (RFLP)
The RFLP is sub-programme of the NAEP.
The broad objectives of the programme are:
To develop abilities in the learners to read and write.
To create awareness among the learners about their
rights and duties.
The RFLP was launched in May 1986 by involving the
NSS and other Student Volunteers in college and
universities on the topic of “Each One Teach One”.
National Literacy Mission (NLM)
NLM with a view of achieving literacy goals through
setting into motion Total Literacy Campaigns (TLCs) all
over the country.
The NLM was launched in May 1988.
The Government of India have launched several
nutritional programmes to tackle major problems of
malnutrition prevailing in India. There are:
Applied nutrition programme
Mid-day meal programme
Vitamin ‘A’ Prophylaxis
Prophylaxis against nutritional Anaemia
Control of iodine deficiency disorders
Special nutrition programme
Balwadi nutrition programme
APPLIED NUTRITION PROGRAMME
project was launched by the Government of India in 1963
with aid from UNICEF, WHO and FAO for improving the
nutrition of the nursing, and expectant mothers and children.
ANP (Applied Nutrition Programme) has now become an
integral part of the community development programme in
different state of India.
MID-DAY MEAL PROGRAMME
Mid-day meal programme is also known as school lunch
programme. This programme has been in operation since 1961
throughout the country. The major objective of the programme
is to attract more children for admission to schools and retain
them so that literacy improvement of children could be brought
VITAMIN ‘A’ PROPHYLAXIS
of the components of the National Programme of Control
of Blindness is to administer a single massive dose of Vitamin
‘A’ daily. Preparation orally to all preschool children in the
community every six months through peripheral health
workers. An evaluation of the programme has revealed a
significant reduction in Vitamin ‘A’ deficiency in children.
PROPHYLAXIS AGAINST NUTRITIONAL ANEMIA
programme consists of distribution of iron and folic acid
tablets to pregnant women and young children (1-12 years).
Mother aid, children health centres in rural areas and ICDS
projects are engaged in the implementation of this
CONTROL OF IODINE DEFICIENCY DISORDERS
145 million of people estimated to living in known
goitre endomic areas of the country. The National Goire
Control Programme was launched by the Government of India
in 1962 in the conventional goitre belt in the Himalayan
region with the objective of identification of the goitre
endemic areas to supply. Iodised salt in place of common salt
and to asses the impact of goitre control measures over a
period of time.
SPECIAL NUTRITION PROGRAMME
programme was started in 1970 for the nutritional
benefit of children below 6 years of age, pregnant and nursing
mothers and is in operation in urban slums, tribal areas and
backward rural areas. The beneficiary mothers receive daily
500 kcal and 25 grams of protin. This supplement is provided
to them for about 300 days in a year.
BALWADI NUTRITION PROGRAMME
programme was started in 1970 for the benefit of
children in the age group 3-6 years in rural areas. It is under
the overall charge of the department of social welfare. Four
national level organizations including the Indian Council of
Child Welfare are given grants to implement the programme.
The porgramme is implemented through balwadi which also
provide preparatory education to these children.
Child Development Services (ICDS) was started in
1975 in pursuance of the National Policy for Children. There
is strong nutrition component in this programme in the form
of supplementary nutrition, vitamin ‘A’ prophylaxis and iron
and folic acid distribution. The beneficiaries are preschool
children below 6 years, pregnant and lactating mothers.
Its world’s oldest profession.
Its not only personal disorganization
Its affect family and the community at large.
It is a burning social problems the globe.
Combinations of factors are enhancing the prostitution.
“A prostitute is a persons who agrees to have sexual
intercourse with any persons, who offers money or in kind”.
Causes of prostitution
Sex urge is human being
Socio-Economic: Poverty, Mother’s occupation,
Lack of family and social control and
Lack of moral teaching.
Causes of females
Economic factor: with out any support
Ignorance: rural girls, employment posts
Unhappy marital relations:
Inordinate sex desire:
Desire for new experience:
Restrictions on widow remarriage:
Causes of males
The unmarried persons: leads bachelors to prostitution.
The married person: unsatisfactory marital
relationship, temperamental or cultural differences
between the couple.
The widower or the divorces
TYPES OF PROSTITUTES
The overt prostitute:
registered, unregistered prostitute who live in
Act as entertainers, supplements to their legitimate
occasional prostitute: who alternates periods of reforms
with period of active prostitution.
The incidental prostitute: Inadequate legitimate income, by
the role of sex favour increased income.
Married women occasionally resort to mercenary and
Lower status of women which the guardian enters into
agreement with a member for a stipulated period.
Legislation on prostitution
Bombay prevention of prostitution Act 1923,
Madras 1930, Bengal 1933, UP 1933,
Punjab 1935, Bihar 1948, MP 1953.
Suppression of Immoral Act 1956.
Employment opportunity for women
Removal of certain social customs
Publicity and propaganda
RIGHTS OF WOMEN
The Department of Women and Child Development
created in 1985 and implements the policies and
programmes relating to women and child welfare.
Compare to other religion Hindu women suffered from
many legal disabilities.
After the New Constitution of India in 1950. Women’s
position was changed that is
Equal of rights to women with men.
Rights to vote and get elected.
Panchayati Raj bodies seats are reserved.
72nd and 73rd Amendment Bills dealing have provided
30% reservation seats for women.
Social legislation Acts
The Hindu Succession Act 1956
The Hindu Guardianship Act 1956
The Child Marriage Restraint Amendment Act 1978
The Dowry Prohibition Act 1961
Maternity Benefits Act 1961
The Factories Amendment Act 1976
The equal Remuneration Act 1976
These social legislation acts have
removal the several disabilities for
of education has been a great hindrance to
Central Government gives financial
assistance to the educationally backward states
for establishing schools and colleges exclusively
and grants are given for construction of
women hostel buildings.
SC/ST girls receive higher rates of postmatric scholarship as compared to boys.
Adult education centres providing education
for women especially Health, Nutrition, Child
Care and Family Planning.
The curriculum also includes skills like
teaching, stitching, embroidery and knitting
The Ministry of Welfare has launched
Functionally Literacy Programmes for Adult
The Central Social Welfare Board gives
grants to Voluntary Organizations for women
Employment and Income Generating
The Government is giving greater attention to the
training of women in vocational courses.
More women polytechnics are being opened where girls
are provided training in Instrumental technology for
repair and maintenance of electronic equipment,
manufacturing of ready-made garments, handloom
weaving, food preservation, typing and stenography etc..
The various trades in which training is imported are
electronics, watch assembly and repair, computers
programming printing and binding, handloom weaving,
handicrafts, weaving and spinning, toy-making etc.
These programmes is implemented through Public
Sector Undertaking / Corporations / Autonomous
Bodies/ Voluntary organizations.
The rehabilitation of women in distress, a scheme was
launched in 1977 to provide vocational training-cumemployment and residential care so that women in
distress such as Young and Old Widows, Unmarried
Mothers, Victims of Kidnapping, Deserted Women could
become economically independent.
Women’s employment in various sectors such as
agriculture, dairying, handloom and handcrafts where
women are preponderantly engaged in work, was
formulized at the beginning of the seventh Five Year
Hostels for Working Women
of the main difficulties faced by working
women is lack of suitable accommodation in a
healthy and wholesome environment.
Central Scheme of Assistance for Constructing
of Hostel Buildings for working women was
started in 1972. The scope of the scheme was
widened in 1980 by including a provision for DayCare Centres for the children.
assistance to the extent of 50% of the
cost of land and 75% of the cost of construction of
the Hostels is given to Voluntary Organizations.
Advisory Committee on working women’s
hostel has been set up under the chairmanship of
the Minister of State for Women and Child
Development to review the functioning of the
programme and advise the Government on the
measure for its improvement and expansion.
Department also gives financial assistance
to Voluntary organization for establishing and
running short stay homes to protect and
rehabilitate those women’s.
the scheme social facilities of adjustment,
education, vocational and recreational activities
Appointment of Commissions and Committees
The Government of India in order to study the problems of
women and invite suggestions and recommendations for
For Women’s welfare has been appointing various
committees and commissions from time to time and
accepting their recommendations to the extent possible.
National Committee on the Status of Women (1974)
National Expert Committee on Women Prisoners (1986)
National Committee on Women (1980)
National Commission on Self-employed Women and
Women in the informal Sector (1987)
constitute about 40% of India’s
40% suffer form malnutrition, about one
lakhs succumbing to it every month.
infant mortality rate of 120 per 1000.
every seven children born, one dies before the
age of 5.
30,000 children go blind every years.
out of every 1000 schools going children
suffer from rheumatic heart disease because of
100 of children are kidnapped every year and
many of them are sold for forced into beggary.
national concern for children is reflected in the
constitutional and legislative provisions which
govern the rights of children.
25 lays down that no child below the age of 14
shall be employed to work in any factory or mine
39 requires the States to ensure that children
are not forced by economic necessity to enter
vocations unsuited to their age and strength.
45 requires the State to endeavour to provide
free and compulsory education for all children upto
the age of 14 years.
Hindu Adoption and Maintenance Act 1956.
and Children’s Institutions (Licensing)
Act of 1948.
Labour Act of 1951
Mines Act of 1952.
Justice Act 1986.
Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS)
scheme was introduces on October 2, 1975. main
To improve the nutrition and health status of
children in the age group of 0-6 years.
lay the foundations for proper psychological.
and social development of the child.
reduce the incidence of mortality.
and school drop outs.
achieve effective coordination of policy and
implementation among the various departments to
promote child development.
The scheme covers children below the age of six years.
It aims at the delivery of package of services such as.
(pre-school) education and health
education to all women.
The focus point to provide an anganwadi in every
village, or a ward of an urban slum area.
The Welfare Department of Child Welfare are:
Day Care Centre for children of working and ailing
Early childhood education centre
Ananad pattern Integrated Family Welfare Programme
National Award for Child Welfare
Celebration of Children’s Day
Mid Day Meal Scheme for School-going Children
Public awareness programme through mass media
agencies like radio, television, children’s films.
And also interduce
Children’s film Society
Children’s Book Trust
Children’s fair etc.
population of the old people of 60-plus age is
estimated to be about 60 million in India.
of the elderly people in villages.
the elderly people commanded great respect
due to the traditional norms and values of Indian
society but now the situation has undergone a
of disintegration of joint family system
and recent changes in social values, social
structure and economy resulting form
industrialization, urbanization and impact of
These elderly people are now neglected by their children
and they feel “unwanted”.
The generation gap is widening and the children find it
difficult to adjust with their elderly parents.
Consequently the aged now suffer from numerous
familial, social, economic and psychological problems.
The problems of the aged can be mitigated by
providing necessary welfare services to them by way of….
Reasonable amount of old age pension
Free medical care
Housing facilities in the form of old age homes
Recreational facilities to relative their loneliness
Usual courtesies extended to them
Various voluntary organizations and associations
concerned with the care and welfare of the elderly
But particularly Help-Age India and Age-Care India are
carrying on in the field of the care of the aged.
It was established in 1978 on the pattern of Help the
Aged Society of England.
It is a voluntary organization working national wide for
elderly people care.
In India it operated throughout the country with a
network of 22 centres in major cities.
Its head office in New Delhi.
It also conduct various events like
Grandparents meet etc.
These includes Home for aged, day centres,
geriatric wards, mobile Medicare units,
rehabilitation of the blind aged, physically
handicapped and leprosy patients and
Age-Care India (ACI) was established in 1980.
Providing educational, recreational , social, cultural and
Arranging for medical services, part-time employment to
supplement their income
Organizing tours, trips and pilgrimages.
Conducting research and studies on the problems of the
aged and arranging study circles, seminars, fetes, rallies,
It has four types of member vizFounder members
OLD AGE HOMES
The Central/State Governments
Philanthropic Welfare Associations
Old/Elderly Citizens Welfare Association
have set up homes for the old/elderly citizens
At present there are only some 300 homes in the country
mostly in urban areas.
These demands are not really off-target, considering the
hardship the senior citizens face to on retiring or when
they have no means of livelihood and are ignored by the
younger lot in their families.
A disabled person is one who suffers from the loss or
impairment of a limp or deformity in physical or
mental capability whether due to nature’s foul play or
an unexpected unfortunate accident.
It is estimated that about 12 millions Indians about
1.8% of Indian population have at least one disability
or the other.
About 10% of the handicapped are having more than
one type of physical disability.
National Institutes for the Disabled
There are four National Institutes in each major are
of disability under the Ministry of Welfare, these are
Institute for the Orthopedically handicapped at
Institute for the Visually handicapped at
Institute for the Mentally Handicapped at
Yavar Jung National Institute for the Hearing
Handicapped at Bombay.
These institutes have been designated as top organizations
for training of professionals, production of education
material and other aids for the handicapped.
District Rehabilitation Centres
Ministry of Welfare started the District
Rehabilitation Centre Scheme in 1983 for disabled
persons living in rural areas.
scheme predict comprehensive identification of
disabled persons following which restorative,
medical, educational, vocational and placement
services are arranged for them.
District Centres also encourage NonGovernmental Organizations to provide community
awareness, parental counseling and Vocational
Other Facilities for Handicapped
Loans are available from banks at concessional rates of
interest for the handicapped persons to set up selfemployment ventures.
3% of vacancies in group ‘C’ and ‘D’ posts in the
Government and public sector undertaking have been
reserved for the disabled persons.
A ten year relaxation in age has been given to enable
them to take advantage of reservation policy
Special concessions to handicapped persons for travel by
bus, train and air.
Periority is also given to disabled persons in the
allotment of Government houses.
Scholarship for handicapped students from class IXth
upwards including higher and professional education
are also given.
H.M.T. has produced Braille wrist watches for blind
Sports competition are organized for physically
handicapped persons and the winners are awarded
The state gives pension to handicapped persons.
Schedule tribe (ST)
SCHEDULED CASTE / SCHEDULE TRIBE
scheduled caste and scheduled tribe classes
constitute under privileged who have been
oppressed, suppressed, exploited humiliated and
deprived equality liberty and justice in various field
have suffered numerous disabilities and
deprivations and are therefore known as minority
groups of society.
term scheduled caste appeared for the first time
in Government of India Act, 1935.
April 1936, the British Government had issued
the Government of India (Scheduled Castes) order.
specifying certain castes, races and tribes as
The constitution prescribes protection and
safeguards for the SCs and STs
The main safeguards as:
The abolition of untouchability and the
forbidding of its practices in any form (Art.17);
The throwing open by law of Hindu religious
institutions of a public character to all classes
and section of Hindus (Art.25 b);
Special representation in the Lok Sabha and
the State Raj Sabhas to SCs and STs till 25
January 2010 (Art. 330,332 and 334).
Reservation in Services
335 of the Constitution provides that the
claims of the members of SCs and STs shall be
taken into consideration, in making appointment to
posts and services, in connection with the affairs of
the union of the states.
16 (4) permits reservations in favour of
citizens of backward classes, who may not be
adequately represented in services.
for SCs and STs is subject to the
maximum of 50 % of the total number of vacancies.
This scheme of reservations is also being followed
by the public sector undertakings.
Centrally Sponsored Schemes
Post-Martic Scholarships for SCs and STs students.
Pre-Martic Scholarships for the children of those
engaged in unclean occupations.
Book banks for SC/ST students studying in Medical
and Engineering colleges.
Boys and Girls Hostels Scheme for SCs.
Coaching and Allied schemes for SCs and STs.
Objectives of Tribal Development
The major objective in tribal development were:
Taking up family oriented beneficiary programmes
in the field of agriculture, horticulture, animal
husbandry, small industries, etc.,
Elimination of exploitation of tribal.
Human resource development through education
and training programs.
Other Backward Class (OBC)
OTHER BACKWARD CLASS (OBC)
As regard the socially and educationally backward
classes, now popularly called OBCs the only
special provision for them is under Article 340 (15)
of the Constitution regarding the appointment of a
Commission by the President of India to
investigate the condition of backward classes.
The Commission in 25 reports submitted in
March, 1955 recommended that the basic certain
for identification of the Other Backward Classes
accordingly prepared a list of almost 2700
communities, and tired of the country’s
the appointment of Second Backward Classes Commission
headed by Shri. B.P. Mandal in 1978.
The recommendations of the Mandal
Commission were summarized as follows:
27% of the posts in public services should be reserved for
Welfare programmes specially meant for OBC’s should be
financed by the Government of India in the same manner
and to the same extent already done in the case of SCs
OBCs should be encouraged and helped to set up small
Special educational schemes, with emphasis on
vocational training should be started for OBCs.
Child labours are exploited, exposed to hazardous work
conditions and paid a pittance for their long hours of
Forced to do without education, shouldering
responsibilities for beyond their years.
The Indian Constitution protect that:
child below the age of 14 years shall be employed to
work in any factory or in any hazardous employment
state shall endeavour to provide within a period of
10 years from the commencement of the Constitution
free and compulsory education for all children until
they complete the age of 14 years (Article 45).
Nature of Child Work
A majority of the working children are concentrated in the
In urban areas who work in canteens and restaurants.
Mumbai has the largest number of child labourers.
For instance, the fireworks and match box units in
Sivakasi in Ramanathapuram district in Tamil Nadu
employ 45,000 children.
In the slate pencil industry of Mandsaur in Madhya
Pradesh, out of total workforce of 12,000 workers.
In the slate industry of Markapur in Andhra Pradesh,
about 3,750 child workers are involved in a total workforce
of 15,000 workers.
The lock making industry of Aligarh in Uttar Pradesh employs
between 7,000 and 10,000 children below the age of 14 years.
In the brassware industry of Moradabad in Utter Pradesh, about
40,000-50,000 children are working.
In the glass industry of Firozabad in Uttar Pradesh, 50,000
children are working.
Surat (Gujarat), boys in their early teens are engaged in large
numbers in diamond-cutting operations which causes
irreparable damage to the eyes.
In kashmir and Mirzapur, the carpet weaving industry employs
small girls in back breaking works.
In Saharanpur, 10,000 child workers are engaged in the wood
In Varanasi, 5,000 children work in the silk weaving industry.
In Delhi, 60,000 children work in dhabas, tea-stalls and
restaurants on daily wages.
Causes of Child Labour
A large number of them do not have families or cannot
count on them for support.
In these circumstances, the alternatives to work may be
joblessness, poverty, worse, crime.
The social scientists say that the main cause of child
labour is poverty.
The persons are forced to send their children to work in
Another reason is that child labour is deliberately created
by vested interests to get cheap labour.
Child labour is that it benefits industries.
Kempe and Kempe (1978) have defined child
abuse as “a condition having to do with those who
have been deliberately injured by physical
Burgess (1979) child abuse refers to “any child
who receives non-accidental physical and
psychological injury as a result of acts and
omissions on the part of his parents or guardians
Types of abuse
Problems of abuses
Physical abuse: burns, fractures, human-bite, abdominal
injuries, bruises etc.
Sexual abuse: difficulty in walking and sitting,
complaints of pain, bleeding, venereal disease,
Emotional abuse: failure to provide food, cloth, shelter,
care and supervision, alcoholism, sex relation, smoking
The victims of abuse:
on the three types of child abuse, namely,
physical, sexual and emotional.
Boys are more battered than girls
School going children run greater risk to being physically
abused than those who do not go to school.
Older children (14-16 yrs) are more abused physically than
younger children (10-13 yrs).
Non-working children are beaten more than working
A large number of abused children belong to poor families.
Mother abuse children physically more than fathers.
are more victims of sexual abuse than boys.
high proportion of children become victims of
sexual abuse when they are 14 or above 14 years
are usually abused sexually by one person
while girls are generally assaulted by more than
about two-third cases, the perpetrators have
secondary relationship with the victims.
are generally the victims of “employmentrelated” abuse while girls are generally the
victims of “acquaintance-related”.
are more emotionally maltreated than girls.
Working children are as much neglected as nonworking children.
School-going children are a little more maltreated
than non-school going children.
In a large number of cases, the parents who
neglected the child are those whose income is low
and liabilities are many; who are middle-aged,
illiterate or less educated; and who are engaged in
Causes of child abuse
causes of physical abuse:
Relation between parents and children
Not taking interest in studies
Spending most of the time away form home
Misbehavior from outsides and deviant behavior theft,
Causes of sexual abuse:
Fails to parent-child relation
Lack of adequate control
Causes of emotional abuse:
Alcoholism of parents
Maltreatment faced by the children
Deficient parental control
Juvenile delinquents are simply under-age criminals
constitute crimes when committed by adults.
Between the age group of 7 to 16 or 18 years, as
prescribed by the law of the land.
According to Reckless (1956), the term ‘juvenile
delinquency’ applies to the “violation of criminal code
and/or pursuit of certain patterns of behaviour
disapproved of for children and young adolescents”.
Nature of Juvenile Delinquents
The delinquents rates are much higher among boys
than among girls, that is, girls commit less delinquents
The delinquents rates tend to be highest during early
adolescence (12-16 yrs age).
Juvenile delinquency is more an urban than a rural
Children living with parents and guardians are found
to be more involved in the juvenile crimes.
Low educational background is the prime attribute for
Poor economic background
Not many delinquents are committed in groups.
Factors in Juvenile Delinquency
3. lack of sympathy
5. Feeling of
1. Parents’ discipline relations
2. Parents’ affection
3. Cohesiveness of
4. Conduct-standards of
7. Emotional conflicts 5. replacement parents
8. Lack of self-control 6. Father’s work habits
7. Economic conditions
8. Conjugal relations of
9. Broken homes
1. Adjustment to
3. Failure in
General improvements in the institutional structure of
the society, for example, family, neighborhood, school.
Raising the income levels of poor families.
Providing job opportunities to children
Improving job conditions
Providing recreational facilities in neighborhoods
Improving marital relations through family counseling
Imparting moral and social education.
Tappan has defined crime as “an intentional act
or omission in violation of criminal law
committed without defense or justification”.
Thorsten Sellin has described it as “violation of
conduct norms of the normative groups”
Mowrer had defined it as “an anti-social act”.
Characteristics of Crime
Hall Jerome (1947), according to him, no action is to
be viewed as crime unless it has five characteristics
It is legally forbidden
It is intentional
It is harmful to society
It has criminal objective
Some penalty is prescribed for it.
Confinement of Correction of Criminals
methods are mainly used in our society in
punishing/treating the criminals.
Imprisonment and release on probation
The condition in Indian jails were horrible up to 1919-20.
It was after recommendations of 1919-20 Indian Jails
Reform committee that changes like classification,
segregation of prisoners, education, recreation, assigning
productive work and opportunities for maintaining
contacts with family and society were introduced in
That is central jail, district jails and sub-jails
Probation is an alternative to a prison.
It is suspension of sentence of an offender by the court and
releasing him on certain conditions to live in the
community with or without the supervision of a probation
The system was introduced in India in 1958 by passing the
Central Probation Act.
Through section 562 in 1898 IPC permitted release of an
offender on probation but it applied only to juvenile
delinquents and first offenders.
term substance can refer to any physical matter.
abuse may be perceived both as abnormal
behaviour and as a social problem.
spite of this increase, drug abuse in India is still
considered more as an abnormal behaviour than an
anti-social or a non-conforming behaviour.
researches have been conducted on drug
abuse in India in the last two decade by Medical
scientists, psychiatrists and sociologists.
Motivation in Drug Usage
Like facilitating social experiences, being accepted by
friends and challenging social values.
like relieving tension, depression, removing inhibitions,
satisfying interest, removing boredom, getting kicks,
feeling high and confident, and intensifying perception.
Like increasing sexual experiences, removing pain and
Like improving study, depending self-understanding and
solving personal problems, etc.
Control over Substance Abuse
Teaching education about drugs:
Changing physicians’ attitude:
Prevention should be young college/university students
particularly those living in hostels and way from control of their
And living in slums, industrials workers, and truck drivers and
Parents have to play an important role in imparting education.
The doctors have to show a greater care in controlling the side
efforts of the drugs.
Though drugs help many, yet there are dangers of overdependency.
Thus, people come to depend more on medication than on
physician which is a dangerous practice.
Of addicts treated under rehabilitation centers .
Counseling to the Parents:
Communicate with openly with the children, listen to their
problems patiently and teach them how to handle the
Take interest in children’s activities and their circle of friends
Set an example for children by not taking drugs or alcohol
Keep track of prescribed drugs in home
They can discuss dangers of drug abuse with the students by
taking informally and openly
They can keep themselves interested in their students’
interested and activities.
They can encourage them to volunteer information of any
incident of drug abuse
They can talk about the problems of adolescence and guide
students how to solve them
They can help them in selecting career options and setting
They can encourage them to discuss their crises with them and
help them to the best of their abilities in facing these crises.
AIDS (Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome) is a disease
which is caused by a virus called Human Immuno-deficiency
Virus or HIV.
This virus is fatal and dangerous because it destroys the
immune system (the capacity of the body to fight diseases) in the
This virus is smaller than even bacteria and is not observable
even with the microscope.
This virus can be transmitted to other persons in a number of
AIDS is the last stage of infected with HIV and developing
No vaccine has been invented till today as a cure for AIDS or for
protecting people for the HIV.
High Risk Groups and Means of Transmitting the
HIV infection is not contagious in the same
sense as measles, chicken pox, tuberculosis,
cholera, plague or small pox
It mainly spreads through a sexual route and
blood to blood contact.
It may be said that HIV spreads mainly through
Sex with an infected partner – heterosexual as well as
Transfusion of blood and blood products infected with
Injection drugs with infected syringes or needles
Infected mother to her unborn child.
Stages in the Development of the Disease
Initial HIV infection:
In this stage, with the entering of HIV virus in the
Within few weeks which resembles influenza of flu
with symptoms like fever, bodyache and headache.
Persistently enlarged glands:
In the next stage, a person develops enlarged but
painless glands in the neck and armpits which are
free of any symptoms.
The early symptoms of AIDS are fatigue, weight-loss,
chronic diarrhoea, prolonged fever, cough, night
sweats and lymph gland enlargement.
In this stage, the virus damages the immune system
which produces symptoms like attacks of diarrhoea,
sweating, loss of weight and extreme weakness.
This stage is reached after an average of nine to ten
years form the time of containing the HIV infection.
The immune system is totally destroyed and many
infections and cancers are produced.
The patient becomes very weak and always feel tired.
This stage is easily recognized by doctors.
A man does not survive for more than three to four
years after this stage.
Caring for the Infected
Indian government had identified 13 medical college
hospitals all over the country where facilities for the
effective clinical management were to be set up.
However, so far only four institutions at Delhi, Mumbai,
Chennai and Calcutta have these facilities.
Besides about 100 surveillance centres have been
established for detecting AIDS infection.
There is also a plan under the National AIDS Control
Programme to train one specialist from each hospital in
metropolitan cities in the early detection of AIDS cases.
These specialists, to be called PRADS (Physicians
Responsible for AIDS Diagnosis) will provide training to
at least one doctor in each district.
SOCIAL WELFARE PROGRAMMES
The Department of Social Work created in 1964.
Ministry of Welfare under the Central Government is
responsible for general social welfare.
It plans in 1985 social welfare programmes and coordinates welfare services maintained by the Government
of India, the State Government and the National
A Central Social Welfare Board was set up in August
1953 to distribute funds to voluntary social service
organizations for “strengthening, improving and
extending” the existing activities in the field of social
welfare and for developing new programmes and carrying
out pilot projects.
ROLE OF NURSE
There are so many social problems are there in the
The nurse should understand the people and their
Illeterarcy, uneducated people are come to the hospital,
they don’t know about the diseease condition as a nurse
should understand their problmes and ready to help the
Nurse give health education to patients and their family
Superticious beliefs attitude about their health,
so the nurse should explain and teach about what
is good and what is bad to their health and give
idea that how to get cure from wrong activities.
Poverty also social problem: nurse should know
their family income and economic conditions and
So many children in family will affect malnutrition so
nurse teach than to follow family planning.
Nurse should changing the attitude of the Handicapped
and elderly person about their self and that of his family,
friends, neighbours, employers and co-workers about the
disabled in general.
Thus nurse can help in changing the attitude of the
Social change has led to the disintegration of the joint
family system and nuclear families have emerged.
Nurse should understand the society and its problems.