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Introduction to sociology


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Introduction to sociology

  1. 1. Sociology Unit I Sociology of Nursing
  2. 2. Introduction  Definition of Sociology  Nature and Scope of Sociology  Importance and application of Sociology in Nursing
  3. 3. Introduction  The word sociology was coined by Auguste Comte – French Philosopher in 1839. He is consider as a father of Sociology.  Sociology is the youngest of all the Social Sciences.  The word Sociology is derived from the Latin Word ‘Societus’ which means ‘society’ and the Greek word ‘logos’ means ‘science or study or advanced study’.  Science of society or study of society.
  4. 4. Definitions of Sociology      L.F. Ward defines, “Sociology is the science of society or of social phenomena”. Ginsberg says, “Sociology is the study of human interaction and interrelation of their conditions and consequences”. Emile Durkheim defines, “ Sociology as a science of social institutions”. Ogburn and Nimkoff defines, “Sociology as the study of social life”. Kimball Young defines, “Sociology deals with the behaviour of men in groups”.
  5. 5. Subject matter of Sociology  Sociology is – – – – – – – the study of society the science of social life the study of social relationships the study of human behaviour in groups the study of forms of social relationships the study of social action the study of social groups and social systems
  6. 6. Nature of Sociology 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Sociology is an Independent Science Sociology is a Social Science and not a Physical Science Sociology is a Categorical and not a Normative Discipline Sociology is a Pure Science and not an Applied Science Sociology is Relatively an Abstract Science not a Concrete Science Sociology is a Generalising and not a Particularsing or Individualising Science Sociology is Both a Rational and an Empirical
  7. 7. Nature of Sociology  Sociology is an Independent Science. – Sociology has now emerged into an independent science. – It is not treated and studied as a branch of any other science like philosophy or political philosophy or history. – As an independent science it has its own field of study, boundary and method.
  8. 8. Nature of Sociology  Sociology is a Social Science and not a Physical Science. – As a social science it concentrates its attention on man, his social behaviour, social activities and social life. – The fact that sociology deals with the Social universe it distinguishes from astronomy, physics, chemistry, geology, mathematics and other physical sciences.
  9. 9. Nature of Sociology  Sociology is a Categorical and not a Normative Discipline – Sociology “confines itself to statements about what it is, not what should be or ought to be”. – But it does not mean that sociological knowledge is useless and serves no purpose. – It only means that sociology as a discipline cannot deal with problems of good and evil, right and wrong, and moral and immoral.
  10. 10. Nature of Sociology  Sociology is a Pure Science and not an Applied Science – Each pure science may have its own applied field. – For example: physics is a pure science and engineering is its applied field. – Sociology as a pure science has its applied field such as administration, diplomacy, social work etc.
  11. 11. Nature of Sociology  Sociology is Relatively an Abstract Science and not a Concrete Science – Sociology is not interested in concrete only it demonstrations of human events. – It is more concerned with the form of human events and their patterns. – For example: sociology is not concerned with particular wars and revolutions but with war and revolution in general, as a social phenomena, as a type of social conflict.
  12. 12. Nature of Sociology  Sociology is a Generalising and not a particularising or individulalising Science – Sociology tries to find out the general laws of principle about human interaction and association, about the nature, form, content and structure of human groups and societies. – It does not study each and every event that takes place in society. It is not possible also.
  13. 13. Nature of Sociology  Sociology is Both a Rational and Empirical Science – Rationalism, stresses reason and the result from logical inference. – Empiricism, is emphasises experience and the facts that result from observation and experimentation. – In Sociological inquiry both are significant.
  14. 14. Scope of Sociology     Two different views about the scope of sociology. There is no one opinion about the scope of sociology. In the broadest sense, Sociology is studying human interactions, their conditions and consequences. There are two main schools of thought among sociologist on this issue. – Specialistic or Formalistic School – Synthetic School
  15. 15. Specialistic or Formalistic School  In this group of sociologists demarcates, Sociology clearly from other branches of social study and confines it to the “enquiry into certain defined aspects of human relationship” or “Sociology as pure and independent”.  Sociology has a limited field of enquiry and deals those problems which are not dealt with other social science. – Specialistic or Formalistic School.
  16. 16. Synthetic School  The other group maintains that the field of social investigation is too wide for any other social science and “Sociology as special social science” Such as Economics, Anthropology, History, etc. there is also consider of a “Sociology is a general science”.  Sociology studies everything and anything under the sun. – Synthetic School
  17. 17. Specialist of Formalistic School       Simmel Small Vierkandt Max Weber Von Wiese Tonnie
  18. 18. Specialist of Formalistic School  This group led by Simmel views sociology is confined to the enquiry of certain defined aspects of human relationship and they consider sociology as pure and independent.  Simmel’s view sociology deals with same topics as they from a different angle – from the angle of different modes of social relationships.
  19. 19. Specialist of Formalistic School  Small’s views - sociology does not study all the activities of society. The scope of sociology is the study of the generic (general) forms of social relationships , behaviours and activities, etc.
  20. 20. Specialist of Formalistic School  Vierkandt’s view – sociology is a special branch of knowledge dealing with the ultimate forms of mental or psychic relationships which unite people in society.  He further maintains that similarly in dealing with culture sociology should not concern itself with the actual contents of cultural evolution but it should confine itself to only the discovery of the fundamental forces of change and persistence.
  21. 21. Specialist of Formalistic School  Max Weber’s view – sociology aims to interpret and understand social behaviour but it does not include all human relations because all of them are not social.  According to him, Sociology concerned with the analysis and classification of types of social relationships.  Von Wiese’s view – the scope of sociology is the study of forms of social relationships.
  22. 22. Synthetic School  Sociology studies everything and anything under the sun.  According to this group sociology is a general science.  It wants sociology to be a synthesis (mixture) of the social sciences or a general science.
  23. 23. Synthetic School        Durkheim Hobhouse Sorokin Karl mannheim Ginsberg Alex Inkeles J.B. Mckee
  24. 24. Synthetic School  Durkheim’ s view – sociology can be divided into three major divisions – Social Morphology  Is concerned with geographical or territorial basis of the life of such as its volume and density, local distribution and the life. – Social Physiology  Is divided into a number of branches such as Sociology of religion, of Morals, of Laws, of Economic life, of Language etc. this activities related to the various social groups. – General Sociology  Is discover the general character of these social facts.
  25. 25. Synthetic School  Hobhouse’s view – sociology is a synthesis of many social studies – task of three fold. – Studies in particular part of the field. – Interconnect the results given by different social sciences. – Interpret social life as a whole.  Sorokin’s view- the subject matter of sociology – The study of relationship between different aspects of social phenomena. – The study of understanding the relationship between the social and non-social aspects. – The study of general characteristics of social phenomena.
  26. 26. Synthetic School  Karl Mannheim’s view – two branches. – Systematic and General Sociology.  Describes one by one the main factors of living together as far as they may be found in every kind of society. – Historical Sociology. Deals with the historical variety and actuality of the general forms of society.  Historical Sociology falls into two main sections.  – Comparative Sociology  Deals with historical variations of the some phenomena and tries to find by comparison general features as separated from industrial features. – Social Dynamics  Deals with the interrelations between the various social factors and institutions in a certain given society, for instance, in a primitive society.
  27. 27. Synthetic School  Alex Inkeles’s view; – – – –  Social Analysis Primary Concepts of Social Life Basic Social Institutions Process J.B. Mckee’s view – Social Action, Social Structure, Social Process and Social Institutions are included in the scope of Sociology.
  28. 28. Importance and application of Sociology in Nursing
  29. 29. Importance of sociology 1. Sociology makes a Scientific of Society. 2. Sociology studies the role of the institutions in the development of the Individual. 3. The study of Sociology is indispensable for understanding and planning of society. 4. Sociology is of great importance in the solution of social problems. 5. Sociology has drawn our attention to the essential worth and dignity of man.
  30. 30. Importance of sociology 6. Sociology has changed outlook with regard to the problems of crime etc. 7. Sociology has made great contribution to enrich human culture. 8. Sociology is of great importance in the solution of international problems. 9. Sociology is useful as a teaching subject. 10. Sociology as a profession.
  31. 31. Importance of Sociology in Nursing     Sociology is includes in the curriculum of nursing because health is include social component. Most of the illness have social causes and social consequences. Sociology gives knowledge to deal with patient and to understand this habits norms, culture and behaviour etc.. The nurse has to understand the necessity of changing the environment or surrounding.
  32. 32. Importance of Sociology in Nursing  To adjustment and services of the family members are important in the recovery process of the patient. So for understand this knowledge of family is essential for the nurse .  Without sociological knowledge a nurse cannot understand the community.  The sociological knowledge the nurse understand the factors of caste, faith, community, religion etc..
  33. 33. Importance of Sociology in Nursing     So this knowledge helps her to avoid prejudices and discrimination. As well as a nurse should understand the social position, status and social responsibilities with regard to health field by studying sociology. She as to work is accordance with rules and norms of it by removing egoistic and impulse based behaviour. The nurse to understand the necessity to changing the environment for making recovery better.
  34. 34. Importance of Sociology in Nursing  Social correlates of disease including demographic factors can be understood by the nurse with the knowledge of Sociology.  It helps the nurse to approach the patient at various level. – Emotional level – Cultural level – Intellectual level
  35. 35. Importance of Sociology in Nursing  Emotional level. – The nurse should understand the patient emotions. – Nurse give some opportunity to patient for ventilate their feelings. – Which will reduce their emotional burden. – It is really helps to build up the rapport which is essential for effective curative intervention.
  36. 36. Importance of Sociology in Nursing  Cultural level – Patients may not be able to adjust with hospital environment because limitation of cultural environment. – For example: A female patient not to be ready to remove her mangal sutra at the time of surgery because of their cultural sentiments. – The nurse should explain the cultural thinking and give explanation the need for removing mangal sutra.
  37. 37. Importance of Sociology in Nursing  Intellectual level – The patient is unable to understand the instructions and guidelines given by the nurse or doctors. – So here the knowledge of Sociology help to nurse to understand the intelligence of patients. – This knowledge makes the nurse to approach the patient sympathetically without emotional reaction.
  38. 38. Application of Sociology in Nursing  Sociology is a recent addition to the syllabus of medical education.  Sociology is needed in general to all the medical professions and especially Nursing because social conditions are sometimes responsible for health problems.  Sociology helps to understand the relationship between disease and social condition.
  39. 39. Application of Sociology in Nursing  Man is an integral part of society – Man does not exist alone. – For health condition in sociological terms the emphasis in not on the handicap but one of the person. – so as a Nurse should take care about the patients.
  40. 40. Application of Sociology in Nursing  Economic condition and patient care: – If a patient belongs to working or middle class, the family will face economic problems and the patient will have the fear of destitution. – Inspite of the willingness of the patient nobody prefers to employ him. – As a result the patient is forced to lead an idle life which leads to serious economic problems. – So the Nurse should feel their economic condition.
  41. 41. Application of Sociology in Nursing  Importance of social environment: – A patient with physical handicap should be understood in the context of his social milieu. – Psychological, social and vocational handicaps of the disabled person and patietns are often related with false attitudes of the people. – The nurse should understand the social environment for develop the patient health condition.
  42. 42. Application of Sociology in Nursing  Importance of understanding the social factors. – Sociology helps Nurse to understand the social factors which from the barriers to treatment, rehabilitation and positive outcome. – Nurse to understand the importance of supportive social factors in treating and rehabilitating the patient.
  43. 43. Application of Sociology in Nursing  Intervention measures: In the absence of social worker the Nurse may have to deal with family and other problems such as housing, finance, social, isolation and psychological disturbances of the patient. Intervention on finance and social security measures. Social change and treatment. Modification of attitudes.
  44. 44. Thank you