Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy
Hamzeh Halawani M.D.
American University of Beirut
Indication
• symptomatic cholelithiasis, biliary dyskinesia,
acute cholecystitis, and complications related
to common bile...
INDICATIONS FOR PROPHYLACTIC
CHOLECYSTECTOMY
INDICATIONS FOR PROPHYLACTIC CHOLECYSTECTOMY
Pediatric gallstones
Congenital ...
Relative contra-indications for
laparoscopic biliary tract surgery
• Untreated coagulopathy, lack of equipment,
lack of su...
Antibiotic prophylaxis
• Antibiotics are not required in low risk patients
undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. (Level...
Deep Venous Thrombosis Prophylaxis
BASIC OPERATIVE TECHNIQUE
• two basic room set-ups
– standard supine position with the surgeon
standing at the patient’s l...
Abdominal access
• There are no demonstrable differences in the
safety of open versus closed techniques for
establishing a...
critical view
• 1) to completely expose and delineate the
hepatocystic triangle
• 2) to identify a single duct and a singl...
Predictors of choledocholithiasis
• High risk  preoperative ERCP and
sphincterotomy
– clinical jaundice or cholangitis
– ...
two approaches to patients with
possible choledocholithiasis
• (1) laparoscopic cholecystectomy with
intraoperative cholan...
• If a single small (≈ 2 mm) stone is visualized, it
can probably be flushed into the duodenum
by irrigating the CBD via t...
CBD exploration
• Transcystic
– stones smaller than 4 mm can usually be retrieved in
fluoroscopically directed baskets and...
Roux-en-Y gastric bypass
• Ahmed et.al, options for treatment include:
– percutaneous transhepatic instrumentation of the ...
Conversion to laparotomy
• RF:
• Acute cholecystitis with a thickened gallbladder wall,
previous upper abdominal surgery, ...
INTRAOPERATIVE COMPLICATIONS
• Access injuries
• Vascular and visceral injuries are the major
causes of morbidity and mort...
• Bile Duct Injury
– surgeon experience, the patient’s age, male sex, and
acute cholecystitis
• If major bile duct injurie...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Laparoscopic cholecystectomy

5,154 views

Published on

Laparoscopic cholecystectomy

Published in: Health & Medicine
  • Be the first to comment

Laparoscopic cholecystectomy

  1. 1. Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy Hamzeh Halawani M.D. American University of Beirut
  2. 2. Indication • symptomatic cholelithiasis, biliary dyskinesia, acute cholecystitis, and complications related to common bile duct stones including pancreatitis
  3. 3. INDICATIONS FOR PROPHYLACTIC CHOLECYSTECTOMY INDICATIONS FOR PROPHYLACTIC CHOLECYSTECTOMY Pediatric gallstones Congenital hemolytic anemia Gallstones >2.5 cm in diameter Calcified (porcelain) gallbladder Bariatric surgery Incidental gallstones found during intra-abdominal surgery Long common channel of bile and pancreatic ducts No access to medical care Approximately 1% to 2% of asymptomatic individuals with gallstones per year develop serious symptoms or complications related to their gallstones
  4. 4. Relative contra-indications for laparoscopic biliary tract surgery • Untreated coagulopathy, lack of equipment, lack of surgeon expertise, hostile abdomen, advanced cirrhosis/liver failure, and suspected gallbladder cancer.
  5. 5. Antibiotic prophylaxis • Antibiotics are not required in low risk patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. (Level I, Grade A). • Antibiotics may reduce the incidence of wound infection in high risk patients (age > 60 years, the presence of diabetes, acute colic within 30 days of operation, jaundice, acute cholecystitis, or cholangitis). (Level I, Grade B). • If given, they should be limited to a single preoperative dose given within one hour of skin incision. (Level II, Grade A).
  6. 6. Deep Venous Thrombosis Prophylaxis
  7. 7. BASIC OPERATIVE TECHNIQUE • two basic room set-ups – standard supine position with the surgeon standing at the patient’s left – patient in stirrups the surgeon standing between the legs
  8. 8. Abdominal access • There are no demonstrable differences in the safety of open versus closed techniques for establishing access; decisions regarding choice of technique are left to the surgeon and should be based on individual training, skill, case assessment. (Level I, Grade A).
  9. 9. critical view • 1) to completely expose and delineate the hepatocystic triangle • 2) to identify a single duct and a single artery entering the gallbladder • 3) to completely dissect the lower part of the gallbladder off the liver bed. • 4)Routine IOC
  10. 10. Predictors of choledocholithiasis • High risk  preoperative ERCP and sphincterotomy – clinical jaundice or cholangitis – visible choledocholithiasis or dilated CBD on ultrasonography • Moderate risk  MRCP, EUS, or IOC – hyperbilirubinemia, elevated alkaline phosphatase levels, pancreatitis, or multiple small gallstones • Low risk.
  11. 11. two approaches to patients with possible choledocholithiasis • (1) laparoscopic cholecystectomy with intraoperative cholangiogram, then address choledocholithiasis if found, – Transcystic – Transductal • (2) preoperative ERCP to diagnosis and remove choledocholithiasis, followed by laparoscopic cholecystectomy
  12. 12. • If a single small (≈ 2 mm) stone is visualized, it can probably be flushed into the duodenum by irrigating the CBD via the cholangiogram catheter and administering glucagon, 1 to 2 mg intravenously, to relax the sphincter of Oddi
  13. 13. CBD exploration • Transcystic – stones smaller than 4 mm can usually be retrieved in fluoroscopically directed baskets and generally do not necessitate cystic duct dilatation; larger stones (4 to 8 mm) are retrieved under direct vision with the choledochoscope. – not a good option analomous anatomy, proximal (hepatic duct) stones, strictures and large (>6mm) or numerous stones (>5) • Transductal – Large stones (> 1 cm), as well as most stones in the common hepatic ducts
  14. 14. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass • Ahmed et.al, options for treatment include: – percutaneous transhepatic instrumentation of the common bile duct – percutaneous transgastric ERCP – laparoscopic transgastric ERCP – transenteric ERCP – retrograde endoscopy in which the scope is passed antegrade down to the jejunojejunostomy and then retrograde up the biliopancreatic limb – open or laparoscopic common bile duct exploration • * Ahmed AR, Husain S, Saad N, Patel NC, Waldman DL, O’Malley W. Accessing the common bile duct after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Surg Obes Relat Dis 2007;3:640-3.
  15. 15. Conversion to laparotomy • RF: • Acute cholecystitis with a thickened gallbladder wall, previous upper abdominal surgery, male gender, advanced age, obesity, bleeding, bile duct injury, and choledocholithiasis • should not be considered a complication and surgeons should have a low threshold for conversion; the decision to convert to an open procedure must be based on intraoperative assessment weighing the clarity of the anatomy and the surgeon’s skill/comfort in proceeding. – (Level II, Grade A).
  16. 16. INTRAOPERATIVE COMPLICATIONS • Access injuries • Vascular and visceral injuries are the major causes of morbidity and mortality related to abdominal access – recent metaanalysis of 17 randomized controlled trials studying a total of 3,040 individuals comparing a variety of open and closed access techniques found no difference in complication rates • *Ahmad G, Duffy JM, Phillips K, Watson A. Laparoscopic entry techniques. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2008:CD006583.
  17. 17. • Bile Duct Injury – surgeon experience, the patient’s age, male sex, and acute cholecystitis • If major bile duct injuries occur, outcomes are improved by early recognition and immediate referral to experienced hepatobiliary specialists for further treatment before any repair is attempted by the primary surgeon, unless the primary surgeon has significant experience in biliary reconstruction.(Level II, Grade A).

×