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DR.HAFIZ KOSAR
A hypothesis is an assumption that is made based on
some evidence. This is the initial point of any
investigation that translates the research questions into
predictions. It includes components like variables,
population and the relation between the variables. A
research hypothesis is a hypothesis that is used to test
the relationship between two or more variables.
Characteristics of Hypothesis
Following are the characteristics of the hypothesis:
• The hypothesis should be clear and precise to consider it to be reliable.
• If the hypothesis is a relational hypothesis, then it should be stating the
relationship between variables.
• The hypothesis must be specific and should have scope for conducting more
tests.
• The way of explanation of the hypothesis must be very simple and it should
also be understood that the simplicity of the hypothesis is not related to its
significance.
Sources of Hypothesis
• The resemblance between the
phenomenon.
• Observations from past studies, present-
day experiences and from the
competitors.
• Scientific theories.
• General patterns that influence the
thinking process of people.
Following are the sources of hypothesis:
Types of Hypothesis
Simple hypothesis Non-directional hypothesis
Complex hypothesis Null hypothesis
Directional hypothesis Associative and casual
hypothesis
There are six forms of hypothesis and they are:
It shows a relationship between one dependent variable and a single independent variable. For
example – If you eat more vegetables, you will lose weight faster. Here, eating more vegetables
is an independent variable, while losing weight is the dependent variable.
Simple Hypothesis
It shows the relationship between two or more dependent variables and two or more
independent variables. Eating more vegetables and fruits leads to weight loss, glowing
skin, and reduces the risk of many diseases such as heart disease.
Complex Hypothesis
It shows how a researcher is intellectual and committed to a particular outcome. The relationship
between the variables can also predict its nature. For example- children aged four years eating
proper food over a five-year period are having higher IQ levels than children not having a proper
meal. This shows the effect and direction of the effect.
Directional Hypothesis
It is used when there is no theory involved. It is a statement that a relationship exists between two
variables, without predicting the exact nature (direction) of the relationship.
Non-directional Hypothesis
It provides a statement which is contrary to the hypothesis. It’s a negative statement, and
there is no relationship between independent and dependent variables. The symbol is
denoted by “HO”.
Null Hypothesis
Associative hypothesis occurs when there is a change in one variable resulting in a change
in the other variable. Whereas, the causal hypothesis proposes a cause-and-effect
interaction between two or more variables.
Associative and Causal
Hypothesis
Examples of Hypothesis
All lilies have the same number of petals is
an example of a null hypothesis.
If a person gets 7 hours of sleep,
then he will feel less fatigue than if
he sleeps less. It is an example of a
directional hypothesis.
Consumption of sugary drinks every day
leads to obesity is an example of a simple
hypothesis.
Functions of Hypothesis
It becomes the start point for the
investigation.
Hypothesis helps in verifying the
observations.
Hypothesis helps in making an observation
and experiments possible
Following are the functions performed by the
hypothesis:
It helps in directing the inquiries in
the right direction.
How will Hypothesis help in the Scientific Method?
• Formation of question
• Doing background research
• Creation of hypothesis
• Designing an experiment
• Collection of data
• Result analysis
• Summarizing the experiment
• Communicating the results
Researchers use hypotheses to put down their
thoughts directing how the experiment would
take place. Following are the steps that are
involved in the scientific method:
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN RESEARCH QUESTION AND
HYPOTHESIS?
• A research question and a hypothesis are both key of the research process,
• but they serve different, purposes and have, distinct characteristics.
• A research question is, a broad inquiry that defines the main focus, of a research study. It is an interrogative
statement, that identifies the specific, aspect or problem that the, researcher intends to investigate.
• Research questions are usually open-ended, and seek to explore, describe, or understand a phenomenon. They are
formulated to guide the research process, and provide a clear direction for inquiry.
• On the other hand, a hypothesis is a testable statement or prediction, that proposes a relationship, or difference
between variables. It is based on existing theories, prior research, or observations, and represents an educated
guess about the outcome, of the study.
• Hypotheses are typically, formulated in a specific, and often directional manner. They aim to provide a tentative
explanation or answer to the research question
• A research hypothesis is a, statement that proposes, a relationship or difference, between variables. It serves as
the basis for designing and conducting research studies to test its validity.
In short, we can say, a research question outlines the general area of interest and inquiry, while a
hypothesis proposes a specific relationship or difference between variables. Research questions guide the
overall investigation, whereas hypotheses provide a focused statement that can be tested and evaluated
through empirical research. Remember that research hypotheses are statements that propose an expected
relationship or difference between variables, while research questions pose an inquiry into a specific area
of interest. These examples demonstrate how research questions can be formulated into corresponding
hypotheses for further investigation.
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN RESEARCH QUESTION AND
HYPOTHESIS?....
THANK YOU
Contact us:
Hafeezkausar.Hashmi@gmail.com
https://www.facebook.com/Kausar0791
https://www.linkedin.com/in/dr-hafiz-kosar-2844841 86/

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Research Methodology all about Hypothesis.pptx

  • 2.
  • 3. A hypothesis is an assumption that is made based on some evidence. This is the initial point of any investigation that translates the research questions into predictions. It includes components like variables, population and the relation between the variables. A research hypothesis is a hypothesis that is used to test the relationship between two or more variables.
  • 4. Characteristics of Hypothesis Following are the characteristics of the hypothesis: • The hypothesis should be clear and precise to consider it to be reliable. • If the hypothesis is a relational hypothesis, then it should be stating the relationship between variables. • The hypothesis must be specific and should have scope for conducting more tests. • The way of explanation of the hypothesis must be very simple and it should also be understood that the simplicity of the hypothesis is not related to its significance.
  • 5. Sources of Hypothesis • The resemblance between the phenomenon. • Observations from past studies, present- day experiences and from the competitors. • Scientific theories. • General patterns that influence the thinking process of people. Following are the sources of hypothesis:
  • 6. Types of Hypothesis Simple hypothesis Non-directional hypothesis Complex hypothesis Null hypothesis Directional hypothesis Associative and casual hypothesis There are six forms of hypothesis and they are:
  • 7. It shows a relationship between one dependent variable and a single independent variable. For example – If you eat more vegetables, you will lose weight faster. Here, eating more vegetables is an independent variable, while losing weight is the dependent variable. Simple Hypothesis It shows the relationship between two or more dependent variables and two or more independent variables. Eating more vegetables and fruits leads to weight loss, glowing skin, and reduces the risk of many diseases such as heart disease. Complex Hypothesis
  • 8. It shows how a researcher is intellectual and committed to a particular outcome. The relationship between the variables can also predict its nature. For example- children aged four years eating proper food over a five-year period are having higher IQ levels than children not having a proper meal. This shows the effect and direction of the effect. Directional Hypothesis It is used when there is no theory involved. It is a statement that a relationship exists between two variables, without predicting the exact nature (direction) of the relationship. Non-directional Hypothesis
  • 9. It provides a statement which is contrary to the hypothesis. It’s a negative statement, and there is no relationship between independent and dependent variables. The symbol is denoted by “HO”. Null Hypothesis Associative hypothesis occurs when there is a change in one variable resulting in a change in the other variable. Whereas, the causal hypothesis proposes a cause-and-effect interaction between two or more variables. Associative and Causal Hypothesis
  • 10. Examples of Hypothesis All lilies have the same number of petals is an example of a null hypothesis. If a person gets 7 hours of sleep, then he will feel less fatigue than if he sleeps less. It is an example of a directional hypothesis. Consumption of sugary drinks every day leads to obesity is an example of a simple hypothesis.
  • 11. Functions of Hypothesis It becomes the start point for the investigation. Hypothesis helps in verifying the observations. Hypothesis helps in making an observation and experiments possible Following are the functions performed by the hypothesis: It helps in directing the inquiries in the right direction.
  • 12. How will Hypothesis help in the Scientific Method? • Formation of question • Doing background research • Creation of hypothesis • Designing an experiment • Collection of data • Result analysis • Summarizing the experiment • Communicating the results Researchers use hypotheses to put down their thoughts directing how the experiment would take place. Following are the steps that are involved in the scientific method:
  • 13. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN RESEARCH QUESTION AND HYPOTHESIS? • A research question and a hypothesis are both key of the research process, • but they serve different, purposes and have, distinct characteristics. • A research question is, a broad inquiry that defines the main focus, of a research study. It is an interrogative statement, that identifies the specific, aspect or problem that the, researcher intends to investigate. • Research questions are usually open-ended, and seek to explore, describe, or understand a phenomenon. They are formulated to guide the research process, and provide a clear direction for inquiry. • On the other hand, a hypothesis is a testable statement or prediction, that proposes a relationship, or difference between variables. It is based on existing theories, prior research, or observations, and represents an educated guess about the outcome, of the study. • Hypotheses are typically, formulated in a specific, and often directional manner. They aim to provide a tentative explanation or answer to the research question • A research hypothesis is a, statement that proposes, a relationship or difference, between variables. It serves as the basis for designing and conducting research studies to test its validity.
  • 14. In short, we can say, a research question outlines the general area of interest and inquiry, while a hypothesis proposes a specific relationship or difference between variables. Research questions guide the overall investigation, whereas hypotheses provide a focused statement that can be tested and evaluated through empirical research. Remember that research hypotheses are statements that propose an expected relationship or difference between variables, while research questions pose an inquiry into a specific area of interest. These examples demonstrate how research questions can be formulated into corresponding hypotheses for further investigation. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN RESEARCH QUESTION AND HYPOTHESIS?....