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J. BRUNER’S THEORY OF
LEARNING PROCESS
DR.HAFIZ KOSAR
Principles of
J. Bruner Theory
1. Instruction must be concerned with the
experiences and contexts that make the
student willing and able to learn
(readiness).
2. Instruction must be structured so that
it can be easily grasped by the student
(spiral organization).
3. Instruction should be designed to
facilitate extrapolation and or fill in the
gaps (going beyond the information
given).
(i). Bruner's theoretical framework is based on
the theme that learning is an active process and
learners construct new ideas or concepts based
upon existing knowledge.
(ii). Facets of the process include selection and
transformation of information, decision making,
generating hypotheses, and making meaning from
information and experiences.
J. Bruner Theory
J. Bruner Theory...
(iii). Cognitive structure (i.e., schema, mental
models) provides meaning and organization to
experiences and allows the individual to "go
beyond the information given".
(iv). Bruner believed that intuitive and
analytical thinking should both be encouraged
and rewarded.
(v). He believed the intuitive skills were under-
emphasized and he reflected on the ability of
experts in every field to make spontaneous
bound.
J. Bruner Theory...
(vi). Bruner believed that intuitive and
analytical thinking should both be encouraged
and rewarded.
Features of
J. Bruner’s Theory
1. Tendency towards learning
2. The ways in which a body of knowledge can
be structured so that it can be most readily
grasped by the learner,
3. The most effective sequences in which to
present material.
4. The nature and pacing of rewards and
punishments.
Cognitive Development
Cognitive Development...
• Like Piaget, Bruner believed in stages of
instruction based on development.
• Enactive (birth to age 3)
• Iconic (age 3 to 8)
• Symbolic (from age 8)
• Each mode is dominant at different
phases of development but all are
present and accessible always.
The first stage he termed "Enactive", when
a person learns about the world through
actions on physical objects and the outcomes
of these actions.
The second stage was called "Iconic" where
learning can be obtained through using
models and pictures.
(i). "Symbolic" in which the learner develops the capacity to think in
abstract terms.
(ii). Based on this three-stage notion, Bruner recommended using a
combination of concrete, pictorial then symbolic activities will lead to
more effective learning.
Enactive:
1
2
3
Iconic:
Symbolic:
Cognitive Development...
Cognitive Development...
• Provide study materials, activities
and tools.
• Examples of all three to help
children learn about dinosaurs
• Construct a model of a dinosaur
(enactive)
• Watch a film about dinosaurs
(iconic)
• Consult reference texts and
discuss findings (symbolic)
Classroom Applications:
• Manipulatives for enactive stage.
• Safari Montage and other video footage
for iconic mode.
• Simulations to discover/develop their
own approach for symbolic mode
• Educators equip students with basic
skills to access information to increase
their knowledge and desire to learn.
Technology in Classroom:
Benefits of cognitive learning theory
• Improves comprehension. Cognitive learning theory can
improve learners'comprehension when attempting new
subjects or tasks.
• Enhances problem-solving skills. Cognitive learning theory
helps us learn how to learn.
• Boosts confidence.
• Promotes lifelong learning.
Weaknesses of the cognitive approach
Because it only looks for the causes of our behavior in our thought
processes, the cognitive approach is reductionist. It ignores possible
causes for our behavior that could have come from, for example, our
social environment or our biology.
Lab experiments are low in ecological validity because they create
unusual situations for participants. This may lead participants to
behave strangely, producing behavior that is not representative of
normal life. This means we cannot be completely confident about
generalizing the findings.
What is Discovery learning?
Discovery Learning was introduced by Jerome Bruner, and is a method of
Inquiry- Based Instruction. This popular theory encourages learners to
build on past experiences and knowledge, use their intuition, imagination
and creativity, and search for new information to discover facts,
correlations and new truths. Learning does not equal absorbing what was
said or read, but actively seeking for answers and solutions. The
Discovery Learning Model integrates X the following 5 principles:
What is Discovery learning....
Learner Management.
Problem Solving.
Instructors should guide and motivate
learners to seek solutions by combining
existing and newly acquired
information and simplifying knowledge.
This way, learners are the driving force
behind learning, take an active role and
establish broader applications for skills
through activities that encourage risks,
problem-solving and probing.
Instructors should allow participants to work
either alone or with others, and learn at their
own pace. This flexibility makes learning the
exact opposite of a static sequencing of lessons
and activities, relieves learners from
unnecessary stress, and makes them feel they
own learning
Principles of Discovery Learning
Information Analysis and
Interpretation
Integrating and Connecting
Instructors should teach learners how
to combine previous knowledge with
new and basis of new information,
encouraging learners to extend what
they know and invent something new.
Discovery learning is process-oriented and not
content-oriented, and is based on the
assumption that learning is not a mere set of
facts. Learners in fact learn to analyze and
interpret the acquired information, rather
than memorize the correct answer.
Principles of Discovery Learning
Failure and Feedback
Learning doesn't only occur when we
find the right answers. It also occurs
through failure. Discovery learning
does not focus on finding the right end
result, but the new things we discover
in the process.
Principles of Discovery Learning
Bruner’s Model of Concept
Learning
J.S. Bruner (1960) has suggested a model on concept attainment and structure in
teaching. He proposes that economy in thinking and responding requires that we
categorise phenomena according to their common attributes. An attribute is a
property or characteristic of an object which differentiates it from others e.g.
colors, texture, form, size, number of parts, position and sound. We categorise
objects having common characteristics into one group. For example, we
categorise certain animals having four legs, a tail and a barking voice as dogs.
??Bruner (1960) identified four strategies in concept attainment: (1) Skimming
and Scanning, (2) successive-scanning strategy, (3) conservative-focusing
strategy, and (4) focus-gambling strategy.
1 . Skimming and Scanning:
2 . Successive scanning:
3 . Conservative focusing:
4 . Focused Gambling:
Educational Implications of Bruner’s
Theory
The most effective way to develop a coding system is to discover it rather than
being told it by a teacher. The concept of discovery of learning implies that
students construct their own knowledge for themselves (constructive
approach). The role of a teacher should not be to teach information by rote
learning. The role of a teacher is to facilitate the learning process. A good
teacher will design lessons that help the students to discover the relationship
between bits of information. To do this a teacher must give information they
need and Use of spiral curriculum can aid the process of discovery learning.
Conclusion of Theory
As far as instruction is concerned, the instructor should try and encourage
students to discover principles by themselves and they should engage in an
active dialog (i.e., Socratic learning).Curriculum should be organized in a
spiral manner so that the student continually builds upon what they have
already learned. Bruner's strategies of concepts learning can be applied in
science teaching. The use of discovery and enquiry techniques in teaching
science provides the pupils with experiences quite similar to the card tasks
used by Bruner. For example, if we want the pupils to invent their own system
of classification of plants and animals, they can do it by identifying the
attribute and putting the plants or animals with common attributes in one
group
Thank you
CONTACT US:
hafeezkausar.hashmi@gmail.com
HTTPS://www.facebook.com/kausar0791
https://www.linkedin.com/in/dr-hafiz-kosar-284484186/
+92-314-3205571

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J. BRUNER’s THEORY OF LEARNING PROCESS.pptx

  • 1. J. BRUNER’S THEORY OF LEARNING PROCESS DR.HAFIZ KOSAR
  • 2. Principles of J. Bruner Theory 1. Instruction must be concerned with the experiences and contexts that make the student willing and able to learn (readiness). 2. Instruction must be structured so that it can be easily grasped by the student (spiral organization). 3. Instruction should be designed to facilitate extrapolation and or fill in the gaps (going beyond the information given).
  • 3. (i). Bruner's theoretical framework is based on the theme that learning is an active process and learners construct new ideas or concepts based upon existing knowledge. (ii). Facets of the process include selection and transformation of information, decision making, generating hypotheses, and making meaning from information and experiences. J. Bruner Theory
  • 4. J. Bruner Theory... (iii). Cognitive structure (i.e., schema, mental models) provides meaning and organization to experiences and allows the individual to "go beyond the information given". (iv). Bruner believed that intuitive and analytical thinking should both be encouraged and rewarded. (v). He believed the intuitive skills were under- emphasized and he reflected on the ability of experts in every field to make spontaneous bound.
  • 5. J. Bruner Theory... (vi). Bruner believed that intuitive and analytical thinking should both be encouraged and rewarded.
  • 6. Features of J. Bruner’s Theory 1. Tendency towards learning 2. The ways in which a body of knowledge can be structured so that it can be most readily grasped by the learner, 3. The most effective sequences in which to present material. 4. The nature and pacing of rewards and punishments.
  • 8. Cognitive Development... • Like Piaget, Bruner believed in stages of instruction based on development. • Enactive (birth to age 3) • Iconic (age 3 to 8) • Symbolic (from age 8) • Each mode is dominant at different phases of development but all are present and accessible always.
  • 9. The first stage he termed "Enactive", when a person learns about the world through actions on physical objects and the outcomes of these actions. The second stage was called "Iconic" where learning can be obtained through using models and pictures. (i). "Symbolic" in which the learner develops the capacity to think in abstract terms. (ii). Based on this three-stage notion, Bruner recommended using a combination of concrete, pictorial then symbolic activities will lead to more effective learning. Enactive: 1 2 3 Iconic: Symbolic: Cognitive Development...
  • 10. Cognitive Development... • Provide study materials, activities and tools. • Examples of all three to help children learn about dinosaurs • Construct a model of a dinosaur (enactive) • Watch a film about dinosaurs (iconic) • Consult reference texts and discuss findings (symbolic) Classroom Applications: • Manipulatives for enactive stage. • Safari Montage and other video footage for iconic mode. • Simulations to discover/develop their own approach for symbolic mode • Educators equip students with basic skills to access information to increase their knowledge and desire to learn. Technology in Classroom:
  • 11. Benefits of cognitive learning theory • Improves comprehension. Cognitive learning theory can improve learners'comprehension when attempting new subjects or tasks. • Enhances problem-solving skills. Cognitive learning theory helps us learn how to learn. • Boosts confidence. • Promotes lifelong learning.
  • 12. Weaknesses of the cognitive approach Because it only looks for the causes of our behavior in our thought processes, the cognitive approach is reductionist. It ignores possible causes for our behavior that could have come from, for example, our social environment or our biology. Lab experiments are low in ecological validity because they create unusual situations for participants. This may lead participants to behave strangely, producing behavior that is not representative of normal life. This means we cannot be completely confident about generalizing the findings.
  • 13. What is Discovery learning? Discovery Learning was introduced by Jerome Bruner, and is a method of Inquiry- Based Instruction. This popular theory encourages learners to build on past experiences and knowledge, use their intuition, imagination and creativity, and search for new information to discover facts, correlations and new truths. Learning does not equal absorbing what was said or read, but actively seeking for answers and solutions. The Discovery Learning Model integrates X the following 5 principles:
  • 14. What is Discovery learning....
  • 15. Learner Management. Problem Solving. Instructors should guide and motivate learners to seek solutions by combining existing and newly acquired information and simplifying knowledge. This way, learners are the driving force behind learning, take an active role and establish broader applications for skills through activities that encourage risks, problem-solving and probing. Instructors should allow participants to work either alone or with others, and learn at their own pace. This flexibility makes learning the exact opposite of a static sequencing of lessons and activities, relieves learners from unnecessary stress, and makes them feel they own learning Principles of Discovery Learning
  • 16. Information Analysis and Interpretation Integrating and Connecting Instructors should teach learners how to combine previous knowledge with new and basis of new information, encouraging learners to extend what they know and invent something new. Discovery learning is process-oriented and not content-oriented, and is based on the assumption that learning is not a mere set of facts. Learners in fact learn to analyze and interpret the acquired information, rather than memorize the correct answer. Principles of Discovery Learning
  • 17. Failure and Feedback Learning doesn't only occur when we find the right answers. It also occurs through failure. Discovery learning does not focus on finding the right end result, but the new things we discover in the process. Principles of Discovery Learning
  • 18. Bruner’s Model of Concept Learning J.S. Bruner (1960) has suggested a model on concept attainment and structure in teaching. He proposes that economy in thinking and responding requires that we categorise phenomena according to their common attributes. An attribute is a property or characteristic of an object which differentiates it from others e.g. colors, texture, form, size, number of parts, position and sound. We categorise objects having common characteristics into one group. For example, we categorise certain animals having four legs, a tail and a barking voice as dogs. ??Bruner (1960) identified four strategies in concept attainment: (1) Skimming and Scanning, (2) successive-scanning strategy, (3) conservative-focusing strategy, and (4) focus-gambling strategy.
  • 19. 1 . Skimming and Scanning:
  • 20. 2 . Successive scanning:
  • 21. 3 . Conservative focusing: 4 . Focused Gambling:
  • 22. Educational Implications of Bruner’s Theory The most effective way to develop a coding system is to discover it rather than being told it by a teacher. The concept of discovery of learning implies that students construct their own knowledge for themselves (constructive approach). The role of a teacher should not be to teach information by rote learning. The role of a teacher is to facilitate the learning process. A good teacher will design lessons that help the students to discover the relationship between bits of information. To do this a teacher must give information they need and Use of spiral curriculum can aid the process of discovery learning.
  • 23. Conclusion of Theory As far as instruction is concerned, the instructor should try and encourage students to discover principles by themselves and they should engage in an active dialog (i.e., Socratic learning).Curriculum should be organized in a spiral manner so that the student continually builds upon what they have already learned. Bruner's strategies of concepts learning can be applied in science teaching. The use of discovery and enquiry techniques in teaching science provides the pupils with experiences quite similar to the card tasks used by Bruner. For example, if we want the pupils to invent their own system of classification of plants and animals, they can do it by identifying the attribute and putting the plants or animals with common attributes in one group