Pcmh what why and how


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Pcmh what why and how

  1. 1. IBM Global Business ServicesIBM Institute for Business Value Healthcare and Life SciencesPatient-centeredmedical homeWhat, why and how?
  2. 2. IBM Institute for Business Value IBM Global Business Services, through the IBM Institute for BusinessValue, develops fact-based strategic insights for senior executives around critical public and private sector issues. This executive brief is based onan in-depth study by the Institute’s research team. It is part of an ongoing commitment by IBM Global Business Services to provide analysis andviewpoints that help companies realize business value. You may contactthe authors or send an e-mail to iibv@us.ibm.com for more information.
  3. 3. Patient-centered medical homeWhat, why and how?By Jim Adams, Paul Grundy, MD, Martin S. Kohn, MD and Edgar L. Mounib The patient-centered medical home (PCMH) can serve as a foundation for transformation of the U.S. healthcare system – if appropriately conceived and properly implemented. But it can also suffer from unfettered expectations. This study makes the realistic case for why and how stakeholders can participate in PCMH initiatives, identifies critical issues and makes recommendations for best practices to increase the likelihood of initial success and sustainability. Replacing poorly coordinated, acute-focused, A set of principles guide the development episodic care with coordinated, proactive, and implementation of the medical home. At preventive, acute, chronic, long-term and the core of the medical home is the patient’s end-of-life care is foundational to the trans- active, personal, comprehensive, long-term formation of the U.S. healthcare system. relationship with a PCP This PCP is often a . Many believe this can be best accomplished physician specializing in primary care, but by strengthening primary care and having also could be a physician specialist for the primary care provider-led (PCP) care delivery dominant condition affecting the patient or, in teams working at the “top of their licenses” jurisdictions where they are allowed to practice – at the level for which they are qualified independently, a nurse practitioner. Another key and licensed. One approach to transforming principle of the PCMH is the team approach primary care is the patient-centered medical to care. Quality and safety, combined with home (PCMH), or the “medical home” – an care coordination, whole-person orientation enhanced primary-care model that provides and appropriate reimbursement, represent comprehensive and timely care with additional principles of the PCMH. Further, appropriate reimbursement, emphasizing the patients benefit from enhanced access such central role of teamwork and engagement by as more flexible scheduling and communi- those receiving care. cation channels. 1 Patient-centered medical home
  4. 4. While medical homes can be a cornerstone A significant transformation of the U.S. of transformation, they are not a “silver bullet.” healthcare system appears imminent, They hold a great deal of promise, but many including investments in prevention – which more supportive measures need to be should be a basis of primary care and the undertaken to fully realize the benefits. For PCMH. Medical homes can be created now example, steps needed for full implementation as part of this transformation. Early medical include improved access to patient information home pilots have demonstrated success in and clinical knowledge to improve prevention, key areas such as improved quality, greater diagnosis and treatment; changes on the patient compliance and more effective use part of other stakeholders (consumers, other of healthcare services. Plus, interest and physicians, hospitals, health plans, employers, support are growing for the medical home governments and such life sciences as model across the healthcare and life sciences pharmaceuticals); and a robust infrastructure landscape. From a financial perspective, to support comprehensive, coordinated care. incentives are in place to help PCPs transform their practices. Benefits, however, may come at a cost. All stakeholders face possibly difficult Medical homes hold great promise – and changes and might have to make significant many initiatives are currently in progress. Even compromises. Even so, the alternatives could so, attempts with even the purest motives can be even less desirable. Status quo is not fail because of unrealistic expectations, poor an option, so stakeholders should actively planning or poor implementations. Fortunately, participate in collaboratively shaping a more best practices are emerging that help to deal affordable, sustainable, high-valued healthcare with these issues. Appropriately applying these system. practices can help increase the likelihood of success for an initial rollout and a sustainable model. To help frame discussions and provide guidance in utilizing current best practices when implementing a medical home, we offer observations and recommendations to guide current and future initiatives.22 IBM Global Business Services IBM Global Business Services
  5. 5. Patient-centered medical homeWhat, why and how? The current emphasis Cost, quality and access issues take to easily incorporate existing evidence into in U.S. healthcare is toll on U.S. healthcare system practice (for example, electronic health records The United States is struggling to address with robust decision support capabilities). The on reactive care, not increasing costs, poor or inconsistent quality challenges entailed in resolving these issuesprevention, wellness or 1 are daunting. Many believe success will be and inaccessibility to timely care. Healthcarecoordination of chronic expenditures per capita are 2.4 times higher fully achieved only through a fundamental 6 conditions. than that of other developed countries and transformation of healthcare. This transfor- are projected to increase 67 percent over .9 mation will require that high-value, affordable 2 the next ten years. Access concerns, such health promotion and healthcare be delivered as the 45.7 million uninsured U.S citizens (15.3 comprehensively to, and collaboratively with, percent of total population) are taking a toll activated consumers through new delivery 7 3 on the healthcare system. Moreover, these models. challenges are exacerbated by forces that Key to this transformation is strengthening are challenging the status quo: globalization, the primary care system by replacing poorly consumerism, changing demographics and coordinated episodic care with a PCP-led lifestyles, diseases that are more expensive care delivery team working at the “top of to treat (for example, the rising incidence their licenses” and providing coordinated of chronic disease) and the proliferation engagement of individuals in their preventive, of medical technologies and treatments. 4 acute, chronic, long-term and end-of-life care. The current state is unsustainable. As U.S. There is ample evidence demonstrating the President Barack Obama stated, “…the cost importance of primary care. Residents in U.S. of our healthcare has weighed down our states with higher ratios of PCPs report better economy and the conscience of our nation health and better outcomes. For example, they long enough. So let there be no doubt: experience decreased mortality from cancer, healthcare reform cannot wait, it must not wait, 5 heart disease and stroke than persons in and it will not wait another year.” states with lower PCP ratios. Increasing the U.S. healthcare is geared to treating and number of PCPs is also associated with a rewarding acute, episodic interventions. As a longer life expectancy and fewer premature 8 result, the emphasis is on reactive care, not deaths. on prevention and wellness or care coordi- Although a majority of patients prefer to seek nation for chronic conditions or serious acute their initial care from a PCP rather than a conditions. Poor communication exists among specialist, there is growing dissatisfaction with providers, as well as inadequate activation of the healthcare system, access to primary individuals in ownership for their own health care and the quality of healthcare services through education and self management. 9 received. In a national evaluation of primary Providers have also been slow to implement care and specialist physician performance for evidence-based medicine in their practice 30 medical conditions plus preventive care, workflows, in part because of the lack of patients received recommended care only 55 evidence and the tools and support necessary 10 percent of the time. And a growing number of patients report difficulties in scheduling timely appointments with their PCPs. 3 Patient-centered medical home
  6. 6. In turn, many PCPs are also growing frustrated The growing level of frustration and with the type of care they provide, as they are reimbursement discrepancy is contributing to faced with a payment structure that rewards a widening shortage of primary care providers acute, episodic and procedure-based care in the United States. From 1999 to 2009, 46 with insufficient reimbursement for coordi- percent fewer U.S. medical school graduates nation and proactive, planned care. They are entered family practice residencies (see 14 typically overburdened by large numbers Figure 1). And the estimated overall primary of short patient visits for acute problems care physician shortage is expected to reach 15 without the organization and staff needed 35,000-44,000 by 2025. Moreover, many to proactively manage the health needs of nurses and nurse practitioners are electing to a defined population of persons. One study work at wealthier specialty practices, further estimates that a typical primary care physician straining the primary care system. would need 18 hours per day, using the current acute care visit model, to provide all Other stakeholders are becoming increas- recommended preventive and chronic care ingly aware of the pitfalls in the primary care 11 services to a typical panel. Forty-one percent system. U.S. employers, which provide health of the primary care workload (arranging insurance to 60.9 percent of the nonelderly referrals, patient communication, emotional population, are increasingly dissatisfied with support and encouragement, etc.) is not the cost and quality of healthcare services reimbursed by a procedure/examination- they purchase and view the shortcomings in oriented fee-for-service methodology. 12 the primary care system as key reasons why Furthermore, the median income for they cannot buy comprehensive care for their 16 primary care physicians is about half that of employees. The cost of healthcare negatively 13 specialists. FIGURE 1. Family medicine residency positions and number filled by U.S. medical school graduates. 3500 3000 Positions available 2500 2000 Positions filled by U.S. graduates 1500 1000 500 0 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Source: American Academy of Family Physicians, based on data from the National Resident Matching Program.4 IBM Global Business Services
  7. 7. The cost of healthcare is impacts the global competitiveness of In summary, we believe the U.S. healthcare American companies. Poorly managed chronic system is broken and unsustainable. Primary increasingly pushed onto disease affects productivity, due in part to the care, a critical piece of any healthcare system,the patient through higher absence of strong primary care resources is “the most broken.” The purpose of this study premium contributions, and coordination. The cost of healthcare is is to analyze the patient-centered medical co-pays and deductibles increasingly pushed onto the patient through home, or the “medical home” – an enhanced to the point that even higher premium contributions, co-pays and care model that provides comprehensive and well-insured patients are deductibles to the point that even well-insured timely care with appropriate reimbursement, patients are financially threatened by serious emphasizing the central role of primary care. In financially threatened by illness. Health expense debt has become a particular, we explore if and why various stake- serious illness. 17 leading cause of personal bankruptcy. The holders should consider investment in PCMH cost of healthcare compromises the ability of initiatives. Based on knowledge gained from governments at all levels to provide service. current PCMH efforts to date, we also offer Employers are also increasingly concerned considerations on how to effectively define about the effects of healthcare costs and and implement a medical home initiative. are eliminating or reducing health benefits. Observations and recommendations on this And there is growing recognition that insured topic are particularly timely to help avoid Americans might not have an established unfettered expectations about its immediate source of access to basic primary care potential – as the model is in its infancy in the 18 20 services. United States. “Primary care, the backbone of The medical home: What is it? What the nation’s healthcare system, is isn’t it? In broad terms, the PCMH provides care that at grave risk of collapse due to a is “accessible, continuous, comprehensive dysfunctional financing and deliv- and coordinated and delivered in the context 21 of family and community.” The American ery system.” Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) introduced the – American College of Physicians19 medical home concept in 1967 to improve healthcare for children with special needs. In 2007 the American Academy of Family , Physicians, the AAP the American College , of Physicians and the American Osteopathic Association issued principles defining their vision of a PCMH (see sidebar, Principles 22 of PCMH). This represents a fundamental change from how healthcare is being delivered today (see Figure 2). 5 Patient-centered medical home
  8. 8. FIGURE 2. The PCMH concept advocates enhanced access to comprehensive, coordinated, evidence-based, interdisciplinary care. Todays care Medical home care My patients are those who make Our patients are those who are registered in appointments to see me our medical home Care is determined by today’s problem and Care is determined by a proactive plan to time available today meet health needs, with or without visits Care varies by scheduled time and Care is standardized according to evidence- memory or skill of the doctor based guidelines I know I deliver high quality care because We measure our quality and make rapid I’m well trained changes to improve it Patients are responsible for coordinating A prepared team of professionals coordinates their own care all patients’ care It’s up to the patient to tell us what We track tests and consultations, and happened to them follow-up after ED and hospital Clinic operations center on meeting the An interdisciplinary team works at the top of doctor’s needs our licenses to serve patients Source: Adapted with permission from F. Daniel Duffy, MD, MACP, Senior Associate Dean for Academics, University of Oklahoma School of Community Medicine. and among the 25 percent who did respond, Principles of PCMH 25 only 40 percent were correct. • Patient-centric/personal PCP • PCP-directed medical team Another key component of the PCMH is the • Whole person orientation team approach to care. Under this model, • Care is coordinated and integrated the patient is at the center of the healthcare • Emphasis on quality and safety experience, supported by a team of healthcare • Enhanced access professionals who are practicing at the “top • Appropriate reimbursement. of their licenses.” The physician, nurse, nurse Source: American Academy of Family Physicians, American Academy of Pediatrics, American College of Physicians, practitioner, patient educator, pharmacist, as American Osteopathic Association. Joint principles of the well as other caregivers, have new roles to patient-centered medical home. February 2007. play in a team-based approach to care that incorporates a shared sense of responsibility At the core of the medical home is the for the patient’s health. Rather than being just patient’s personal, comprehensive, long-term a resource for episodic care, the PCP-led care relationship with the PCP Patients who have . team assumes proactive prevention, wellness, a PCP will incur about a third less healthcare and chronic illness care, becoming the expenditure and will have 19 percent lower patient’s confidant, coordinator and advisor for 23 mortality. They are 7 percent more likely to all aspects of healthcare. stop smoking and 12 percent less likely to 24 be obese. Yet today, 75 percent of recently Quality and safety are hallmarks of the surveyed hospitalized patients were unable to medical home. Where evidence-based name a single doctor assigned to their care – guidelines are available and implemented,6 IBM Global Business Services
  9. 9. While PCMHs can often with the support of IT tools, PCPs will be Consumers must be willing to take more able to deliver both more personalized and responsibility for their health and healthcare, be foundational to safer care. It is also about enhanced access, including changing unhealthy behaviorstransformation, they 26 such as flexible scheduling, group visits and with appropriate help. Care delivered by are not a cure-all. use of multiple channels of communication, the medical home team must be aligned, such as e-mail, phone, or a Web-based portal integrated and coordinated with care delivered where patients can manage their personal by other caregivers, such as specialists, in health record, monitor their own issues or other venues such as ambulatory surgery make appointments. centers or hospitals. To encourage clinicians to collaborate and operate effectively, policy While PCMHs can be foundational to U.S. or legislative changes will be needed in areas healthcare transformation, they are not a such as insurance coverage, reimbursement cure-all. Much needs to be done to support (such as payment for inter-specialist commu- PCMHs in order to implement them and fully nication needed for care coordination), realize the benefits. First, PCPs must have and roles and responsibilities of caregivers. better clinical information at the point of Additionally, changes in education and service. For example, they need better access training for clinicians will be needed to better to relevant patient information and clinical cover critical topics such as team-based knowledge to more accurately and completely care, use of IT for access to information and diagnose problems and deliver effective, communication, quality improvement and evidence-based, personalized healthcare. how to incorporate evidence into practice in Information technology help make needed non-hospital settings. Finally, the underlying clinical information and knowledge readily infrastructure to support the PCMH model, available. such as IT and other services, will need to be Second, broad support and changes much more robust (see Figure 3). are needed from other stakeholders. FIGURE 3. Multiple entities, such as care delivery organizations or health plans, could help support the PCMH. Providers Individuals • Tools and resources for virtual • Health/wealth planning interdisciplinary care delivery and management teams • Risk assessment • Tools to support better • Personal Health Records • Health access to clinical and patient • Connected personal coaching information medical devices • Value • Tools to support cost/quality • Trusted clinical coaching transparency information • Tools or services to provide • Collaboration tools and coordinated, integrated care trusted sites • Tools to enhance access • Benefits selection (e-visits, telemedicine) • Provider selection • Tools to streamline administrative processes Source: IBM Global Business Services and IBM Institute for Business Value. 7 Patient-centered medical home
  10. 10. We have learned valuable lessons from Pay-for-performance (P4P) efforts have previous approaches to address healthcare not necessarily been more successful in cost, quality and access problems. However, improving quality of care compared to 28 none of these approaches was as compre- non-P4P practices. Nor does P4P restructure hensive as PCMH (see Figure 4). Today, these or emphasize changes in primary care. Some approaches continue to evolve and sometimes experts are concerned that P4P may be toxic cause confusion by being equated with – that providers will chase the improvement in PCMHs. For example, “disease management” measures that provide more money, ignoring frequently operates independently from, or de-emphasizing important improvement 29 rather than integrated with, the primary care activities that do not enhance income. practice. The Chronic Care Model, which has strong theoretical validity, originally focused on Non-integrated managed care, when applied chronic patients, but is now being adapted to as a cost-controlling measure, placed the address prevention and other issues, such as primary care physician in the role of a access and reimbursement. 27 “gatekeeper” to control access to more expensive specialty care.” Financial incentives FIGURE 4. While other approaches have addressed some PCMH Principles, none has addressed them all. Factor/Principle PCMH Non-integrated Pay for Disease Chronic care managed care* performance management model Purpose/focus Facilitate Ideally: cost, Meet operational Meet specific Org. framework partnership quality; Actually: goals with management for chronic care between PCP and control utilization financial targets for mgt and practice patient incentives chronic disease improvement Patient centric/ Yes No No Maybe, often Yes, for chronic personal PCP led by actors illness independent of primary care PCP directed Yes No No No Yes medical “team” Whole person Yes No No No Yes orientation Care is Yes No incentive for No incentive for Maybe Yes coordinated and/ coordination coordination or integrated Emphasis on Yes, evidence- No, reduced Indirectly; Yes, particularly Yes, for chronic quality and based and best utilization process targets for diseases illnesses safety practice; improved rewarded rather than outcomes outcome ones rewarded Enhanced access Yes No, reduced No Maybe No access Appropriate Yes for PCPs, Potential conflict No, still volume Partially, if No reimbursement unclear for others in motivation driven evidence-base used Alignment with PCMH principle: Aligned Mixed alignment Not aligned *Note: By “non-integrated managed care,” we refer to the form of managed care practiced in the 1980s and early 1990s that emphasized a “gatekeeper model” with cost controls, rather than a more patient-centered focus on primary care. Most surviving forms of managed care are more integrated and incorporate more elements of the PCMH model. Source: IBM Global Business Services and IBM Institute for Business Value.8 IBM Global Business Services
  11. 11. Healthcare stakeholders encouraged PCPs (or a “distant” decision Other governmental initiatives are also maker with limited knowledge of the patient’s underway. In the Tax Relief and Healthcarehave a unique opportunity personal situation and little-to-no focus on Act of 2006 and the Medicare Improvements to either engage in the quality or satisfaction metrics) to underutilize for Patients and Providers Act of 2008,healthcare transformation services. As a result, patients perceived Congress directed the Centers for Medicare initiatives, including managed care as restricting access. As James and Medicaid Services (CMS) to “redesign those based on the Robinson notes in the Journal of the American the healthcare delivery system to provide medical home, or risk Medical Association, “The strategy of giving targeted, accessible, continuous and with one hand while taking away with the other, coordinated, family-centered care to being left behind. of offering consumers comprehensive benefits 33 high-need populations.” In January 2010, while restricting access through utilization CMS will launch a three-year demonstration review, obfuscates the workings of the system, program that will operate in rural, urban and undermines trust between patients and PCPs, underserved areas in up to eight states. The 30 and has infuriated everyone involved.” American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 emphasizes health IT and primary care, PCMH, in contrast, incorporates the full range 34 among other healthcare efforts. of care, encompassing prevention, wellness, acute, chronic and long-term care within Healthcare stakeholders have a unique a framework of strengthened primary care opportunity to either engage in the healthcare and provides coordination and collaboration transformation initiatives, including those to provide appropriate care. PCMH aligns based on the medical home, or risk being reimbursement and practice incentives to left behind. As American Academy of Family support the provider-patient relationship. Physicians President Ted Epperly, MD, said: Decisions will be made using best evidence “[AAFP members] must step forward now of appropriate and cost-effective care. Access in everything we do to try to be part of will be enhanced rather than restricted, and the solution in transforming our healthcare quality and satisfaction will be measured and 35 system.” And Karen Ignagni, President and reported. CEO of America’s Health Insurance Plans, made a similar call: “All stakeholders must rise Why should PCMH be done now? to the challenge the President has put forth to A significant transformation of the U.S. develop a uniquely American solution that gets healthcare system appears imminent. The everyone covered, restrains healthcare cost current administration has stated it will press growth and aligns patient care with medical for “comprehensive” healthcare reform 31 best practices. [Health plans] are committed legislation in 2009. Included in his 2010 to doing our share to achieve this goal and budget proposal, President Barack Obama 36 will work closely with other stakeholders.” In has proposed the largest investment ever in 32 short, there is a growing consensus that trans- preventive care. formation is needed and that the PCMH offers potential benefits to key healthcare stake- holders (see Figure 5). 9 Patient-centered medical home
  12. 12. FIGURE 5. The medical home offers potential benefits to stakeholders across the healthcare ecosystem. Stakeholder Potential benefits of the medical home Patient/family • Help from a trusted resource to navigate healthcare system • Empowered to make better-informed healthcare decisions • Receive safe, effective care with compassion • Achieve healthier outcomes collaboratively with extended care delivery team • Improved relationship with PCP, health plan. Primary care • Redefine patient relationship to deliver more comprehensive, coordinated care provider • Fair compensation for PCMH services, as well as rewards for improved clinical outcomes • Through a shift in incentives, able to more effectively provide wellness and preventative care • Better supported to deliver quality care to patients. Specialist • Receive higher quality referrals, with more complete documentation • Improved focus on area of expertise without having to assume management of patient’s primary care • Opportunity to offset income losses by participating in financial incentives for coordination and quality (for example, telephone consultations). Nurse • Develop better relationship with patients • More involvement with patient care and support (for example, patient education, behavioral change, preventive care, proactive care planning). Pharmacist • Participate fully in team-based care (for example, help determine medication and reasonable formularies). Social worker • More integrated role to address key patient needs (for example, Medicaid). Hospital • Serve PCMH patients whose conditions may not be as severe as non-PCMH patients • Potentially reduce admissions from patients who cannot pay • Potentially reduce number of re-admissions, for which there may be no or reduced payment. Health plan • Improved member and employer satisfaction • Expend healthcare resources with less waste and greater effectiveness though coordinated, evidence-based care. Employer • Purchase healthcare based on value and potentially see medical cost savings • Maintaining more present and productive workforce, in part, through improved wellness and prevention. Pharmaceuticals and • Improved appropriateness of and compliance with therapeutics other life sciences • Enhanced pharmacovigilance of products, post clinical trials. Government • Potential to improve care quality, reduce wasteful healthcare expenditures • Address frustration with the current uncoordinated and impersonal system. Communities and • Potential for a healthier, more productive citizenry society • Potential to allocate dollars so that they have greater return. Source: IBM Global Business Services and IBM Institute for Business Value.10 IBM Global Business Services
  13. 13. Even though changes Community Care of North Carolina (CCNC) “If the U.S. is serious about closing has also been successful. CCNC was in the healthcare the quality chasm, it will need a formed to reduce healthcare costs and system are difficult strong primary care system, which increase access and quality of the state’sto implement, PCMH under- and uninsured population. It includes is an initiative that requires fundamentally reforming case managers to target high-cost, high-risk can be successfully provider payment, encouraging enrollees. In January 2009, CCNC managed implemented now. all patients to enroll in a patient- the care of 874,000 Medicaid enrollees and 95,000 children on NC Health Choice – a free centered medical home, and sup- or reduced-cost health insurance program for porting physician practices that uninsured children from birth through age 18. 42 serve as medical homes with the Both external and internal evaluations of the program have documented positive results. A information technology and techni- recent study reported that CCNC produced cal assistance for redesigning care cost savings of at least $160 million per 43 processes.” year. And internal analyses have also shown improvements. An asthma program reduced – Karen Davis, President, Commonwealth Fund37 hospital admission rates by 40 percent and a diabetes program improved quality of care by Why can PCMH be done now? 15 percent. 44 Despite the difficulties in making significant changes to the healthcare system, the PCMH Moreover, this medical home-type approach model can be implemented now. Pilots have is working outside of the United States in demonstrated success in key areas such as countries such as Denmark, Ireland and Spain, improved quality, greater patient compliance which have had programs in place longer. and more effective use of healthcare Additionally, there is growing and broad services, such as reductions in unnecessary interest in revamping primary care and the or avoidable hospitalizations and use of medical home model in the United States. emergency rooms for primary care. And some PCPs, hospitals, health plans, large employers, programs report cost savings. For example, the consumer groups, patient quality organiza- Voice of Detroit Initiative (VODI) was medically 38 tions, labor unions and other groups have and financially successful. From 1999-2004, formed the Patient-Centered Primary Care it enrolled 25,000 uninsured individuals in 39 Collaborative to advance primary care and the Detroit. Patients were enrolled from primary medical home model for the 100 million people care sites, mainly emergency departments 45 40 they represent. And many of these organi- (EDs). VODI reduced ED use by over 60 zations have directly invested in individual percent and costs by 42 percent (from $51.2 medical home initiatives. In addition, 44 states million in uncompensated care costs to $29.7 41 million). 11 Patient-centered medical home
  14. 14. and the District of Columbia have passed In short, with growing support from key stake- or introduced at least 330 laws to define or holders, examples of success from which to 46 demonstrate the medical home concept. learn, and adequate financial incentives for Minnesota, for example, has passed legislation PCPs to transform practices, the PCMH can requiring all health plans to have medical and should be done now. home offerings by 2011. How should PCMH be done? Further, the financial incentives now exist Keys to the success of medical home for PCPs to transform their practices. New initiatives are strong leadership and a clear payment mechanisms are being used to vision. These must be supported by strong compensate primary care providers for guiding principles and standards, as well as important activities, such as those related to relevant, realistic, and flexible strategic plans chronic disease management and monitoring, and processes to help provide effective that were not previously reimbursable. Also, direction, structure and operations. Such the recently enacted American Recovery and strategic plans and processes have, at times Reinvestment Act will pay physicians up to in the past, been lacking. And as one industry $44,000 and more for meaningful use of an leader mentioned, “if you implement the 47 electronic health record (EHR). medical home wrong, you can make it more difficult to transform healthcare system and Finally, the technology is now “good enough” 48 even make the practice worse.” to get initiatives started and, done correctly, will likely scale to support larger implementa- Leaders also observed that PCPs have played tions. For example, disease registries, portals, a prominent role where PCMH has worked. e-prescribing capabilities and EHRs are robust That is, PCPs need to decide that the medical enough today to get started. home is how they want to practice medicine. FIGURE 6. The Patient-Centered Primary Care Collaborative is comprised of broad stakeholder support and participation. Providers • Primary care associations (333,000 physicians) • Associations represnting integrated delivery networks, academic medial centers, community hsospitals (4,000) Purchasers • Most Fortune 500 companies Suppliers • Many small and medium businesses • Pharmaceutical and via local business coalitions medical device companies • National Business Coalition on Health • Solution providers Patient-Centered • National Business Group on Health Primary Care • The ERISA Industry Committee Collaborative • HR Policy Association Consumer advocates Health plans • Unions • Health plans including Aetna, • Special interest groups BlueCross BlueShield Association, The Capital District Physicians’ Health Plan, CIGNA, Healthcare Services Corporation, Humana, Medco, Priority Health, Taconic IPA, UnitedHealthcare, Source: Patient-Centered Primary Care Collaborative. WellPoint12 IBM Global Business Services
  15. 15. Today, there is Then, other stakeholders, including local In this section, we offer considerations to hospital systems, physician associations, local current and future medical home initiatives, to simultaneous employers and business coalitions, must also help frame discussions and provide guidance underutilization of come together in support of the PCMH. PCPs in utilizing current best practices when imple- proven preventive must commit to making it “their” practice and menting a medical home, based on the and protective care affecting the necessary transformation. It rarely framework presented in Figure 7 .with overutilization of works when non-PCP stakeholders are the initiators. What is the problem to be addressed byexpensive diagnostics PCMH implementation? and interventions. The National Committee for Quality Assurance The U.S. healthcare system is ripe with oppor- (NCQA) Standards and Guidelines for tunities to improve quality, improve access or Physician Practice Connections – Patient- reduce costs. For example, there is underuti- Centered Medical Home (PPC-PCMH) lization of proven preventive and proactive was frequently used as a guide for PCMH care. This is typically caused by lack of access discussions and planning. While not perfect to primary care for many patients and, in some and subject to further revision, many initiatives cases, lack of incentives for, or awareness of, have decided that the PPC-PCMH is “good best practices on the part of some physicians. enough to get us going.” The NCQA is Moreover, failure to use less costly inter- reviewing criticism of, and suggestions for, its viewing and physical examination and relying guidelines, as well as results of PCMH pilots. of imaging and laboratory testing results in The organization plans to issue revisions in overutilization of expensive diagnostics and 49 2010. FIGURE 7: When implementing a PCMH initiative, the problem at hand helps determine the best practices for common implementation issues. Is our approach What is the problem? What are common What are the best consistently aligned implementation practices? with problem we are issues? trying to solve? • What cost/quality/ • Incentives to participate • Who else has addressed • Do you have… access issue(s) are you • Members/patients our problem? - An appropriate targeting? - What can we learn governance structure • Initial funding - Near, long term? from them to with the right • Governance address our key participants? • What are your vision, guiding principles? • Key metrics implementation - An agreed-upon • Payments issues? project plan and strong project • Practice transformation manager? • Technology - Capabilities to support infrastructure the patient cohort? • Patient attribution - Metrics to measure • Sustainability alignment with and progress toward original objectives? Source: IBM Global Business Services and IBM Institute for Business Value. 13 Patient-centered medical home
  16. 16. interventions. The former produces poor The process of identifying the exact problem outcomes and high cost associated with to be addressed and scope of the implemen- frequent and avoidable specialist referrals, ED tation will likely be iterative and must address visits and hospitalizations. The latter results several implementation issues. in high cost from unnecessary, redundant or, even, harmful interventions that add no value What are common implementation to healthcare outcomes. Both groups can issues and associated best practices? benefit from the PCMH concept. All medical homes initiatives face common implementation issues, despite differences Deciding what problem to solve is sometimes in approach and focus. Our discussion will obvious, depending on which group initiates examine the most common issues for which the discussion. For example, a dominant payer best practices exist in order to help guide new may want to create an initiative to address a or existing medical home initiatives. specific health-related problem. If the potential problems to be addressed are numerous, then Incentives to participate discussions to prioritize them must include If the environment seems like a “burning key PCPs, health plans and purchasers (e.g. platform,” or legislative mandate exists to employers). Err on the side of being inclusive implement the PCMH model, the incentives rather than exclusive. Sample evaluation are clear. Frequently, that is not the case, so questions include: key participants such as PCPs, care delivery organizations, public and private health • Can we establish meaningful, measurable insurers, employers and consumers must have goals for the implementation? adequate incentive to participate – particu- • Can the potential solution be implemented larly in public and private partnerships – in in a reasonable amount of time, given likely driving major change to the broken healthcare resources available? system. • Is the implementation likely to accomplish As described in Figure 5 (see page 10), a the meaningful goals and achieve key number of potential benefits exist for all key metrics for success? stakeholders. But these may come at a cost – • Is the implementation scalable? In other these key stakeholders may undergo difficult words, can the solution realistically be changes and may have to make significant extended beyond those participating in the compromises for “the greater good.” Even initial roll-out? so, these changes and compromises may be • Is the implementation sustainable after the the best alternative at this point. More experts pilot project ends? and decision-makers – including President Obama – are acknowledging that the current14 IBM Global Business Services
  17. 17. Successful PCMH U.S. healthcare system is unsustainable and Second, initiatives may focus on patients with that status quo is not an option. Also, since the multiple chronic conditions as these patients implementation healthcare system is badly broken, successful represent significant opportunities for quality requires both key transformation will likely significantly impact all improvements or cost reduction through participants that want stakeholders. proactive, participatory care. If these potentialto collaboratively shape benefits are realized, then challenges may In summary, potential key participants have the future of medical occur in sustaining the level of benefits when three choices: they can participate and help scaling to larger populations. care and naysayers to collaboratively shape the future; they can make sure that the key participate to “protect their turf” so that the Patients in vertically integrated financing andconcerns are voiced and U.S. healthcare system continues down an delivery systems represent a third population addressed early in the unsustainable path, likely bringing changes for piloting. For example, Geisinger Health that no one will want; or they can decide not System, which has the advantage of being initiative. to participate and let the future be shaped for both provider and payer, included a broader them by others. A successful implementation base of patients, most of whom were covered must include enough participants that want by the Geisinger plan for both payment and 50 to collaboratively shape the future. But, as care. Even so, most of the initial reported well, it must also include “turf protectors” and improvements in outcomes and costs resulted naysayers to make sure that key concerns are from patients with chronic diseases. voiced and addressed early in the initiative. The focus on chronic or high-utilization Members/patients patients is not surprising. Most of the current The patient-centered medical home serves PCMH projects are relatively new, so insuffi- patients (the sick or those with complaints) cient time has elapsed to demonstrate benefit and members (those who seek participation in in asymptomatic individuals other than in the a service that provides proactive, collaborative provision of immunizations or appropriate and coordinated care). Decisions about which assessments. The cost-effectiveness of members or patients to include in the initial secondary prevention measures, such as implementation are driven in large part by the screenings, counseling for weight loss or key stakeholders participating – which PCPs, for smoking cessation, is less clear. There is which payers or which major employers – and a point of diminishing return in performing the ultimate goals of the initial implementation. widespread screenings for healthy or asymp- Early initiatives have centered on one of three tomatic people. But where that point is patient (member) populations. remains unclear. Even the evidence of cost- effectiveness or the ability to reduce costs for First, initiatives may focus on underserved chronic disease management is inconclusive; populations (for example, Medicaid or the studies frequently haven’t included costs, and uninsured) who are typically high utilizers chronic disease management covers a broad of uncoordinated, reactive and expensive range of activities. services, such as emergency or inpatient care. Thus, they offer a large potential opportunity for quality improvements and cost reductions. The challenge is that this patient population could be difficult to manage and may have to rely on social workers to a greater extent than is typically available in today’s primary care. 15 Patient-centered medical home
  18. 18. As a result, some experts voice concern that Initial funding PCMH may not be scalable to widespread In today’s increasingly unaffordable healthcare implementation. However, PCMH has shown its system, funding is always an issue, and value in smaller countries, such as Denmark, creating a medical home or a PCMH initiative that have instituted PCMH on a national basis. requires substantial investment. Properly It is reasonable that the ultimate goal of PCMH implemented, all stakeholders will benefit. should be widespread implementation. If it The major payers – governments, insurers is limited to only Medicaid/uninsured and/or and employers – could see consequential chronic disease patients, at least three adverse reductions in expenditures or improvements effects can occur: in value over time. Under some circum- 1. A large fraction of patients will be denied stances, hospitals or healthcare systems the advantages of PCMH. The potential can benefit both by providing improved care benefit of involving patients before they and saving money. For example, hospitals have established chronic disease and that treat Medicaid or the uninsured may disability will be lost. benefit financially from the reduced utilization associated with medical home by avoiding 2. The true value of prevention may never be unnecessary unreimbursed or poorly known. reimbursed care. Organizations that are both 3. The benefit of practice transformation will a payer and provider should see financial be blunted. benefits. Thus, all these groups have incentives a) Practices may be confined to one group to provide initial funding for creating medical or type of patient. homes. b) Practices may be divided – part In fact, members of each of these groups PCMH, part acute-care-based, leading have funded the development of PCMH to unnecessary complication and programs. CMS provided initial funding for confusion. medical homes and provides additional funds c) The costs of practice transformation for initiatives. North Carolina has developed (for example, care coordinators, a medical home for approximately 874,000 24-hour access, etc.) will not be evenly Medicaid patients and 95,000 children on NC 51 distributed. It will be reminiscent of Health Choice. Pennsylvania has developed the conflicts between HMO patients a state program oriented to chronic care and indemnity patients in the early patients. Among many others, the Blues in managed-care environment. Michigan, Horizon in New Jersey and all the health plans in Vermont have funded medical Because of the ethical and operational home projects. IBM, as an example of one challenges of having a divided practice – employer’s support, provides an additional with part of the patients under the medical $12 per member per month to fund the care 52 home and part not – most provider practices management services of a medical home. participating in medical home initiatives that Geisinger Health System implemented and we surveyed transform their practices for all funded a patient-centered medical home patients, not just for patients formally partici- with preliminary results showing a 7 percent pating in the initiative. reduction in costs and a 20 percent reduction 53 in all-cause hospital admissions.16 IBM Global Business Services
  19. 19. The governance Some pharmaceutical firms also support Medical home governance should focus on medical home initiatives as the PCMH model strategic alignment of goals and outcomes structure should may result in improved appropriateness of (“What is the problem we are trying to be inclusive of all and long-term compliance with medicines address?” see page 13); value delivery (“How ,relevant stakeholders by persons with chronic illness, for example. will each stakeholder contribute to deliver theacross the public and The model also offers promises for enhanced benefits promised at the beginning of a project private sectors. prevention, so there are opportunities for or investment?”); resource management (How improved use of vaccines. will we manage our resources and ourselves more efficiently to meet our goals?”); risk Governance management (“How will we measure, accept A sound governance structure and process and manage risk?”); and key metrics (“What are needed to align and sustain the medical are the qualitative and quantitative measures home initiative’s strategies and objectives. The needed to assess our performance towards goals and approach should be documented reaching our goals?”). in a charter, and the process of transformation should enable collective learning across Key metrics participating stakeholders. Without this, as Measurement and evaluation processes are one healthcare leader noted, the “messages critical because of their effects on the rewards get blurred because everyone needs to for information sharing, the motivation for risk 54 understand what we’re doing and why?” taking, incentives for desired behaviors, the resulting organizational learning and other This structure should be inclusive of all factors. Educating the medical home stake- relevant stakeholders across the public and holders on the metrics and why they may vary private sectors, including PCPs, physician across functions is crucial for maintaining organizations or affiliations, consumers, major morale and cooperation. To date, medical employers, health plans and key government home efforts have used a combination of the representatives, such as those from Medicaid following types of key metrics: and the state insurance commission. Such widespread participation offers great • Costs: Targeted cost metrics are impacted advantages (greater buy-in, for example) and by things such as the types of patients, the challenges (delays in reaching consensus) number of patients and the duration of the – but will require flexibility, as expectations PCMH initiative. and standards will likely evolve over time. • Process of care: Appropriate screening Additionally, attorneys may need to attend for traditional conditions such as breast, governance meetings to help discussions stay colorectal, and prostate cancers, for within the bounds of prevailing laws, or guide example. Some have aligned these metrics actions for changing or requesting exceptions with NCQA accreditation measures, thereby to current regulations. It is also important to incenting health plans to participate and include both zealots and the naysayers to to offer pay-for-for-performance reimburse- allow all perspectives to be considered. ment. Other groups have also focused on targeted conditions that are more endemic to their population. 17 Patient-centered medical home
  20. 20. • Outcomes of care: Measurements of the Reimbursement change in health for a patient or a cohort. Medical homes initiatives are experimenting Since there is no definitive health index, with different payment structures, as groups outcome measures have focused on find the right balance for stakeholders and individual conditions and patient compli- program objectives. Today, initiatives use ance (for example, tracking change in combinations of four basic reimbursement glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels in elements: fee-for-service payments with diabetics or blood pressure for hyperten- new service codes (for example, e-visits); sion) or utilization (for example, hospital care management fees; bonus payments for admissions or emergency department meeting certain criteria (for example, NCQA visits). certification); and quality or performance 56 • Service: Service metrics have focused on incentives. By far the most common operational aspects, such as the time to approach is a traditional fee-for-service answer the telephone and the wait until the payment and additional payment for meeting next appointment. certain quality metrics. • Patient and caregiver satisfaction: A key However, concerns exist about some of way a medical home can demonstrate its these proposals. For example, some argue commitment to quality and in improvements that retaining volume-based elements risks is to assess the satisfaction of its patients inhibiting the necessary transformation to and the clinicians providing care. There proactive, preventive, and non-visit coordi- are numerous existing surveys to choose nation of care delivery and the practice. So, from, such as Consumer Assessment of while there is no perfect model, a blended Healthcare Providers and Systems (CAHPS), model, such as the three-part payment which enables groups to compare their methodology recommended by the Patient- results with national ones. Centered Primary Care Collaborative – which • Coordination of care: These metrics are includes components for services rendered, more innovative, but more difficult, since care management and performance – may be 57 they require a sophisticated tracking system. the best compromise. With its consultation and referral tracking In Colorado, for example, the Colorado system, the University of Oklahoma is Multi-Stakeholder Pilot has implemented developing a set of measures that accounts the three-tier reimbursement model of for the rapidity of referrals and getting the fee-for-service, per-patient-per-month and referral, from initiation to completion, and 55 pay-for-performance that aligns with the Joint includes quality and process measures. Principles and the PCPCC recommenda- So “what proportion of patients with certain 58 tions. This model mitigates the unintended kinds of problems is seen by the specialist consequences present when implementation and was handled in this e-mail exchange?” is in a siloed fashion. Nevertheless, experi- is an example of a novel measure, tied to mentation is key and should be directed by the ability to track that kind of information.18 IBM Global Business Services
  21. 21. PCPs should view the a set of guiding principles, such as the Practice transformation ones provided by the AAFP (see sidebar, PCPs that participate in the medical home medical home as a AAFP’s Recommendations for Medical Home should view it as a transformation of theirpractice transformation Payment). practice that affects all of their patients, not that affects all of their simply those active in the medical home patients. AAFP’s Recommendations for Medical initiative. If implemented only for a few patients, Home Payment it will require old and new processes to According to the AAFP, the medical home payment co-exist, creating operational complexities for structure should: the practices. • Reflect the value of PCP and non-PCP staff Successful transformations require a focused, work that falls outside of the face-to-face visit associated with patient-centered care tightly coupled approach that incorpo- management rates systematic change management, including the redesign of key processes and • Pay for services associated with coordination of capabilities across the practice, as well as care both within a given practice and between changes in roles and responsibilities. This consultants, ancillary providers and community helps the medical home team to achieve the resources desired goals of providing more coordinated, • Support adoption and use of health information integrated and ongoing care, and represents technology for quality improvement an overall change in the culture or value • Support provision of enhanced communication system of the practice. access, such as secure e-mail and telephone consultations Figure 8 gives an example of the possible impact of this transformation. The horizontal • Recognize the value of PCP work associated axis represents the percentage of patients in with remote monitoring of clinical data using this hypothetical practice needing the various technology services listed. The bars are color-coded to • Allow for separate fee-for-service payments represent which medical home team member for face-to-face visits, but payments for care- could be assigned primary responsibility for management services that fall outside of the that service. Obviously, these assignments face-to-face visit, as described above, should could vary from practice to practice depending not result in a reduction in payments for face-to- on factors such as the demographics of the face visits medical home population and the numbers • Recognize case mix differences in the patient and types of resources and skill sets available. population being treated within the practice Additionally, resources outside the practice • Allow PCPs to share in savings from reduced would be available and should be used appro- hospitalizations associated with PCP-guided priately. Also, since this would be a PCP-led care management in the office setting interdisciplinary team, other team members • Allow for additional payments for achieving – including the PCP – would likely assist or measurable and continuous quality improve- support the person(s) with primary responsi- ments. 19 Patient-centered medical home