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helpdesk@construction-productivity.co.uk
htt://www.construction-productivity.co.ukhtt://www.construction-productivity.co.u...
BASIC MODEL OF MOTIVATION
(NEEDS AND EXPECTATION)
• Mullins (1996) defined motivation as an
internal driving force within ...
BASIC MODEL OF MOTIVATIONBASIC MODEL OF MOTIVATION
(NEEDS AND EXPECTATION)(NEEDS AND EXPECTATION)
BASIC MODEL OF MOTIVATIONBASIC MODEL OF MOTIVATION
(NEEDS AND EXPECTATION)(NEEDS AND EXPECTATION)
• Mullins asks what are ...
BASIC MODEL OF MOTIVATION (NEEDSBASIC MODEL OF MOTIVATION (NEEDS
AND EXPECTATION)AND EXPECTATION)
• Therefore, at a basic ...
BASIC MODEL OF MOTIVATION (NEEDSBASIC MODEL OF MOTIVATION (NEEDS
AND EXPECTATION)AND EXPECTATION)
MOTIVATIONAL THEORIESMOTIVATIONAL THEORIES
• Needs or expectation are fundamental requirements
for one survival and wellbe...
MOTIVATIONAL THEORIESMOTIVATIONAL THEORIES
Figure below shows the relationship between Needs,
Value, Goals and Action.
MOTIVATIONAL THEORIESMOTIVATIONAL THEORIES
ECONOMIC NEEDS, MOTIVATION AND THE
CONCEPT OF ECONOMIC MAN
• Frederick Taylor, ...
MOTIVATIONAL THEORIESMOTIVATIONAL THEORIES
• Until then, no one tried to measure the
efficiency of workers and there was n...
MOTIVATIONAL THEORIESMOTIVATIONAL THEORIES
• The view of rational economic man
has its roots on the economic theory of
Ada...
MOTIVATIONAL THEORIESMOTIVATIONAL THEORIES
• Taylor lay down techniques for design and
management of work and how the work...
MOTIVATIONAL THEORIESMOTIVATIONAL THEORIES
• Taylor describes scientific management as a
science with many rules, laws and...
MOTIVATIONAL THEORIESMOTIVATIONAL THEORIES
• F W Taylor believed in economic need
motivation.
• Workers are motivated if t...
MOTIVATIONAL THEORIESMOTIVATIONAL THEORIES
SOCIAL CONCEPT OF MOTIVATION-FROM
ECONOMICAL MAN TO SOCIAL MAN
• In any organis...
MOTIVATIONAL THEORIESMOTIVATIONAL THEORIES
• Taylor’s theory looks at a single factor
taking no account of other influence...
MOTIVATIONAL THEORIESMOTIVATIONAL THEORIES
• Other human relations writers demonstrated that
people go to work to satisfy ...
EARLY MOTIVATIONAL THEORIESEARLY MOTIVATIONAL THEORIES
• All managers have a duty to motivate the workforce.
• Motivated p...
EARLY MOTIVATIONAL THEORIESEARLY MOTIVATIONAL THEORIES
• These theories provide a framework for
management to pay attentio...
EARLY MOTIVATIONAL THEORIESEARLY MOTIVATIONAL THEORIES
• Scientific Management and work of F.W
Taylor
• The Hawthorn exper...
MOTIVATIONAL THEORIESMOTIVATIONAL THEORIES
CONTENT THEORIES OF MOTIVATION
Motivational theories are divided into two
main ...
MOTIVATIONAL THEORIESMOTIVATIONAL THEORIES
MASLOW’S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS THEORY
• Maslow’s concept of hierarchy of need is s...
MOTIVATIONAL THEORIESMOTIVATIONAL THEORIES
• Physiological needs – these are man’s physical
needs for food, shelter, warmt...
MOTIVATIONAL THEORIESMOTIVATIONAL THEORIES
• Esteem needs (Ego needs) – this is either
self esteem such as self acceptance...
MOTIVATIONAL THEORIESMOTIVATIONAL THEORIES
• The psychologist Frederick Herzberg first proposed
the motivation-hygiene the...
MOTIVATIONAL THEORIESMOTIVATIONAL THEORIES
• By removing the dis-satisfiers from the work
environment does not necessarily...
MOTIVATIONAL THEORIESMOTIVATIONAL THEORIES
• Those answers which were determinants of job
satisfaction were as follows,
• ...
MOTIVATIONAL THEORIESMOTIVATIONAL THEORIES
• Herzberg concluded that the opposite to
‘satisfaction’ is ‘no satisfaction’, ...
MOTIVATIONAL THEORIESMOTIVATIONAL THEORIES
• By removing the dis-satisfiers from the work
environment does not necessarily...
MOTIVATIONAL THEORIESMOTIVATIONAL THEORIES
• If a company lacks hygiene factors the
workforce will not be dissatisfied or
...
MOTIVATIONAL THEORIESMOTIVATIONAL THEORIES
ERG THEORY
• Professor Clayton Alderfer of Yale University carried
out empirica...
MOTIVATIONAL THEORIESMOTIVATIONAL THEORIES
• Relatedness needs – concerned with our
social needs and the need to be loved ...
MOTIVATIONAL THEORIESMOTIVATIONAL THEORIES
Alderfer makes three important points:
• The less someone’s needs are satisfied...
Figure below shows Satisfaction-progression, frustration-Figure below shows Satisfaction-progression, frustration-
regress...
Table below shows comparison of Maslow and ERGTable below shows comparison of Maslow and ERG
concepts.concepts.
MOTIVATIONAL THEORIESMOTIVATIONAL THEORIES
PROCESS THEORY OF MOTIVATION
• Process theory of motivation or theories of
beha...
MOTIVATIONAL THEORIESMOTIVATIONAL THEORIES
• It is not easy to link a particular process
theory to a single researcher but...
MOTIVATIONAL THEORIESMOTIVATIONAL THEORIES
EQUITY THEORY OF MOTIVATION
• Equity theory or social comparison
theory, sugges...
MOTIVATIONAL THEORIESMOTIVATIONAL THEORIES
EXPECTANCY THEORY
• The origin of Expectancy theory goes
back to Talman and Lew...
MOTIVATIONAL THEORIESMOTIVATIONAL THEORIES
• The concept of balance relates to the order of
performance one may have betwe...
MOTIVATIONAL THEORIESMOTIVATIONAL THEORIES
• In order to experience motivation the value
of expectancy and valance must be...
078 Motivational Theories
078 Motivational Theories
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078 Motivational Theories

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Motivational Theories and Producivity
Dr f Dejahang (BSc CEng, BSc (Hons) Construction Mgmt, MSc, EX MCIOB EX........ PhD

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078 Motivational Theories

  1. 1. helpdesk@construction-productivity.co.uk htt://www.construction-productivity.co.ukhtt://www.construction-productivity.co.uk MOTIVATIONALMOTIVATIONAL THEORIESTHEORIES
  2. 2. BASIC MODEL OF MOTIVATION (NEEDS AND EXPECTATION) • Mullins (1996) defined motivation as an internal driving force within the individual in which they ultimately are attempting to achieve their goad or some expectation and fulfil some needs. • From this concept the basic motivational model is illustrated.
  3. 3. BASIC MODEL OF MOTIVATIONBASIC MODEL OF MOTIVATION (NEEDS AND EXPECTATION)(NEEDS AND EXPECTATION)
  4. 4. BASIC MODEL OF MOTIVATIONBASIC MODEL OF MOTIVATION (NEEDS AND EXPECTATION)(NEEDS AND EXPECTATION) • Mullins asks what are people’s needs and expectations. • What are the driving forces and how do they influence someone’s performance or behaviour. • Motivation is complex and can be a very personal business. • People have different needs and expectations and they try to satisfy in a number of different ways.
  5. 5. BASIC MODEL OF MOTIVATION (NEEDSBASIC MODEL OF MOTIVATION (NEEDS AND EXPECTATION)AND EXPECTATION) • Therefore, at a basic level, the concept of motivation is closely linked to physiological need. • However, since human behaviour is more complex than just striving to meet physiological need, such a model of motivation is oversimplified.
  6. 6. BASIC MODEL OF MOTIVATION (NEEDSBASIC MODEL OF MOTIVATION (NEEDS AND EXPECTATION)AND EXPECTATION)
  7. 7. MOTIVATIONAL THEORIESMOTIVATIONAL THEORIES • Needs or expectation are fundamental requirements for one survival and wellbeing. • Needs are either physical or physiological. • Needs influence values and values are a concept that a person thinks is good to have. • Value has influence on jobs and goals, leads to action or specific plans which one has disbelief that his goals will lead to the fulfilment of his needs (The Open University - The Business School, 1995).
  8. 8. MOTIVATIONAL THEORIESMOTIVATIONAL THEORIES Figure below shows the relationship between Needs, Value, Goals and Action.
  9. 9. MOTIVATIONAL THEORIESMOTIVATIONAL THEORIES ECONOMIC NEEDS, MOTIVATION AND THE CONCEPT OF ECONOMIC MAN • Frederick Taylor, an American engineer, was one of the first researchers in industrial psychology to apply scientific method to study the workforce. • In 1880 he introduced scientific management technique to ensure workforce activity during the working hours and consequently tried to improve efficiency.
  10. 10. MOTIVATIONAL THEORIESMOTIVATIONAL THEORIES • Until then, no one tried to measure the efficiency of workers and there was no scale by which to measure such efficiency. • During this period, the traditional approach to motivation was based on a fundamental philosophy that, the best way to motivate workers was by giving them financial rewards to improve performance or by penalties. • These rewards or incentives were in the form of promotion, shorter working hours, or higher salaries.
  11. 11. MOTIVATIONAL THEORIESMOTIVATIONAL THEORIES • The view of rational economic man has its roots on the economic theory of Adam Smith from the 1770's. • The theory suggests that people are primarily motivated by self interest and by gaining more and more financial rewards (Cole, 1993:page 95).
  12. 12. MOTIVATIONAL THEORIESMOTIVATIONAL THEORIES • Taylor lay down techniques for design and management of work and how the workers should be paid. • Taylor believed the outcome of scientific management would be an increase in efficiency and a firm would profit from this. • This underlying benefit and assumption would allow the firm to pay more then average wages to the workforce.
  13. 13. MOTIVATIONAL THEORIESMOTIVATIONAL THEORIES • Taylor describes scientific management as a science with many rules, laws and formulas. • This, therefore, replaces the judgement of individual workers. • The work of any worker is planned in advance, and is accompanied with complete work instruction. • The task is well described. • It enables the workers to carry out work in a given pace.
  14. 14. MOTIVATIONAL THEORIESMOTIVATIONAL THEORIES • F W Taylor believed in economic need motivation. • Workers are motivated if they are paid higher wages, by working efficiently and in the best productive way. • Taylor looked at factors that motivated workers and believed motivation was a comparatively simple issue. • In his view, what workers wanted more than anything was high wages (Mullins, 1996:page 485).
  15. 15. MOTIVATIONAL THEORIESMOTIVATIONAL THEORIES SOCIAL CONCEPT OF MOTIVATION-FROM ECONOMICAL MAN TO SOCIAL MAN • In any organisation, managers and their subordinates pursue organisational goals, such as efficiency, only because as a result of this their personal intrinsic gain will improve. • There are other benefits such as financial compensation and other benefits • There have been many articles, concepts of Taylor’s theory about scientific management.
  16. 16. MOTIVATIONAL THEORIESMOTIVATIONAL THEORIES • Taylor’s theory looks at a single factor taking no account of other influences and behaviour, or of variants between people and situations. • His views towards workers are simplistic and generalised. • He did not consider that the average man may also get satisfaction from his job, from working with his team workers (Gower & Rushbrook, 1983:page 27).
  17. 17. MOTIVATIONAL THEORIESMOTIVATIONAL THEORIES • Other human relations writers demonstrated that people go to work to satisfy a variety of needs, that they do not work only for economical means. • They emphasised the importance of social needs rather than economical needs. • Hawthorne demonstrated in his experiment that people do not only work for money (Mullins, 1996: p485). • The human relation approach and management brought about the concept of economic man to social man.
  18. 18. EARLY MOTIVATIONAL THEORIESEARLY MOTIVATIONAL THEORIES • All managers have a duty to motivate the workforce. • Motivated people work better and take more pride in their jobs. • Motivating people at work is a complex business. • There is not a single factor that can be isolated to show what motivates people at work. • Different theories have been developed to help management to understand that there are many motives that influence worker’s behaviour and performance.
  19. 19. EARLY MOTIVATIONAL THEORIESEARLY MOTIVATIONAL THEORIES • These theories provide a framework for management to pay attention to the problems associated with encouraging workers to work willingly and effectively. • However, one must say that these theories are not conclusive, they have their critics. • New ideas bring new theories that may contradict the original ideas. • It is not difficult to bring a case that may contradict any generalised observation on how people are motivated at work.
  20. 20. EARLY MOTIVATIONAL THEORIESEARLY MOTIVATIONAL THEORIES • Scientific Management and work of F.W Taylor • The Hawthorn experiment & Human Relation Experiment • Development of many competing theories on the Nature of work motivation • Content theory • Process theory
  21. 21. MOTIVATIONAL THEORIESMOTIVATIONAL THEORIES CONTENT THEORIES OF MOTIVATION Motivational theories are divided into two main groups: • Content theories • Process theories • Some of the most well known content theories that have been put forward over the last forty years are by Maslow, Alderfer, Herzberg, and McGregors.
  22. 22. MOTIVATIONAL THEORIESMOTIVATIONAL THEORIES MASLOW’S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS THEORY • Maslow’s concept of hierarchy of need is shown in figure below
  23. 23. MOTIVATIONAL THEORIESMOTIVATIONAL THEORIES • Physiological needs – these are man’s physical needs for food, shelter, warmth, sexual needs and other functions related to the human body. • Safety needs – the need to feel safe from physical danger and the need to maintain personal safety, whether it is physical, emotional or physiological. • Social or affiliation needs – the need for love, the need to feel part of a group or organisation, sense of belonging, the need to give and receive love.
  24. 24. MOTIVATIONAL THEORIESMOTIVATIONAL THEORIES • Esteem needs (Ego needs) – this is either self esteem such as self acceptance, the need to respect ourselves, to feel confidence, to feel independent, free, and have a sense of achievement. • Self-actualisation – this is the need for self- development, which is to develop the gifts or potentials one has to the full.
  25. 25. MOTIVATIONAL THEORIESMOTIVATIONAL THEORIES • The psychologist Frederick Herzberg first proposed the motivation-hygiene theory in 1959. • Herzberg's motivation-hygiene or duel factor theory or two-factor theory came about because in his view the individuals relation to his or her workplace is a basic one. • Whatever his or her attitude is in relation to the workplace will strongly determine whether an individual becomes successful or fails in his job. • As a result Herzberg carried out a survey to prove his theory
  26. 26. MOTIVATIONAL THEORIESMOTIVATIONAL THEORIES • By removing the dis-satisfiers from the work environment does not necessarily make a job satisfying. • His survey indicated the existence of a dual continuum. • Herzberg called characteristics such as company policy, administration, supervision, working conditions and security, hygiene factors. • If a company lacks hygiene factors the workforce will not be dissatisfied or satisfied. • To increase motivation in a work environment Herzberg suggested emphasis should be placed on factors such as recognition, achievement or growth.
  27. 27. MOTIVATIONAL THEORIESMOTIVATIONAL THEORIES • Those answers which were determinants of job satisfaction were as follows, • advancement, • recognition, • responsibility, • work itself The dis-satisfiers were: • company policy and administration, • supervision, • salary, interpersonal relations, • working conditions, (Cowling et al 1993).
  28. 28. MOTIVATIONAL THEORIESMOTIVATIONAL THEORIES • Herzberg concluded that the opposite to ‘satisfaction’ is ‘no satisfaction’, and the opposite of ‘dissatisfaction’ is ‘no dissatisfaction’, therefore suggesting that factors leading to job satisfaction are distinct from factors leading to job dissatisfaction.
  29. 29. MOTIVATIONAL THEORIESMOTIVATIONAL THEORIES • By removing the dis-satisfiers from the work environment does not necessarily make a job satisfying. • His survey indicated the existence of a dual continuum. • Herzberg called characteristics such as company policy, administration, supervision, working conditions and security, hygiene factors.
  30. 30. MOTIVATIONAL THEORIESMOTIVATIONAL THEORIES • If a company lacks hygiene factors the workforce will not be dissatisfied or satisfied. • To increase motivation in a work environment Herzberg suggested emphasis should be placed on factors such as recognition, achievement or growth.
  31. 31. MOTIVATIONAL THEORIESMOTIVATIONAL THEORIES ERG THEORY • Professor Clayton Alderfer of Yale University carried out empirical tests on need hierarchy. • His need theory was similar to Maslows but from his test results he identified three groups of need rather than five groups of need which Maslow suggested earlier. The three categories of need are: • Existence need – which are concerned with human existence and survival. These survival needs include reproduction, physiological and safety needs of a material nature.
  32. 32. MOTIVATIONAL THEORIESMOTIVATIONAL THEORIES • Relatedness needs – concerned with our social needs and the need to be loved and respected. It also covers affiliation and meaningful interpersonal relationships of a safety or esteem nature. • Growth needs – concerned with needs for personal growth. They cover self-esteem and
  33. 33. MOTIVATIONAL THEORIESMOTIVATIONAL THEORIES Alderfer makes three important points: • The less someone’s needs are satisfied in the workplace, the more it becomes important to that person. • The more a lower level need is satisfied the more important the next higher level need becomes. • The less a higher level need is satisfied the more important the lower level need becomes.
  34. 34. Figure below shows Satisfaction-progression, frustration-Figure below shows Satisfaction-progression, frustration- regression components of ERG theoryregression components of ERG theory
  35. 35. Table below shows comparison of Maslow and ERGTable below shows comparison of Maslow and ERG concepts.concepts.
  36. 36. MOTIVATIONAL THEORIESMOTIVATIONAL THEORIES PROCESS THEORY OF MOTIVATION • Process theory of motivation or theories of behaviour choice are equity theory, expectancy theory, conditioning and goal setting theories. • Process theories try to identify the relationship between variables, which together make up the motivation process amongst people working in an organisation.
  37. 37. MOTIVATIONAL THEORIESMOTIVATIONAL THEORIES • It is not easy to link a particular process theory to a single researcher but the main writers and their major works are: • Equity theory – Adams. • Expectancy theory – base models – Vroom, Porter and Lawler. • Goal setting theory – Locke. • Attribution theory – Heider, Kelley.
  38. 38. MOTIVATIONAL THEORIESMOTIVATIONAL THEORIES EQUITY THEORY OF MOTIVATION • Equity theory or social comparison theory, suggests that workers compare themselves with others doing the same job in the same circumstances and judge the situation to see if they have been treated fairly (Cole, 1993:p95).
  39. 39. MOTIVATIONAL THEORIESMOTIVATIONAL THEORIES EXPECTANCY THEORY • The origin of Expectancy theory goes back to Talman and Lewin in the 1930’s. • Vroom (1964) is possibly one of the most prominent and influential of all researchers to formulate the expectancy/valance theory. • He described human motivation as being determined by two variables
  40. 40. MOTIVATIONAL THEORIESMOTIVATIONAL THEORIES • The concept of balance relates to the order of performance one may have between a high salary and a prestigious job. Therefore, the attractiveness of outcome plays a major role. • The concept of expectancy relates to an individual’s feeling and the likelihood of one’s action will lead to a certain outcome or goal. • According to Vroom motivation is the result of the combination of expectancy and valance.
  41. 41. MOTIVATIONAL THEORIESMOTIVATIONAL THEORIES • In order to experience motivation the value of expectancy and valance must be greater than zero. • Vroom also argued that the combination of expectancy and valance might change if a worker may predict a number of outcomes from his actions.

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