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058 Lean Construction (PART 2) Construction productivity


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Lean Construction (PART 2) Construction productivity

Published in: Engineering

058 Lean Construction (PART 2) Construction productivity

  1. 1. htt:// LEAN CONSTRUCTION
  2. 2. LEAN CONSTRUCTION  In the past 50 years, manufacturing industries have greatly improved their competitiveness.  This has been achieved through the use of lean methods such as:  Supply Chain Management  Just-In-Time techniques.  Also, for several years lean methods have been applied to the construction industry,
  3. 3. LEAN CONSTRUCTION  Lean construction is a process used to maximizes value and reduces waste.  Lean construction comes from Lean production.  It captures these objectives through the use of Supply Chain Management (SCM) and Just-In-Time (JIT) techniques,  Also, by sharing information between all the parties involved in the production process.
  4. 4. LEAN CONSTRUCTION  It is based on lean manufacturing, of the Toyota Production system.  developed by Taichii Ohno in the 1950s.  Ohno learnt from mass production at Ford Motor manufacturing facilities in the U.S. and witnessed high level of waste during production.
  5. 5. LEAN CONSTRUCTION Ohno identified several wastes in mass production systems in car industry such as: 1. overproducing 2. waiting time 3. transporting
  6. 6. LEAN CONSTRUCTION also, in other areas such as: 1. processing methods; 2. unnecessary stock on hand; 3. unnecessary motion; 4. defective goods; 5. failure to meet customers’ needs; 6. high waste through out the process.
  7. 7. LEAN CONSTRUCTION The Toyota Production System was based on the “Just –In – Time (JIT) philosophy;  The main objectives were:  minimizing waste  continuous improvement from inception to completion  with highly motivated work force
  8. 8. LEAN CONSTRUCTION The outcome was: reduced inventories High productivity better equipment utilization of machinery shorter lead times
  9. 9. LEAN CONSTRUCTION  Less errors  Highly motivated workforce  with higher morale  JIT is a pull system that responds to actual customer demand.  products are “pulled from ” the JIT system.
  10. 10. LEAN CONSTRUCTION  JIT only considers the resources required to meet the customer’s needs.  In the mid – 1970’s Toyota reduced the time needed to produce a car from fifteen days to one day, by using JIT.
  11. 11. LEAN CONSTRUCTION Applying Lean Thinking in construction  Using experienced design teams  The same design team working on the design of the project from beginning to end.  Speed up the design process.  Use innovative approaches to speed up the design process.  Innovative ideas in design and assembly.  The use of pre-fabricated building elements.  Manufactured off site and pre-assembled on site.
  12. 12. LEAN CONSTRUCTION  Supporting sub-contractors in developing tools for improving processes.  In order to keep up with Leanconstruction It is important to follow the work of Construction Lean Improvement Programme (CLIP).  CLIP operates across the whole construction supply chain, from raw materials processors to clients.
  13. 13. LEAN CONSTRUCTION  Researchers believe that project cost will increase up to ten percent because of poor supply chain design.  Supply Chain Management (SCM) analyzes the impact of design on the construction process.  Through SCM, all parties are kept aware of commitments, schedules, etc.
  14. 14. LEAN CONSTRUCTION  All the parties work for high quality product with minimal lead-time, including:  minimizing wastage;  eliminating delays and disruptions.  Ballard and Howell designed the Last Planner System as one method for applying lean techniques to construction.
  15. 15. LEAN CONSTRUCTION  Womack and Jones (1996) suggested that there are five key principles that need to be monitored when lean construction systems are applied in construction. Those are:  Value-clarifying the customer’s needs;  the supply chain involvement in all stages, from inception to completion;  By clarifying activities or products that signify value.
  16. 16. LEAN CONSTRUCTION Value stream: By mapping the whole value stream  establishing cooperation between all parties involved;  identifying and eliminating waste;  From taking such steps the construction process can be improved.
  17. 17. LEAN CONSTRUCTION Flow:  Business flow includes project information such as: 1. specifications 2. contracts 3. plans, etc.  Job site flow involves the activities and the way they have to be carried out.  Supply flow refers to the materials used in a project.
  18. 18. LEAN CONSTRUCTION Pull:  The efforts of all participants provides smooth pulls during the construction process. Perfection:  Use of best methods of work instructions and best procedures.  Introduction of best quality control methods.
  19. 19. Current practice V lean construction CURRENT LEAN  Construction management is either activity or contract centred  Coordination between organizations or crews is primarily controlled from a central plan  that central plan establishes sequence and determines when an activity starts/finish  in lean production, the production is managed in a manor that the main objective is best product at lowest cost for customer  Project duration and cost are considered in “project-as-production system” terms  project total cost and duration are more important than the cost or duration of an activity
  20. 20. Current practice V lean construction CURRENT LEAN  costs, errors, and learning occur while work in progress  cost savings results from productivity improving  Often not achievable resulting in cost, time overrun  project duration is cut short by increasing manpower, machinery,  by adding additional activities to reduce time  Coordination is accomplished in general by the central schedule  the details of work flow are managed throughout the organization by people who are project goals orientated  Time, cost, quality,..
  21. 21. LEAN CONSTRUCTION CURRENT LEAN  Additional cost due to waste  which could have been avoided within the activities,  Delays and disruption which could have been avoided within activities,  customers are valued highly,  primary objectives is the work flow,  Movement of information,  good communication amongst all,  Movement of materials,
  22. 22. LEAN CONSTRUCTION CURRENT LEAN  rework which could have been avoided,  all add to total time of the project,  disrupt in critical path  Increases time and cost,  Waste control,  Highly motivated work force,  Removal of hygiene factors (de-motivating factors),
  23. 23. LEAN CONSTRUCTION  Lean thinking forces attention on how value is generated rather than how any one activity is managed.  An overall success.