Infancy (first year of life)
- early childhood (end of 1st year-2 ½)
- preschool age (2 ½ -6)
- school age (6-12)
Old age (>60)
Needs mostly physical (air, warmth and food)
Sleeps most of the time
Later, noises, lights, movements get through
Much later, people begin to have meaning
Mouth is very important, as it is the channel of gratification
Mother, food, comfort, warmth, mouth and love are all closely
After 1 y , the child comes more into contact with the environment
Gets around and explores
Must learn to adjust and live with others in accordance with set of
rules and values which all share.
- Must endure postponement of the satisfaction of his needs.
- The mother can’t come every time she is called
- Must get used to being without her while she is at work.
- Must learn to control his own urges to defecate or urinate.
What can go wrong?
- Overprotecting and overindulging the child may lead to
aggression and undisciplined behaviour.
- If mum is very dominant, child may become very submissive
and over dependant for his age
- To be done in an atmosphere of kindness, patience and praise
- Not in an atmosphere of strictness, distaste and control
2 ½ -5/6 years
Relationships other than with Mum comes to the fore.
Especially with father, brother, sister and friends.
Rivalry and jealousy arise.
Sharing love and attention become important
Two major events: new arrival and discipline
If there is going to be one; preparation is important so that he
does not feel neglected
Sometimes the stress is too great and problems arise.
Start to wet his bed again and develop temper-tantrums.
What do you do?
Should only be enforced to help the child to grow out of less
mature forms of behavior and to guide him to recognize and
adjust to the rights and needs of others.
Should consist of teaching and guidance rather than
The child should never be disciplined by threatening to
withdraw love or unfairly persuaded to obey “because you love
The foundations of personality have been laid,
School is a big step forward. It’s main function is to transmit
Relationships become more diverse with a wider circle of
people. They forms new relationships with individuals and
They identify and model themselves on older boys and girls or
12 to 19-20 years
Period of rebirth.
Heralded by puberty.
Sec sexual characteristics appear, he/she get concerned about
his/her body and any real or imagined defects.
Acne is common in this age.
Sexual feelings occur, causing emotional conflict.
Mental functions develop. Intelligence reaches its zenith
Not yet a man and no longer a boy.
Sudden changes of mood occur.
His knowledge of people increase, realises that parents and
teachers are not infallible.
The time when marriage, childbearing, parenthood, making a
career and earning a living become important.
Parental support diminishes and responsibilities abound
Physical maturity is complete but sometimes emotional maturity
- Able to love and be loved in return.
- Tolerates supervision
- Trusts others
- Not paranoid
Major events of adulthood: marriage, pregnancy and
Good and close emotional relationships bet the child and his parents
Happy childhood with mild or infrequent punishment
Happy parental marriage
Reasonable ability to make and maintain good human relationships
Similarity of interest, attitudes and backgrounds
Parents frank about sex matters
The women longs for a child but she is worried about the
pain of childbirth, distorting her figure, and inability to deal
with the rearing of the child.
There is relief that the birth is all over. She experiences a
sudden access of love, tenderness and blooms with
- Does not get the same satisfaction
- His routine is disturbed
- Suppress his own needs as his wife needs his help
How parents bring up their children will depend on their
own upbringing and emotional maturity.
e.g. the father whose own parents were unable to give
him more than a primary school education, will put great
efforts to give his children a higher education in the best