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Human behavior


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Human behavior

  1. 1. Life stages  Infancy (first year of life)  Childhood - early childhood (end of 1st year-2 ½) - preschool age (2 ½ -6) - school age (6-12)  Adolescence (12-19/20)  Adulthood (>20)  Old age (>60)
  2. 2. Infancy  Needs mostly physical (air, warmth and food)  Sleeps most of the time  Later, noises, lights, movements get through  Much later, people begin to have meaning  Mouth is very important, as it is the channel of gratification  Mother, food, comfort, warmth, mouth and love are all closely related
  3. 3. Early childhood  After 1 y , the child comes more into contact with the environment  Gets around and explores  Must learn to adjust and live with others in accordance with set of rules and values which all share.  Difficulties: - Must endure postponement of the satisfaction of his needs. - The mother can’t come every time she is called - Must get used to being without her while she is at work. - Must learn to control his own urges to defecate or urinate.
  4. 4. Early childhood What can go wrong? - Overprotecting and overindulging the child may lead to aggression and undisciplined behaviour. - If mum is very dominant, child may become very submissive and over dependant for his age Toilet training: - To be done in an atmosphere of kindness, patience and praise - Not in an atmosphere of strictness, distaste and control
  5. 5. Pre-school child  2 ½ -5/6 years  Relationships other than with Mum comes to the fore. Especially with father, brother, sister and friends.  Rivalry and jealousy arise.  Sharing love and attention become important  Two major events: new arrival and discipline
  6. 6. New arrival  If there is going to be one; preparation is important so that he does not feel neglected  Sometimes the stress is too great and problems arise.  Start to wet his bed again and develop temper-tantrums.  What do you do?
  7. 7. Discipline  Should only be enforced to help the child to grow out of less mature forms of behavior and to guide him to recognize and adjust to the rights and needs of others.  Should consist of teaching and guidance rather than punishment.  The child should never be disciplined by threatening to withdraw love or unfairly persuaded to obey “because you love me”.
  8. 8. School age  The foundations of personality have been laid,  School is a big step forward. It’s main function is to transmit information.  Relationships become more diverse with a wider circle of people. They forms new relationships with individuals and groups.  They identify and model themselves on older boys and girls or teachers
  9. 9. Exercise
  10. 10. Adolescence  12 to 19-20 years  Period of rebirth.  Heralded by puberty.  Sec sexual characteristics appear, he/she get concerned about his/her body and any real or imagined defects.  Acne is common in this age.
  11. 11. ?What else  Sexual feelings occur, causing emotional conflict.  Mental functions develop. Intelligence reaches its zenith  Not yet a man and no longer a boy.  Sudden changes of mood occur.  His knowledge of people increase, realises that parents and teachers are not infallible.
  12. 12. Adulthood  The time when marriage, childbearing, parenthood, making a career and earning a living become important.  Parental support diminishes and responsibilities abound  Physical maturity is complete but sometimes emotional maturity is not.
  13. 13. Adulthood  Emotional maturity: - Able to love and be loved in return. - Independent - Tolerates supervision - Trusts others - Not paranoid - Flexible - Realistic  Major events of adulthood: marriage, pregnancy and parenthood
  14. 14. Marriage  Good and close emotional relationships bet the child and his parents  Happy childhood with mild or infrequent punishment  Happy parental marriage  Reasonable ability to make and maintain good human relationships  Similarity of interest, attitudes and backgrounds  Parents frank about sex matters
  15. 15. Pregnancy The women longs for a child but she is worried about the pain of childbirth, distorting her figure, and inability to deal with the rearing of the child.
  16. 16. Childhood Mother: There is relief that the birth is all over. She experiences a sudden access of love, tenderness and blooms with happiness. Father: - Does not get the same satisfaction - His routine is disturbed - Suppress his own needs as his wife needs his help
  17. 17. Parenthood How parents bring up their children will depend on their own upbringing and emotional maturity. e.g. the father whose own parents were unable to give him more than a primary school education, will put great efforts to give his children a higher education in the best schools
  18. 18. ?Questions