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Ebm glossary

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Ebm glossary

  1. 1. Evidence Based Medicine Dr. Faisal M. Al Haddad & Consultant of Family Medicine Occupational Health PSMMC
  2. 2. Terms used in therapeutics Confounder: a factor that distorts the true relationship of the study variable of interest by virtue of also being related to the .outcome of interest .Randomization: allocation of individuals to groups by chance Concealment: concealment of allocation to study group assignments from those responsible for assessing patients .for entry in the trial Examples:  Sequentially numbered, opaque, sealed envelopes.  Numbered or coded bottles or containers.
  3. 3. Terms used in therapeutics  Blindness: any or all of the clinicians, patients, outcome assessors, or statisticians were unaware of who received which study intervention.  Contamination: occur when participants in either the experimental or control group receive the intervention for the other arm of the study.  Co-interventions: interventions other than treatment under study that are applied to the experimental or control groups .
  4. 4. Terms used in therapeutics  Intention to treat analysis: analyzing patient outcomes based on which group they were randomized regardless of whether they actually received the planned intervention.
  5. 5. EVIDENCE BASED MEDICINE
  6. 6. Terms used in diagnosis  Sensitivity (SnNout): the proportion of patients with the target disorder who have a positive test result (TP).  Specificity (SpPin): the proportion of patients without the target disorder who have a negative test result (TN).
  7. 7. Terms used in diagnosis  Positive LHR : the ratio of the probability of a positive test result among patients with the target disorder to the probability of positive test result among patients who are free of the target disorder (TP/FP).  Negative LHR : the ratio of the probability of a negative test result among patients with the target disorder to the probability of negative test result among patients who are free of the target disorder (FN/TN).
  8. 8. Terms used in diagnosis  Pretest probability: the proportion of patients who have the target disorder, as determined before the test is carried out.  Post-test probability: the proportion of patients with that particular test result who have the target disorder . Good diagnostic test: -Post-test prob. of +ve test > Pretest prob. of +ve test. -Post-test prob. of -ve test < Pretest prob. of -ve test.
  9. 9. THANK YOU
  10. 10. BIAS Bias: A systematic tendancy to produce an outcome .that differ from the underlying truth Detection bias (surveillance bias): the tendency to look more carefully for an outcome in one of two .groups being compared Interviewer bias: greater probing by an interviewer in . one of two groups being compared
  11. 11. BIAS Publication bias: occurs when the publication of research depends on the direction of the study results and whether .they are statistically significant Recall bias: occurs when patient who experience an adverse outcome have a different likelihood of recalling an exposure than the patients who do not have the adverse outcome, independent of the true extent of .exposure Verification bias (work-up bias): result of a diagnostic test influence whether patients are assigned to treatment .group

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