Quoting Examples Best practices Dr. Dunley
Rules to Live by when integrating sources… <ul><li>Use your sources as  support  for your insights, not as the backbone of...
Rules, continued… <ul><li>Summarize  (condense a text by stating the main ideas in your own words) and  paraphrase  (say t...
Rules… continued <ul><li>Don't use direct quotes as fillers.  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use them when the author says somethin...
Rules… continued <ul><li>If multiple sources say the same thing, summarize what they say and cite the key names at the end...
More rules…More info… <ul><li>Don't summarize plots of primary sources . Assume your audience has read the work. Only expl...
Samples <ul><li>Some samples follow. </li></ul><ul><li>They show common mistakes in using sources and how to avoid them. <...
Student #1 <ul><li>Wanted to research and prove that the novel  The Great Gatsby  depicted a gay love story between the ma...
<ul><li>… The climax of this unspoken worship Nick had for Gatsby collapsed in a tiny tragedy mirroring the story ’ s main...
What was wrong with that? <ul><li>Great quote, but how does it fit in? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Needs to use the language to ...
<ul><li>This intimate description, although it was an appallingly sentimental memory of Daisy, sparked an  ‘ elusive rhyth...
Student #2 <ul><li>Trouble connecting the sources’ ideas to his own ideas. </li></ul><ul><li>Result: even short quotes app...
<ul><li>Today, we are too self-centered. Most families no longer sit down to eat together, preferring instead to eat on th...
<ul><li>Today, Americans are too self-centered. Even our families don't matter as much anymore as they once did. Other peo...
Student 3: Me- Freshman year <ul><li>Shamed to say, I began my career as an insidious drop-quoter.  </li></ul><ul><li>What...
<ul><li>Everything </li></ul><ul><li>is a picture </li></ul><ul><li>to the employing eye </li></ul><ul><li>that feeds rest...
What’s wrong? <ul><li>The quote has no follow-up. I meant for it to be a stinger…. Something to get the reader hooked from...
<ul><li>In his poem, &quot;The Fault: Matisse, ”  William Carlos Williams writes: Everything </li></ul><ul><li>is a pictur...
One last example… using quotes to enhance your own words <ul><li>Quotes can be used to evoke the idea of an intellectual e...
<ul><li>It is notable that the rundown building depicted provokes this discussion of temporality and historicity. Indeed, ...
<ul><li>According to Frederick Jameson,  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Late 20th century capitalist culture promotes an  obsession...
<ul><li>According to Frederick Jameson, the culture of the late 20th century has evoked an obsession with photographs as t...
Questions? <ul><li>If you’re concerned about quoting, paraphrasing, summarizing, integrating, and avoiding plagiarism, jus...
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Notes on Quoting

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Quote use

  1. 1. Quoting Examples Best practices Dr. Dunley
  2. 2. Rules to Live by when integrating sources… <ul><li>Use your sources as support for your insights, not as the backbone of your paper. </li></ul><ul><li>A patchwork of sources stuck in a paper like random letters in a ransom note does not a research paper make. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Rules, continued… <ul><li>Summarize (condense a text by stating the main ideas in your own words) and paraphrase (say the same thing in a different way) much more often than you use direct quotes (same words as the original, in quotation marks). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Summaries and paraphrases need citations too! (for more info on these terms, see: http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/563/01 ) </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Rules… continued <ul><li>Don't use direct quotes as fillers. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use them when the author says something so aptly or dramatically that a paraphrase would lose that power (or, if you're analyzing the language of a passage). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>If do you use a direct quote, the explanation should be twice as long as the quote . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Even summaries and paraphrases don't become your own thoughts just because they're in your own words. You have to explain them too . Readers have to know why you include source material where you do. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Rules… continued <ul><li>If multiple sources say the same thing, summarize what they say and cite the key names at the end of the sentence (see Smith 2008, Mack 2001, and Bore 2000). </li></ul><ul><li>When you do use direct quotes, the most fluid way to integrate them is to incorporate key words right into your text. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>So write: &quot;We can see this change when Othello calls his wife a 'strumpet' (4.2.81) . . . .&quot; rather than include the entire line where he called her a strumpet. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. More rules…More info… <ul><li>Don't summarize plots of primary sources . Assume your audience has read the work. Only explain as much as you need to in order to establish context for an example. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Need more help? See: http://www.esc.edu/htmlpages/writerold/menuq.htm and http://leo.stcloudstate.edu/research/usingquotes.html </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Samples <ul><li>Some samples follow. </li></ul><ul><li>They show common mistakes in using sources and how to avoid them. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Student #1 <ul><li>Wanted to research and prove that the novel The Great Gatsby depicted a gay love story between the male narrator and Gatsby himself. </li></ul><ul><li>Tough to prove… such a bold step requires a strong analysis of the text itself and a constant reinforcement of the thesis. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>… The climax of this unspoken worship Nick had for Gatsby collapsed in a tiny tragedy mirroring the story ’ s main plot. After Gatsby ’ s graphic description of an intimate account with Daisy, Nick is left notably flustered. </li></ul><ul><li>Through all he said, even through his appalling sentimentality, I was reminded of something — an elusive rhythm, a fragment of lost words … for a moment a phrase tried to take shape in my mouth and my lips parted like a dumb man ’ s as though there was more struggling upon them than a wisp of startled air. But they made no sound and what I had almost remembered was incommunicable forever.(118) </li></ul><ul><li>Throughout the story, Nick mourns his lost chance of love with this Great Man in silence. He stands noiselessly in the background as Gatsby attempts to win Daisy ’ s love. </li></ul>
  10. 10. What was wrong with that? <ul><li>Great quote, but how does it fit in? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Needs to use the language to bring out the specific nuances of the quotation that remain hidden. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Needs to add her own words to bolster the quote and bring the item into the context of her thesis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In the correction, she added the following lines after the quote, before starting a new paragraph. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>This intimate description, although it was an appallingly sentimental memory of Daisy, sparked an ‘ elusive rhythm ’ within Nick, some lost words, some struggling statement of affection — of longing — of love — that was forcing to be spoken and even beginning to take shape in his mouth. But then, the impulse drifted away on the current and his longing remained unstated. </li></ul><ul><li>Clearer reading and connection b/w text and thesis. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Student #2 <ul><li>Trouble connecting the sources’ ideas to his own ideas. </li></ul><ul><li>Result: even short quotes appear to be tacked on because the connections between the elements are vague and confusing. </li></ul><ul><li>A problem example follows: </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Today, we are too self-centered. Most families no longer sit down to eat together, preferring instead to eat on the go while rushing to the next appointment (Gleick 1948). Everything is about what we want. </li></ul><ul><li>This is a weak example of evidence because the evidence is not related to the claim. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What does the claim about self-centeredness have to do with families eating together? The writer doesn’t explain the connection. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In addition-- where does this source fit in? Where did these ideas come from? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The correction follows: Red indicates source clarification . Underlines indicate claim clarification. </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Today, Americans are too self-centered. Even our families don't matter as much anymore as they once did. Other people and activities take precedence. In fact, recent research shows that most American families no longer eat together, preferring instead to eat on the go while rushing to the next appointment (Gleick 1948 ). Sit-down meals are a time to share and connect with others; however, that connection has become less valued, as families begin to prize individual activities over shared time, promoting self-centeredness over group identity. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Student 3: Me- Freshman year <ul><li>Shamed to say, I began my career as an insidious drop-quoter. </li></ul><ul><li>What follows is a paper I wrote about my favorite author. The next slide shows the first draft where I used a “key quote” as a paper lead in… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>… but did so poorly! </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Everything </li></ul><ul><li>is a picture </li></ul><ul><li>to the employing eye </li></ul><ul><li>that feeds restlessly to </li></ul><ul><li>find peace. </li></ul><ul><li>Precisionism was an American movement. They believed that images ought to be rendered as sharply and precisely as possible. Each picture was supposed to be a portrait of raw emotion, which captured an identifiable moment in time. To this extent, the Precionists believed that objects could be used as &quot;Equivalents&quot; for human feelings. </li></ul>
  17. 17. What’s wrong? <ul><li>The quote has no follow-up. I meant for it to be a stinger…. Something to get the reader hooked from the start. </li></ul><ul><li>But!! I forgot to clarify why I chose it!! Whoops!! </li></ul><ul><li>Here’s how I fixed it… I added the following after the quote…. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Post revisions, the paper turned out to be an A ;-) </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>In his poem, &quot;The Fault: Matisse, ” William Carlos Williams writes: Everything </li></ul><ul><li>is a picture </li></ul><ul><li>to the employing eye </li></ul><ul><li>that feeds restlessly to </li></ul><ul><li>find peace. </li></ul><ul><li>This short stanza encapsulates Williams' general attitude toward the visual arts, which inspired many of his poems. For example, &quot;Portrait of a Lady&quot; refers to Rococo masters Fragonard and Watteau. He has a series of poems dedicated to describing the works of Breughal the Elder. However, one of the most important and dominate artistic influences was the twentieth century Precisionist movement. </li></ul><ul><li>Precisionism was an American movement. They believed that images ought to be rendered as sharply and precisely as possible. </li></ul>
  19. 19. One last example… using quotes to enhance your own words <ul><li>Quotes can be used to evoke the idea of an intellectual exchange or conversation. </li></ul><ul><li>Using my own research writing as a guinea pig, compare and contrast the following two versions of the same passage. </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>It is notable that the rundown building depicted provokes this discussion of temporality and historicity. Indeed, there is a sense of mystery surrounding obsolete, abandoned, or derelict sites. Jeff Brouws says that there ’ s a “ need to capture [such sites] before they collapse or disappear ” (1990). </li></ul><ul><li>It is notable that the rundown building depicted provokes this discussion of temporality and historicity. Indeed, there is a sense of mystery surrounding obsolete, abandoned, or derelict sites. Jeff Brouws, who specializes in the photography of ruins, expresses a “ need to capture [such sites] before they collapse or disappear ” (1990). </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>According to Frederick Jameson, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Late 20th century capitalist culture promotes an obsession with the photographic image . Although a relatively new technology, photographs stress a sort of resurrection of dead generations as historicity passes into a vast collection of images making it thus referentia l. [ … ] The ensuing result of this transformation is that the zeitgeist of history becomes a mere collection enforcing only connotations of pastness , laying siege to our own conceptualizations of time and replacing them with a new type of historicity that confounds our existential memories . (19-21) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Jameson suggests, then, that the sheer vastness of the cultural archive of images, combined with their generic nature, creates a false sense of history. We become nostalgic for bits and pieces of something distanced and events we never experienced. </li></ul><ul><li>Too long a quote. Keywords have been highlighted. Readers will get bored halfway through stumbling over the archaic prose of literary theory. </li></ul><ul><li>Compare to the revision… Note… MLA is in use, not APA! </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>According to Frederick Jameson, the culture of the late 20th century has evoked an obsession with photographs as the “ resurrection of dead generations [becomes] a vast collection of images ” and the historical past becomes referential (19). History proper thus becomes displaced by nostalgia ’ s “ connotations of ‘ pastness ’ ” (21). Such images “ lay siege ” to our present and recent pasts for a more distanced history that escapes our “ existential memory ” and thus remains perpetually distanced from our understanding (20). Jameson suggests, then, that the sheer vastness of the cultural archive of images, combined with their generic nature, creates a false sense of history. We become nostalgic for bits and pieces of something distanced and events we never experienced. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Questions? <ul><li>If you’re concerned about quoting, paraphrasing, summarizing, integrating, and avoiding plagiarism, just ask. </li></ul><ul><li>I’ll be happy to look at drafts. </li></ul>

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